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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24374, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546075

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Vocal fold paralysis and cauda equina syndrome are very rare neurologic deficits. This report describes the case of a patient who simultaneously developed both after uneventful spinal-epidural anesthesia with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 45-year-old female, who underwent surgery for bilateral hallux valgus developed cauda equina syndrome and unilateral vocal fold paralysis after uneventful spinal-epidural anesthesia was administered. There was no pain or paresthesia during needle placement or drug injection. Surgery was performed uneventfully. DIAGNOSES: Right vocal fold paralysis was diagnosed with flexible laryngoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: Patient was started on the treatment with a surgery for bilateral hallux valgus, who developed cauda equina syndrome and unilateral vocal fold paralysis after uneventful spinal-epidural anesthesia was administered. OUTCOMES: Postoperatively, she had difficulty in urination and defecation. In addition, she developed unilateral vocal fold paralysis characterized by hoarseness, effortful voice production, and choking with liquids. Magnetic resonance imaging performed on the lumbosacral area and computed tomography of the neck, the chest, and the skull revealed entirely normal results. However, flexible laryngoscopy revealed a right vocal fold paralysis. Although cauda equina syndrome can occur due to neurotoxicity of local anesthetics, the exact etiology of vocal fold paralysis is uncertain. LESSONS: The case highlights that 2 rare and serious complications of spinal-epidural anesthesia can even occur in the same patient after uneventful surgery and block performance.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/etiologia , Paralisia/etiologia , Prega Vocal/anormalidades , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paralisia/fisiopatologia , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia
2.
Anesthesiology ; 134(1): 72-87, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal morphine is the mainstay of postcesarean analgesia. Quadratus lumborum block has recently been proposed as an adjunct or alternative to spinal morphine. The authors evaluated the analgesic effectiveness of quadratus lumborum block in cesarean delivery with and without spinal morphine. METHODS: Randomized trials evaluating quadratus lumborum block benefits in elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were sought. Three comparisons were considered: spinal morphine versus spinal morphine and quadratus lumborum block; spinal morphine versus quadratus lumborum block; and no block or spinal morphine versus quadratus lumborum block. The two coprimary outcomes were postoperative (1) 24-h cumulative oral morphine equivalent consumption and (2) pain at 4 to 6 h. Secondary outcomes included area under the curve pain, time to analgesic request, block complications, and opioid-related side effects. RESULTS: Twelve trials (924 patients) were analyzed. The mean differences (95% CIs) in 24-h morphine consumption and pain at 4 to 6 h for spinal morphine versus spinal morphine and quadratus lumborum block comparison were 0 mg (-2 to 1) and -0.1 cm (-0.7 to 0.4), respectively, indicating no benefit. For spinal morphine versus quadratus lumborum block, these differences were 7 mg (-2 to 15) and 0.6 cm (-0.7 to 1.8), respectively, also indicating no benefit. In contrast, for no block or spinal morphine versus quadratus lumborum block, improvements of -18 mg (-28 to -7) and -1.5 cm (-2.4 to -0.6) were observed, respectively, with quadratus lumborum block. Finally, for no block or spinal morphine versus quadratus lumborum block, quadratus lumborum block improved area under the 48-h pain curve by -4.4 cm · h (-5.0 to -3.8), exceeding the clinically important threshold (3.96 cm · h), but no differences were observed in the other comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate quality evidence suggests that quadratus lumborum block does not enhance analgesic outcomes when combined with or compared with spinal morphine. However, the block improves postcesarean analgesia in the absence of spinal morphine. The clinical utility of this block seems limited to situations in which spinal morphine is not used.


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Cesárea/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Feminino , Humanos , Morfina , Gravidez , Coluna Vertebral
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22693, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with open lumbar microdiscectomy, percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) has the advantages of remarkable preservation of paravertebral structures, less bleeding, shorter operation time and fewer complications, it is a common method for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Local anesthesia is recommended during PELD. However, intraoperative pain is sometimes difficult to control satisfactorily. The efficacy of bilateral intervertebral foramen block (IFB) for pain management in PELD remains unclear. Therefore, this regimen is utilized in a randomized controlled trial for the assessment the safety and effectiveness of bilateral IFB for PELD pain control. METHOD: This is a single center and randomized controlled trial which will be implemented from September 2020 to September 2021. This research protocol is in accordance with the items of the Standard Protocol for Randomized Trials, which was authorized through the Ethics Committee of Huzhou Central Hospital & Affiliated Centre Hospital of Huzhou University (HZCH0465-0864). 100 participants who undergo PELD will be analyzed. Inclusion criteria containsThe exclusion criteria contains:Patients will be randomly divided into bilateral IFB group (with 50 patients) and local infiltration analgesia group (with 50 patients). Primary outcomes are pain score at different time points. The secondary outcomes are the operative time, radiation exposure time, length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. All the analysis is implemented through applying the IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: The clinical outcome variables between groups are illustrated in the Table 1. CONCLUSION: This investigation can offer a reliable basis for the effectiveness and safety of IFB in treating the PELD pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol is registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5985).


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Discotomia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22524, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019455

RESUMO

TRIAL DESIGN: The current study is a meta-analysis designed to assess the effect of adding magnesium to a combination of intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl. METHODS: The protocol was registered in PROSPERO with the number CRD42020177618. PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of adding magnesium to a combination of intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl. The continuous data were presented as Ratio of means (RoM). Risk ratio (RR) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was utilized to assess the dichotomous data. RESULTS: Ten trials were involved in the present study with 720 adult patients. Compared with control, intrathecal magnesium prolonged time to the first analgesic requirement by an estimate of 1.23 (RoM: 1.23; 95%CI: 1.13-1.33; P < .00001), prolonged adequate sensory block duration for surgery by an estimate of 1.16 (RoM: 1.16; 95%CI: 1.05-1.27; P = .003), delayed time to maximum sensory level by an estimate of 1.38 (RoM: 1.38; 95%CI: 1.07-1.78; P = .01) and reduced the incidence of shivering following spinal anesthesia (risk ratio: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.18 to 0.81, P = .01) without influence on time to full motor recovery or incidences of hypotention, bradycardia, nausea, and vomiting or pruritis. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal magnesium, when added to a combination of intrathecal bupivacaine and fentany, prolongs the analgesic duration of spinal anesthesia without increased incidences of side effects.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tremor por Sensação de Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21864, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899016

RESUMO

Spinal anesthesia (SpA) for elective caesarean section (CS) is often accompanied by clinically relevant arterial hypotension. The Bezold-Jarisch reflex, causing postspinal hypotension, has been shown to be antagonized by serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) blockade. Our aim was to assess if routine prophylactic administration of the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron (ODS) attenuates postspinal change in maternal blood pressure.Elective CS under SpA were retrospectively analyzed. Eighty parturients having routinely received 8 mg ODS prior to SpA were compared with 80 patients having not (control group).Mean arterial blood pressure significantly decreased from baseline to the postspinal period (P < .0001) without differences in blood pressure decreases between the 2 groups. This also applied to the heart rate. Overall use of cafedrine/theodrenaline was higher in the ODS group (0.8 (0.4-1.6) mL vs 0.8 (0-1.0) mL in the control group, P = .01). APGAR values showed a presumably clinically irrelevant decrease in control group compared with the ODS group.Our results suggest that routine administration of ODS in a dosage of 8 mg does not effectively attenuate postspinal change in maternal blood pressure during CS in our setting. Given the wide variability of anesthetic techniques, only large prospective and randomized multicenter trials will ultimately serve to elucidate this issue.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Cesárea/métodos , Ondansetron/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 811-817, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal morphine prolongs analgesia after surgery, but has been implicated in postoperative respiratory depression or apnoeic episodes. However, this has not been investigated in a prospective trial using respiratory polygraphy. This randomised controlled triple-blinded trial tested the hypothesis that intrathecal morphine increases sleep apnoea severity, measured using respiratory polygraphy. METHODS: Sixty subjects undergoing hip arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia received either 15 mg isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% with 0.5 ml normal saline 0.9% (control group) or 15 mg isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% with 0.5 ml intrathecal morphine 100 µg (intrathecal morphine group). Respiratory polygraphy was performed before surgery and on the first and third postoperative nights. The primary outcome was the apnoea-hypopnoea index in the supine position (supine AHI) on the first postoperative night. Secondary outcomes included supine AHI on the third postoperative night, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and ventilatory frequency during the first and third postoperative nights. RESULTS: On the first postoperative night, mean (95% confidence interval) values for supine AHI were 20.6 (13.9-27.3) and 21.2 (12.4-30.0) events h-1 in the control and intrathecal morphine groups, respectively (P=0.90). There were no significant between-group differences for any of the secondary outcomes, except for a significantly higher central and mixed apnoea index preoperatively and significantly lower mean SpO2 on the third postoperative night in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine did not increase sleep apnoea severity when measured using respiratory polygraphy. Of note, all patients had an increased number of apnoeic episodes on the third postoperative night. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02566226.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Idoso , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais , Bupivacaína , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio/sangue , Polissonografia , Decúbito Dorsal , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 18(2): 332-334, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969406

RESUMO

Anaesthetic management of patients with Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) posses multiple challenges. In the low-income nation like Nepal, factors like suboptimal infrastructure and resource limitations may add on to the existing challenges. Proper planning and preparedness can help to overcome the challenges and enhance safety of both the patients undergoing surgery and of the health care workers involved in patient management. Keywords: Anaesthetic management; COVID-19; Nepal.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Cesárea , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Traumatismos da Perna/cirurgia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21435, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756154

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The population of obese individuals is increasing worldwide, and as a result, the number of mothers with super morbid obesity undergoing cesarean sections is also increasing. However, little is known about which anesthetic technique is appropriate for cesarean sections of super morbidly obese parturients. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 35-year-old woman with body mass index 61.3 kg/m at a gestational age of 37 weeks. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was super morbidly obese parturient. INTERVENTIONS: Spinal anesthesia was performed. A spinal needle was inserted into the L4-5 interspinous space in the sitting position. After confirmation of cerebrospinal fluid, 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 9 mg and fentanyl 20 µg were injected into the subarachnoid space. OUTCOMES: After the administration of spinal anesthetics, the nerve block to the T8 dermatome level was confirmed, surgery was performed, and the fetus was delivered. The patient's vital signs were stable until the end of the operation. CONCLUSION: There is no established strategy for selecting a method of anesthesia in patients with morbid obesity (body mass index 40 kg/m or more). For this reason and considering the amount of bupivacaine used for spinal anesthesia, we wanted to share our experience with spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in a super morbidly obese parturients.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/instrumentação , Cesárea/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/tendências , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Agulhas , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/normas , Gravidez
10.
Anesthesiology ; 133(4): 801-811, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early ambulation after total hip arthroplasty predicts early discharge. Spinal anesthesia is preferred by many practices but can delay ambulation, especially with bupivacaine. Mepivacaine, an intermediate-acting local anesthetic, could enable earlier ambulation than bupivacaine. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that patients who received mepivacaine would ambulate earlier than those who received hyperbaric or isobaric bupivacaine for primary total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I to III patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty. The patients were randomized 1:1:1 to 52.5 mg of mepivacaine, 11.25 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine, or 12.5 mg of isobaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia. The primary outcome was ambulation between 3 and 3.5 h. Secondary outcomes included return of motor and sensory function, postoperative pain, opioid consumption, transient neurologic symptoms, urinary retention, intraoperative hypotension, intraoperative muscle tension, same-day discharge, length of stay, and 30-day readmissions. RESULTS: Of 154 patients, 50 received mepivacaine, 53 received hyperbaric bupivacaine, and 51 received isobaric bupivacaine. Patient characteristics were similar among groups. For ambulation at 3 to 3.5 h, 35 of 50 (70.0%) of patients met this endpoint in the mepivacaine group, followed by 20 of 53 (37.7%) in the hyperbaric bupivacaine group, and 9 of 51 (17.6%) in the isobaric bupivacaine group (P < 0.001). Return of motor function occurred earlier with mepivacaine. Pain and opioid consumption were higher for mepivacaine patients in the early postoperative period only. For ambulatory status, 23 of 50 (46.0%) of mepivacaine, 13 of 53 (24.5%) of hyperbaric bupivacaine, and 11 of 51 (21.5%) of isobaric bupivacaine patients had same-day discharge (P = 0.014). Length of stay was shortest in mepivacaine patients. There were no differences in transient neurologic symptoms, urinary retention, hypotension, muscle tension, or dizziness. CONCLUSIONS: Mepivacaine patients ambulated earlier and were more likely to be discharged the same day than both hyperbaric bupivacaine and isobaric bupivacaine patients. Mepivacaine could be beneficial for outpatient total hip arthroplasty candidates if spinal is the preferred anesthesia type.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Deambulação Precoce/métodos , Mepivacaína/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Raquianestesia/tendências , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/tendências , Deambulação Precoce/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/tendências
11.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7950, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759892

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
12.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 802-810, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive thoracic surgery causes significant postoperative pain. Erector spinae plane (ESP) block and serratus anterior plane (SAP) block promise effective thoracic analgesia compared with systemically administered opioids, but have never been compared in terms of terms of quality of recovery and overall morbidity after minimally invasive thoracic surgery. METHODS: Sixty adult patients undergoing minimally invasive thoracic surgery were randomly assigned to receive either single-shot ESP or SAP block before surgery using levobupivacaine 0.25%, 30 ml. The primary outcome was quality of patient recovery at 24 h, using the Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) scale. Secondary outcomes included area under the curve (AUC) of pain verbal rating scale (VRS) over time, time to first opioid analgesia, postoperative 24 h opioid consumption, in-hospital comprehensive complication index (CCI) score and hospital stay. RESULTS: The QoR-15 score was higher among ESP patients compared with those in the SAP group, mean (standard deviation): 114 (16) vs 102 (22) (P=0.02). Time (min) to first i.v. opioid analgesia in recovery was 32.6 (20.6) in ESP vs 12.7 (9.5) in SAP (P=0.003). AUC at rest was 92 (31) mm h-1vs 112 (35) in ESP and SAP (P=0.03), respectively, whereas AUC on deep inspiration was 107 mm h-1 (32) vs 129 (32) in ESP and SAP (P=0.01), respectively. VRS pain on movement in ESP and SAP at 24 h was, median (25-75% range): 4 (2-4) vs 5 (3-6) (P=0.04), respectively. Opioid consumption at 24 h postoperatively was 29 (31) vs 39 (34) (P=0.37). Median (25-75%) CCI in ESP and SAP was 1 (0-2) vs 4 (0-26) (P=0.03), whereas hospital stay was 3 (2-6) vs 6 (3-9) days (P=0.17), respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with SAP, ESP provides superior quality of recovery at 24 h, lower morbidity, and better analgesia after minimally invasive thoracic surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03862612.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestésicos Locais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Levobupivacaína , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos
14.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 588-595, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norepinephrine is an effective vasopressor during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery. However, before it can be fully recommended, possible adverse effects on neonatal outcome should be excluded. We aimed to test the hypothesis that umbilical arterial cord pH is at least as good (non-inferior) when norepinephrine is used compared with phenylephrine for treatment of hypotension. METHODS: We enrolled 668 subjects having elective and non-elective Caesarean delivery under spinal or combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia in this randomised, double-blind, two-arm parallel, non-inferiority clinical trial. Arterial blood pressure was maintained using norepinephrine 6 µg ml-1 or phenylephrine 100 µg ml-1 according to the practice of the anaesthetist, either prophylactically or therapeutically, as an infusion or bolus. The primary outcome was umbilical arterial pH with a chosen non-inferiority margin of 0.01 units. RESULTS: Of 664 subjects (531 elective and 133 non-elective) who completed the study, umbilical arterial cord blood was analysed for 351 samples from 332 subjects in the norepinephrine group and 343 samples from 332 subjects in the phenylephrine group. Umbilical arterial pH was non-inferior in the norepinephrine group (mean, 7.289; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.284-7.294) compared with the phenylephrine group (mean, 7.287; 95% CI, 7.281-7.292) (mean difference between groups, 0.002; 95% CI, -0.005 to 0.009; P=0.017). Subgroup analysis confirmed the non-inferiority of norepinephrine for elective cases but was inconclusive for non-elective cases. CONCLUSIONS: Norepinephrine was non-inferior to phenylephrine for neonatal outcome assessed by umbilical arterial pH. These results provide high-quality evidence supporting the fetal safety of norepinephrine in obstetric anaesthesia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-IPR-15006235.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Cesárea/métodos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Artérias Umbilicais/química , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medwave ; 20(6)31-07-2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119716

RESUMO

El objetivo de este artículo es revisar las características del SARS-CoV-2, los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de COVID-19 y las implicaciones que tienen para los anestesiólogos al realizar procedimientos generadores de aerosoles. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, SciELO y Web of Science hasta el 9 de abril de 2020, utilizando las palabras: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Se incluyeron 48 artículos con información sobre el manejo del paciente en el perioperatorio o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos ante la sospecha o confirmación de infección por SARS-CoV-2. En general, se recomienda el aplazamiento de las cirugías electivas por no más de seis a ocho semanas, de acuerdo a las condiciones clínicas de los pacientes. En el caso de cirugías de urgencia o emergencia, se revisan tópicos del sistema de protección personal así como las estrategias recomendadas para la realización de los procedimientos.


The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Anestesiologia/normas , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Aerossóis , Pandemias , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20584, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502028

RESUMO

The present retrospective cohort study was designed to determine body mass index (BMI) at the delivery in women undergoing cesarean section in a Japanese urban area, and whether the nerve block height after spinal anesthesia upon the cesarean delivery relates to the lower maternal BMI, less gestational age, or underweight fetus at birth in the population.A total of 401 pregnant women undergoing cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia were evaluated retrospectively. We examined background differences, including BMI at the delivery, gestational age, and fetal birth weight between the cases with and without the adequate initial nerve block height less than the sixth thoracic vertebral level (Th6) after the spinal dose administration.The data demonstrated advanced maternal age pregnancy (median 35.5 years) and normal BMI (median 24.7) at the delivery in the population. The patients with the inadequate initial nerve block height immediately after the spinal dose administration documented significantly lower block height compared with those with adequate block height (Th8 [n = 55] vs Th4 [n = 346], P < 0.001). There was a risk of the low initial block height caused by either preoperative BMI <23, gestational age <37 weeks, or fetal birth weight <2500 g in the population.In a Japanese urban area, parturient median BMI undergoing cesarean delivery is in the normal range. Such lower BMI, in addition to less gestational age or underweight fetus, seems one of the factors causing the low initial block height upon spinal anesthesia.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Japão , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(2): 137-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499471

RESUMO

Objective: Administration of warm intravenous (IV) fluid infusion and use of forced air warmers is the most easy and physiologically viable method for maintaining normothermia during surgery and postsurgical periods This study was conducted to assess the effect of combination of active warming (AW) methods namely warm IV fluid infusion and forced air warming versus forced air warming only (WA) on maternal temperature during elective C-delivery under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients scheduled for elective c-section were grouped into those who received both warmed IV fluid infusion and forced air warmer (Combination of active warming WI= 50) and those who received only forced air warmer (WA = 50). Core body temperature and shivering incidence were recorded using a tympanic thermometer from prespinal till the end of surgery every 10 min and in postanesthesia care unit (PACU) at 0, 15, and 30 min. Results: Core temperature showed statistically significant difference in 15, 35, 45, and 55 min between air warmer and warm infusion groups and in PACU at 0, 15, and 30 min, it was statistically significant (P = 0.000) among WI group (mean temperature = 36.79°C) when compared to WA group (mean temperature = 35.96°C). There was a lower incidence of shivering in WI compared to WA group, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: Combination of warm Intravenous fluid infusion and Forced air warming is better than forced air warming alone. In maintaining near normal maternal core body temperature during elective cesarean section following spinal anesthesia. Combined warming method also reduces shivering incidence.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Alta/uso terapêutico , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Infusões Intravenosas/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Cesárea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/induzido quimicamente , Hipotermia/etiologia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Gravidez , Tremor por Sensação de Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Tremor por Sensação de Frio/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(4): 829-836, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic infusion of norepinephrine (NE) versus normal saline in patients undergoing cesarean section. METHODS: Patients (n = 97) were randomized to receive a bolus of NE (6 µg) immediately following spinal anesthesia with maintenance NE (0.05 µg/kg/min IV) or normal saline (n = 98). The primary endpoint was the incidence of postspinal anesthesia hypotension [systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 80% of baseline] at 1-20 min following spinal anesthesia. Secondary outcomes were the overall stability of SBP control versus baseline, inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC-CI), other adverse events (bradycardia, nausea, vomiting, and hypertension), and neonatal outcomes (blood gas values and Apgar scores). RESULTS: The rates of postspinal anesthesia hypotension and severe postspinal anesthesia hypotension (SBP < 60% of the baseline) were significantly lower in the NE group (17.5% vs. 62.2%, p < 0.001; 7.2% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.031). In the NE group, SBP remained more stable and closer to baseline (p < 0.001), and IVC-CI values were lower 5 min after spinal anesthesia and 5 min after fetal delivery (p = 0.045; p < 0.001, respectively). Other adverse effects and neonatal outcomes were not different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic NE infusion effectively lowers the incidence of postspinal anesthesia hypotension and does not increase other adverse events in patients or neonates.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Infusões Parenterais/efeitos adversos , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Bradicardia/epidemiologia , Cesárea/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Infusões Parenterais/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/epidemiologia , Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925512, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The current COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of the mindful use of financial and human resources. Preventing infections and preserving resources and manpower are crucial in healthcare. It is important to ensure the ability of surgeons and specialized interventionalists to function through the pandemic. Until now, no justified protocol has been reported for the anesthetic management in cesarean section (CS). CASE REPORT A 29-year-old pregnant woman, G2P1 at 37+4 weeks of gestation, was referred to our center on March 28, 2020, after she had tested positive for COVID-19. She was stable and the CS was planned after she reached term. Through spinal anesthesia, CS was conducted. The anesthesia team was protected with full personal protection equipment. The operation was carried out smoothly without complication. A female neonate was delivered and was tested to be negative for COVID-19. No medical staff cross-infection was reported. CONCLUSIONS Special precautions should be considered when pregnant women are undergoing CS. Spinal anesthesia is preferred over general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Cesárea/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
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