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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248755, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350303

RESUMO

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.


Resumo O consumo de uma dieta rica em gordura causa um acúmulo prejudicial de gordura no fígado, que pode não reverter mesmo após a mudança para uma dieta mais saudável. Diferentes relatórios trataram do papel da beldroega como um extrato contra uma dieta rica em gordura; entretanto, foi necessário estudar o papel potencial da beldroega fresca como agente hipolipemiante. Este estudo pretende investigar mais profundamente o mecanismo potencial no efeito hipolipidêmico da beldroega fresca, medindo o colesterol 7a-hidroxilase (CYP7A1) e o receptor de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (Ldlr). Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos principais: o primeiro é o grupo controle normal (n = 7 ratos) e o segundo grupo (n = 28 ratos) recebeu dieta rica em gorduras por 28 semanas para induzir a obesidade. Em seguida, o grupo de dieta rica em gordura foi dividido em quatro subgrupos iguais. Como, o grupo de controle positivo ainda se alimentava apenas com dieta rica em gordura. Enquanto isso, os outros três grupos receberam dieta rica em gordura suplementada com diferentes porcentagens de beldroegas frescas (25%, 50% e 75%), respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras coletadas para estudos moleculares, bioquímica e histológicos. O estudo atual relatou que a suplementação de beldroegas frescas, especialmente a uma concentração de 75%, desempenha papel importante contra os efeitos prejudiciais da dieta rica em gordura em nível celular e orgânico, aumentando a expressão de CYP7A1 e Ldlr mRNA. Além disso, houve melhora nas funções hepáticas testadas, nos hormônios tireoidianos e no perfil lipídico. Beldroegas frescas desempenham papel potencial como agente hipolipemiante por meio da modulação de Ldlr e Cyp7A, o que apontará para o uso de beldroegas frescas contra os efeitos nocivos da obesidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Portulaca , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hipolipemiantes , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fígado
2.
Cell Tissue Res ; 387(2): 303-314, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837110

RESUMO

Renal α2-adrenoceptors have been reported to play a role in the regulation of urinary output, renin secretion, and water and sodium excretion in the kidneys. However, the distribution of α2-adrenoceptor subtypes in the kidneys remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the localization of α2-adrenoceptor subtypes in rat kidneys using 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunofluorescence imaging revealed that both α2A- and α2B-adrenoceptors were expressed in the basolateral, but not apical, membrane of the epithelial cells of the proximal tubules. We also found that α2A- and α2B-adrenoceptors were not expressed in the glomeruli, collecting ducts, or the descending limb of the loop of Henle and vasa recta. In contrast, α2C-adrenoceptors were found to be localized in the glomeruli and lumen of the cortical and medullary collecting ducts. These results suggest that noradrenaline may act on the basement membrane of the proximal tubules through α2A- and α2B-adrenoceptors. Moreover, noradrenaline may be involved in the regulation of glomerular filtration and proteinuria through the induction of morphological changes in mesangial cells and podocytes via α2C-adrenoceptors. In the collecting ducts, urinary noradrenaline may regulate morphological changes of the microvilli through α2C-adrenoceptors. Our findings provide an immunohistochemical basis for understanding the cellular targets of α2-adrenergic regulation in the kidneys. This may be used to devise therapeutic strategies targeting α2-adrenoceptors.


Assuntos
Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2 , Roedores , Animais , Rim , Norepinefrina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/fisiologia
3.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 927: 175052, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a common and bothersome condition for which no pharmacological treatment options with acceptable efficacy exist. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activator BAY 60-2770 and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib on bladder function in a rat model of CPPS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraprostatically injected with either saline, serving as control, or zymosan, to induce prostatitis. On days 8-20, the rats were treated with either dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO; vehicle), celecoxib, BAY 60-2770 or a combination of celecoxib and BAY 60-2770. Thereafter, micturition parameters were assessed in a metabolic cage and urine samples were collected. The following day, cystometry was performed. Subsequently, the urinary bladder and prostate were removed and examined histopathologically. KEY RESULTS: Induction of prostatitis led to a significant increase of micturition frequency and corresponding decrease of volume per micturition. These alterations were ameliorated by celecoxib, and completely normalized by BAY 60-2770. Induction of prostatitis led to a significantly increased number of non-voiding contractions, decreased bladder compliance and increased voiding time. These parameters were normalized by treatment with BAY 60-2770, either alone or in combination with celecoxib. The immunohistochemical analysis showed signs of prostate inflammation, but not bladder inflammation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Induction of prostatitis led to significant impairment in bladder function. These alterations could be prevented by BAY 60-2770, alone or in combination with celecoxib. This is the first study to show that sGC activators could be a promising option for the treatment of CPPS.


Assuntos
Benzoatos , Compostos de Bifenilo , Cistite , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados , Prostatite , Animais , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/fisiopatologia , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , Masculino , Dor Pélvica , Prostatite/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 927: 175049, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644421

RESUMO

Purinergic 2Y12 (P2Y12) receptor antagonists are used as platelet aggregation inhibitors. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in neuropathological events. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the superior cervical ganglia (SCGs) encircle the somata of neurons. This study explored if the upregulated P2Y12 receptor in SCGs was relevant to lncRNA uc.48+ during myocardial ischemia (MI). The results showed that upregulation of P2Y12 receptor was accompanied by increased expression of uc.48+ in the SCGs of MI rats which displayed abnormal changes in cervical sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiograms and cardiac tissue structure. The P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel improved abnormal alterations in cardiac function and tissue structure in MI rats. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against uc.48+ significantly inhibited P2Y12 receptor upregulation and its co-expression with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SCGs, and ameliorated the cardiac dysfunction in MI rats. By contrast, overexpression of uc.48+ increased the expression of P2Y12 in SCGs and enhanced cervical sympathetic nerve activity in control rats. Direct interaction between uc.48+ and the P2Y12 receptor was predicted using the bioinformatic tool CatRAPID and confirmed by RNA immunoprecipitation. Moreover, overexpression of the P2Y12 receptor reversed the protective effect of uc.48+ shRNA on cardiac dysfunction in MI rats. Uc.48 shRNA treatment also inhibited the enhanced rise of intracellular free Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) evoked by the P2Y12 agonist 2-methylthio-adenosine-5'-diphosphate (2-MeSADP) in SGCs of SCGs after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment. These data demonstrated that uc.48+ shRNA could counteract the P2Y12 upregulation and improve P2Y12-implicated cardiac dysfunction due to MI.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12 , Gânglio Cervical Superior , Animais , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/metabolismo , Reflexo , Gânglio Cervical Superior/metabolismo , Gânglio Cervical Superior/patologia
5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 927: 175048, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644422

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate whether stabilization of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level reduces angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac fibrosis and -elevated blood pressure accompanying with inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression and preservation of mitochondrial integrity. The study was performed in Sprague-Dawley rat model of Ang II infusion (500 ng/kg/min) using osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide (0.3 mg/kg, injected subcutaneously twice daily) and dipeptidyl peptides-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (8 mg/kg, administered via oral gavage) were selected to preserve GLP-1 level. Blood pressure was measured noninvasively. Heart and aorta were saved for histological analysis. Relative to the animals with Ang II infusion, in the heart, liraglutide and linagliptin comparatively reduced the protein levels of NOX4 and TGFß1 and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and attenuated the proliferation of myofibroblasts (15 ± 4 and 13 ± 3 vs. 42 ± 22/HPF in Ang II group). The number of distorted mitochondria in both groups was significantly reduced (8 ± 4 and 10 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 13/HPF in Ang II group), in company with a significant reduction in cardiac fibrosis. In the aorta, treatment with liraglutide and linagliptin significantly downregulated the expression of NOX4 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and enhanced endothelial NOS expression. Aortic wall thickness was reduced comparatively (267 ± 22 and 286 ± 25 vs. 339 ± 40 µm in Ang II group). The area of fibrotic aorta was also reduced (13 ± 6 and 14 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 24 mm2 in Ang II group), respectively, in coincidence with a significant reduction in mean blood pressure. Taken together, these results suggest that the conservation of GLP-1 level with exogenous supply of liraglutide or the prevention of endogenous degradation of GLP-1 with linagliptin protects against Ang II-induced injury in the heart and aorta, potentially associated with inhibition of NOX4 expression and preservation of mitochondrial integrity.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II , Cardiomiopatias , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Hipertensão , Mitocôndrias , NADPH Oxidase 4 , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Fibrose , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/patologia , Linagliptina/farmacologia , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 295: 115427, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654350

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danhe granule (DHG) is used by Chinese doctors to treat blood stasis, phlegm and dampness. Its lipid-lowering ability has been investigated in our previous research. However, the anti-liver inflammatory and fibrotic effects and mechanism of action of DHG in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have not been explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the ameliorative effects of DHG on liver inflammation and fibrosis in a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH rat model, and its underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an MCD diet for two weeks and then treated with or without DHG by oral gavage for eight weeks. Their body weight and liver index were measured. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities as well as the liver triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels were tested using reagent kits. Inflammatory cytokines, including Tnf-α, Il-ß and Il-6, and fibrosis genes, including Acta2, Col1a1, Col1a2 and Tgf-ß were examined by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Oil Red O, Masson's and Sirius Red staining were used to observe liver changes. The plasma and liver ceramide levels were analyzed using HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. The expression of serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (Spt), ceramide synthase 6 (Cers6), dihydroceramide desaturase 1 (Des1), glucosylceramide synthase (Gcs), and ceramide kinase (Cerk) mRNA was assayed by RT-qPCR, while the protein expression of CerS6, DES1, GCS, CerK, and casein kinase 2α (CK2α) was tested by western blotting (WB). CerS6 degradation was evaluated using a cycloheximide (CHX) assay in vitro. RESULTS: The liver index decreased by 20% in DHG groups and the serum ALT and AST decreased by approximately 50% and 30%, respectively in the DHG-H group. The liver Oil Red O staining, TG, and FFA changes showed that DHG reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by approximately 30% in NASH rats. H&E, Masson's and Sirius Red staining and the mRNA levels of Tnf-α, Il-ß, Il-6, Acta2, Col1a1, Col1a2 and Tgf-ß revealed that DHG alleviated liver inflammation and fibrosis in NASH rats. The ceramide (Cer 16:0), and hexosylceramide (HexCer 16:0, HexCer 18:0, HexCer 22:0, HexCer 24:0 and HexCer 24:1) levels decreased by approximately 17-56% in the plasma of the DHG-M and H rats. The Cer 16:0 content in the liver decreased by 20%, 50%, and 70% with the DHG-L, M, and H treatments; additionally, the dhCer 16:0, Cer 18:0, HexCer 18:0, HexCer 20:0 Cer 22:0-1P, Cer 24:0-1p, Cer 24:1-1p, and Cer 26:1-1p levels decreased in the DHG groups. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DES1, GCS, Cerk, CerS6, and CHX assay indicated that DHG decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of CerK and reduced CerS6 protein expression by promoting its degradation. Additionally, DHG attenuated the protein expression of CK2α which could increase CerS6 enzymatic activity by phosphorylating its C-terminal region. CONCLUSION: DHG ameliorated the levels of liver FFA and TG and inflammation and fibrosis in MCD-induced rats, which were associated with decreasing ceramide species in the plasma and liver by reducing the expression levels of CerS6 and CerK.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Ceramidas/farmacologia , Ceramidas/uso terapêutico , Fibrose , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 152: 113233, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689861

RESUMO

Vascular remodeling is a significant feature of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), and is characterized by abnormal proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), as a determining factor for controlling telomerase activity, has been proven to be associated with cell proliferation. This study aims to explore whether TERT mediates the proliferation and migration of PASMCs and the underlying molecular mechanism. Primary PASMCs from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this experiment. Cell proliferation and migration were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8, EdU incorporation assay and transwell assay, respectively. Telomerase activity was assessed with a rat TE ELISA kit. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was conducted to silence c-MYC expression. The protein levels of p-Akt, c-MYC, PPARγ and TERT were determined through western blotting. Our work demonstrates that PDGF upregulated TERT expression and telomerase activation by activating Akt and upregulating of c-MYC in PASMCs. Inhibition of Akt with LY294002, knockdown of c-MYC by siRNA or suppression of telomerase activity with BIBR1532 repressed PDGF-induced PASMC proliferation and migration. Furthermore, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) with pioglitazone suppressed PDGF-induced TERT expression and telomerase activation, leading to inhibition of PASMC proliferation and migration.


Assuntos
Artéria Pulmonar , Telomerase , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 295: 115399, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649495

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Du-Zhong-Wan (DZW) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) composed of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and Dipsacus asper Wall. ex C.B. Clarke in the ratio 1:1. Based on the TCM theory, DZW nourishes the kidney to strengthen the bones. The literature research revealed that DZW possesses anti-fatigue, anti-depressant, and anti-osteoporotic properties. However, the action and mechanism of DZW on osteoporotic fracture remains slightly unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the pharmacological effect of DZW on ovariectomized mice with an open femoral fracture and reveal the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted ovariectomy for 5 weeks, followed by unilateral open transverse femoral fracture for another 3 weeks in C57BL/6 mice; during this process, DZW was administrated. The femur bone and vertebra tissues were collected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry, mechanical strength testing, immunohistochemistry staining, and qRT-PCR analyses. In addition, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red S (ARS) staining were performed to determine the extent of osteoblastogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Western blotting was performed to examine the protein expression. RESULTS: DZW treatment significantly improved the bone histomorphometric parameters in mice undergoing ovariectomy when combined with the femoral fracture, including an increase in the bone volume, trabecular number, and bone formation rate and a decrease in the bone erosion area. Simultaneously, DZW treatment histologically promoted fractured callus formation. Mechanical strength testing revealed significantly higher stiffness and an ultimate load after treatment with DZW. The angiogenesis of H-type vessels was enhanced by DZW, as evidenced by increased levels of CD31 and endomucin (EMCN), the H-type vessel endothelium markers, at the fractured endosteum and metaphysis regions. Relative to the osteoporotic fracture mice, the DZW treatment group showed an increased proangiogenic factor SLIT3 level. The increased level of SLIT3 was also recorded during the process of DZW-stimulated osteoblastogenesis from BMSCs. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that DZW promoted osteoporotic fracture healing by enhancing osteoblastogenesis and angiogenesis of the H-type vessels. This enhanced combination of osteoblastogenesis and angiogenesis was possibly related to the production of proangiogenic factor SLIT3 induced by DZW.


Assuntos
Eucommiaceae , Fraturas do Fêmur , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Eucommiaceae/química , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Fêmur/tratamento farmacológico , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Microtomografia por Raio-X
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 152: 113225, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671584

RESUMO

Nephrotoxicity (NT) is a renal-specific situation caused by different toxins and drugs like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs like diclofenac (DCF) lead to glomerular dysfunction. Pentoxifylline (PTX) and berberine (BER) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of PTX, BER and their combination against DCF-mediated acute NT. Induction of acute NT was done via DCF injection (150 mg/kg I.P, for 6 days) in rats. PTX 200 mg/kg, BER 200 mg/kg and their combination were administrated for 6 days prior to DCF injection and concurrently with DCF for additional 6 days. Acute NT was evaluated biochemically and histopathologically by measuring blood urea (BU), serum creatinine (SCr), kidney injury molecule-1(KIM-1), integrin (ITG), and vitronectin (VTN), interleukin (IL)-18, Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) with the scoring of histopathological alterations. PTX, BER and their combination significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated biochemical and histopathological changes in DCF-mediated acute NT by amelioration of BU, SCr, KIM-1, ITG, VTN, IL-18, NGAL, GFR, SOD, GSH, MDA and scoring of histopathological alterations. The combined effects of PTX and BER produced more significant effects (P < 0.05) than either PTX or BER when used alone against DCF-induced acute NT. In conclusion, BER and BTX were found to have potential renoprotective effects against DCF-induced NT in rats by inhibiting inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Berberina , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Pentoxifilina , Insuficiência Renal , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Berberina/metabolismo , Berberina/farmacologia , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/farmacologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Pentoxifilina/farmacologia , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Insuficiência Renal/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 152: 113231, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687907

RESUMO

Galangin is a polyphenolic compound found in Alpinia officinarum and propolis. This study investigated the effect of galangin on blood pressure, the renin angiotensin system (RAS), cardiac and kidney alterations and oxidative stress in two-kidney one-clipped (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats (180-220 g), and the rats were given galangin (30 and 60 mg/kg) and losartan (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks (n = 8/group). Galangin decreased hypertension and cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy, which was related to the reducing circulation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II concentration (p < 0.05). These effects were consistent with the reduced overexpression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) and collagen type I (Col I) protein in cardiac tissue (p < 0.05). Additionally, renal artery occlusion, procedure-induced kidney dysfunction and fibrosis were attenuated in the galangin-treated group. Galangin treatment normalized the overexpression of AT1R and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox-4) protein and normalized the downregulation of nuclear factor-erythroid Factor 2-related Factor 2 (Nrf-2) and haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in 2K-1C rats (p < 0.05). Galangin exhibited antioxidative effects, as it reduced systemic and tissue oxidative stress markers and increased catalase activity in 2K-1C rats (p < 0.05). In conclusion, galangin attenuated hypertension, renin-angiotensin system activation, cardiorenal damage and oxidative stress induced by renal artery stenosis in rats. These effects might be associated with modulation of the expression of AT1R, TGF-ß1 and Col I protein in the heart as well as AT1R/Nox-4 and Nrf-2/HO-1 protein in renal tissue in hypertensive rats.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Nefropatias , Animais , Flavonoides , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Artéria Renal , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(9): 166447, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643386

RESUMO

AIMS: Thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection (TAAD) is a life-threatening disease with diverse clinical manifestations. Although the association between methamphetamine (METH) and TAAD is frequently observed, the causal relationship between METH abuse and aortic aneurysm/dissection has not been established. This study was designed to determine if METH causes aortic aneurysm/dissection and delineate the underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: A new TAAD model was developed by exposing METH to SD rats pre-treated with lysyl oxidase inhibitor ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN). Combination of METH and BAPN caused thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection in 60% of rats. BAPN+METH significantly increased the expression and activities of both matrix metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9, consistent with the severe elastin breakage and dissection. Mechanistically, METH increased CCAAT-enhancer binding protein ß (C/EBPß) expression by enhancing mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) and extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) signaling. METH also promoted C/EBPß binding to MMP2 and MMP9 promoters. Blocking C/EBPß significantly attenuated METH+BAPN-induced TAAD and MMP2/MMP9 expression. Moreover, BAPN+METH promoted aortic medial smooth muscle cell (SMC) apoptosis through C/EBPß-mediated IGFBP5/p53/PUMA signaling pathways. More importantly, the expression of C/EBPß, MMP2/MMP9, and apoptosis-promoting proteins was increased in the aorta of human patients with thoracic aortic dissection, suggesting that the mechanisms identified in animal study could be relevant to human disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that METH exposure has a casual effect on TAAD. C/EBPß mediates METH-introduced TAAD formation by causing elastin breakage, medial cell loss and degeneration. Therefore, C/EBPß may be a potential factor for TAAD clinical diagnosis or treatment.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Metanfetamina , Aminopropionitrilo , Aneurisma Dissecante/induzido quimicamente , Aneurisma Dissecante/metabolismo , Animais , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/induzido quimicamente , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Elastina , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
J Proteomics ; 264: 104634, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661764

RESUMO

A major pathological mechanism involved in vascular remodeling diseases is the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. The lipid distribution of golden hamsters is similar to that of humans, which makes them an excellent study model for studying the pathogenesis and molecular characteristics of vascular remodeling diseases. We performed proteomic analysis on Sprague Dawley rat VSMCs (rVSMCs) and restenosis hamsters with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficiency as part of this study. We have also performed the enrichment analysis of differentially modified proteins in regards to Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, and protein domain. 1070 differentially abundant proteins were assessed in rVSMCs before and after platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) stimulation. Specifically, 1246 proteins displayed significant differences in the restenosis model in LDLR-deficient hamsters. An analysis of crosstalk between LDLR+/- hamsters artery restenosis and proliferating rVSMCs revealed 130 differentially expressed proteins, including 67 up-regulated proteins and 63 downregulated proteins. Enrichment analysis with KEGG showed differential proteins to be mainly concentrated in metabolic pathways. There are numerous differentially abundant proteins but particularly two proteins (phosphofructokinase 1 of liver type and lactate dehydrogenase A) were found to be up-regulated by PDGF-BB stimulation of rVSMCs and in a restenosis model of hamsters with LDLR+/- expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Based on bioinformatics, we have found glycolysis pathway plays an important role in both the LDLR+/- hamsters restenosis model and the proliferation of rVSMCs. Some key glycolysis enzymes may likely be developed either as new biomarkers or drug targets for vascular remodeling diseases.


Assuntos
Músculo Liso Vascular , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular , Animais , Becaplermina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Cricetinae , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Physiol Behav ; 253: 113867, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661787

RESUMO

Chronic stress and depression impart increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. Autonomic dysregulation, particularly sympathoexcitation, has long been associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Vasopressin (AVP) receptors with the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), known as an integrating locus for hemodynamic and autonomic function, have been implicated in behavior and stress. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that knockdown of vasopressin V1aR within the PVN in male Sprague Dawley rats subjected to chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS) would result in lower resting hemodynamics and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mitigate the responses to acute stressors. Male rats underwent CMS for 4 weeks; controls were housed in standard caging. Twenty days into the paradigm, the PVN was injected with either small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against V1aR or scrambled RNA (scrRNA). Arterial pressure, heart rate and RSNA were ascertained by telemetry with the animals in their home cages. Pretreatment with siRNA to V1aR prevented the increase in arterial pressure to PVN microinjection with exogenous AVP. Basal mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in scrRNA-treated but not in siRNA-treated CMS rats vs control rats. Paradoxically, basal RSNA was approximately two-fold higher in siRNA-treated CMS rats. Acute emotional stress delivered as 15-sec air-jet resulted in greater peak and duration of the MAP and RSNA responses in scrRNA-treated CMS rats vs control; siRNA treatment inhibited the responses. The 15-sec exposure to ammonia to test the nasopharyngeal reflex, whose circuitry does not include the PVN, produced similar increases in arterial pressure, heart rate, and RSNA in controls and both groups of CMS rats. Thus, CMS increases arterial pressure and predisposes to greater hemodynamic and RSNA responses to acute emotional stress. The higher basal RSNA in siRNA-treated rats may be due to functional and/or anatomical neuroplasticity occurring during more protracted inhibition of V1aR PVN signaling. Vasopressinergic signaling via V1aR in PVN modulates the cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to both the chronic and acute stress.


Assuntos
Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular , Sistema Nervoso Simpático , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Masculino , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Vasopressinas , Estresse Psicológico , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 238: 114512, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679690

RESUMO

The α-cyanoarylmethyl-3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-4(3H)-ones (S-CN-DABOs) were reported as a kind of reverse transcriptase inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) by our group in 2007. In this paper, we proposed to expand the S-CN-DABO scaffold to enrich the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the phenyl ring that was predicted to be located in the W229 hydrophobic pocket. Thirty-nine S-CN-DABO derivatives were manufactured to explore the impact on inhibitory activities against the non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. These analogues displayed up to low nanomolar activity against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 and good activity against several clinically relevant resistant mutant viruses, especially rilpivirine-associated resistant mutant E138K strain. The inhibitory ability toward the RT enzyme was significantly improved. Compound B23 with a 2, 6-difluoro-phenyl group showed inhibitory effects with an EC50 value of 20.8 nM against HIV-1 WT strain, and an EC50 of 50 nM targeting mutant E138K, which were about 20-fold better than the lead compound B1. Molecular docking analysis elucidated the biological activity and offered a structural insight for follow-up research. In addition, compound B23 also showed favorable drug-like properties in vitro and in vivo. There was no significant inhibition of hERG (IC50 > 40 µM), no apparent CYP enzymatic inhibitory activity and acute toxicity in mouse models. Perfect oral bioavailability of compound B23 was revealed (F = 164%, SD rats). In summary, these S-CN-DABOs compounds could be further optimized and modified for promising drug candidates in anti-HIV clinical therapy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , HIV-1 , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 23(1): 33, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen treatment may induce dysregulation of estrogen homeostasis, leading to the occurrence of related adverse reactions. However, the potential mechanisms are still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to uncover whether tamoxifen treatment would act on estrogen metabolism-related biological enzymes and the regulatory effect on estrogen homeostasis to clarify the key factors and potential mechanisms of adverse reactions caused by long-term use of tamoxifen. METHOD: Female SD rats were administrated with tamoxifen CMC-Na solution (p.o.) once daily for four weeks and then housed at room temperature. Serum, breast, liver, uterus, and ovarian tissues were obtained, and the effects of tamoxifen administration on estrogen homeostasis, the expression, and activity of estrogen metabolic enzyme were evaluated. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the estrogen homeostasis was disturbed and the expression and activity of UGT2B1 (homology with human UGT2B7) were significantly reduced in the rats administrated with tamoxifen. The inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on UGT2B7 was dominated by hydrophobic and π-π stacking interactions, resulting in a concentration-dependent inhibition of UGT2B7 activity by tamoxifen and the imbalance of ligand-activated transcription factors, leading to abnormal regulation of UGT2B and disturbance of estrogen homeostasis, which in turn led to adverse reactions of tamoxifen. CONCLUSION: We established links between estrogen metabolism and tamoxifen administration and we proposed that the UGT2B inhibition was involved in the disturbance of estrogen homeostasis and the occurrence of tamoxifen-related adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Tamoxifeno , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tamoxifeno/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
16.
Neuropharmacology ; 214: 109155, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660545

RESUMO

Chronic adolescent cannabinoid receptor agonist exposure has been shown to lead to persistent increases in depressive-like behaviors. This has been a key obstacle to the development of cannabinoid-based therapeutics. However, most of the published work has been performed with only three compounds, namely Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CP55,940 and WIN55,212-2. Hypothesizing that different compounds may lead to distinct outcomes, we herein used the highly potent CB1R/CB2R full agonist HU-210, and first aimed at replicating cannabinoid-induced long-lasting effects, by exposing adolescent female Sprague-Dawley rats to increasing doses of HU-210, for 11 days and testing them at adulthood, after a 30-day drug washout. Surprisingly, HU-210 did not significantly impact adult anxious- or depressive-like behaviors. We then tested whether chronic adolescent HU-210 treatment resulted in short-term (24h) alterations in depressive-like behavior. Remarkably, HU-210 treatment simultaneously induced marked antidepressant- and prodepressant-like responses, in the modified forced swim (mFST) and sucrose preference tests (SPT), respectively. Hypothesizing that mFST results were a misleading artifact of HU-210-induced behavioral hyperreactivity to stress, we assessed plasmatic noradrenaline and corticosterone levels, under basal conditions and following an acute swim-stress episode. Notably, we found that while HU-210 did not alter basal noradrenaline or corticosterone levels, it greatly augmented the stress-induced increase in both. Our results show that, contrary to previously studied cannabinoid receptor agonists, HU-210 does not induce persisting depressive-like alterations, despite inducing marked short-term increases in stress-induced reactivity. By showing that not all cannabinoid receptor agonists may induce long-term negative effects, these results hold significant relevance for the development of cannabinoid-based therapeutics.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Dronabinol , Animais , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Corticosterona , Dronabinol/análogos & derivados , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Feminino , Norepinefrina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Neuropharmacology ; 214: 109153, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661657

RESUMO

(2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is a metabolite of ketamine that exerts rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects in preclinical studies. We hypothesize that the rapid antidepressant actions of (2R,6R)-HNK involve an acute increase in glutamate release at Schaffer collateral synapses. Here, we used an optogenetic approach to assess whether (2R,6R)-HNK promotes glutamate release at CA1-projecting Schaffer collateral terminals in response to select optical excitation of CA3 afferents. The red-shifted channelrhodopsin, ChrimsonR, was expressed in dorsal CA3 neurons of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Transverse slices were collected four weeks later to determine ChrimsonR expression and to assess the acute synaptic effects of an antidepressant-relevant concentration of (2R,6R)-HNK (10 µM). (2R,6R)-HNK led to a rapid potentiation of CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by recurrent optical stimulation of ChrimsonR-expressing CA3 afferents. This potentiation is mediated in part by an increase in glutamate release probability, as (2R,6R)-HNK suppressed paired-pulse facilitation at CA3 projections, an effect that correlated with the magnitude of the (2R,6R)-HNK-induced potentiation of CA1 activity. These results demonstrate that (2R,6R)-HNK increases the probability of glutamate release at CA1-projecting Schaffer collateral afferents, which may be involved in the antidepressant-relevant behavioral adaptations conferred by (2R,6R)-HNK in vivo. The current study also establishes proof-of-principle that genetically-encoded light-sensitive proteins can be used to investigate the synaptic plasticity induced by novel antidepressant compounds in neuronal subcircuits.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Hipocampo , Animais , Antidepressivos/metabolismo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Ketamina/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Acta Cir Bras ; 37(3): e370303, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674581

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the influence of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFGE8) on blunt abdominal injury in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats through the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. METHODS: The blunt abdominal injury model was generated in SD rats. A total of 44 rats was randomly assigned into three groups. Rat blunt abdominal injury was assessed by the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). The rats were sacrificed for observing the morphology of the abdominal cavity and intestines. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to visualize the pathological changes of rat intestines. Positive expressions of MFGE8 and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in rat intestines were examined by immunohistochemical staining. Protein levels were determined by Western blot. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1ß, IL-6 and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Blunt abdominal injury resulted in inflammatory response of intestinal tissues, increased serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and MDA, upregulation of HMGB1, RhoA and ROCK2, and downregulation of MFGE8 in rats, which were significantly alleviated by intervention of rhMFGE8. CONCLUSIONS: MFGE8 protects the intestinal mucosal barrier function after blunt abdominal injury in rats by downregulating HMGB1. Moreover, it alleviates inflammatory response and oxidative stress caused by blunt abdominal injury in rats through downregulating RhoA and ROCK.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Proteína HMGB1 , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6 , Proteínas do Leite , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Acta Cir Bras ; 37(3): e370304, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effects of Shenkang injection (SKI) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) in rat. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, model, and SKI groups (5, 10, 20 mL/kg). Rats in model and SKI groups were treated with adenine i.g. at a dose of 150 mg/kg every day for 12 weeks to induce CRF. Twelve weeks later, SKI was administered to the rat i.p. for four weeks. The effects of SKI on kidney injury and fibrosis were detected. RESULTS: SKI inhibited the elevation of the urine level of N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase, kidney injury molecule-1, beta-2-microglobulin, urea protein in CRF rats. The serum levels of uric acid and serum creatinine increased and albumin decreased in the model group, which was prevented by SKI. SKI inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum. SKI inhibited the expression of transforming growth factor-ß1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, collagen I, collagen III, endothelin-1, laminin in kidney of CRF rats. CONCLUSIONS: SKI protected against adenine-induced kidney injury and fibrosis and exerted anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects in CRF rats.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adenina/metabolismo , Adenina/farmacologia , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Fibrose , Rim , Falência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e261695, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674594

RESUMO

Study was planned to assess the bio-efficiency along with toxicity of iron and zinc fortified whole wheat flour in Sprague dawley albino rats. Whole wheat flour was fortified with different dosage of sodium iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4). The rats (n=3) in each group were fed on fortified wheat flour for 2 months. Liver biomarkers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin were recorded from serum samples. Increased concentration of ZnSO4 affected the liver biomarkers to be highest among all whereas, bilirubin levels were less than the rats fed on control diet. The above mentioned fortificants have negligible effect on renal biomarkers including creatinine and urea. Moreover, hematological parameters were also checked and reportedly, sodium iron EDTA fed rats presented highest amount of hemoglobin, iron and total iron binding capacity. Highest zinc level was observed in rats fed on whole wheat flour fortified with 60mg/Kg Zinc oxide. Microscopic observation of liver tissue depicted that rats fed on iron and zinc fortified wheat flour have more toxic effects whereas, histopathology presentation of kidney tissue has least toxic impact. It has been concluded that mandatory fortification of wheat flour with iron and zinc may cause increased serum biomarkers along with toxicity of vital organs like liver, hence fraction of wheat flour may be fortified to fulfill the requirements of deprived and vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Farinha , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Bilirrubina , Alimentos Fortificados , Ferro , Rim , Fígado , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triticum , Zinco/toxicidade
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