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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(8. Vyp. 2): 45-48, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study neurological status and structural changes in the tracheal lymphoid tissue in rats with different resistance to emotional stress in experimental hemorrhagic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of neurological deficit on the Menzies scale and a histological study of structural features of tracheal lymphoid tissue were performed on days 1, 3 and 7 of experimental hemorrhagic stroke in 98 Wistar male rats with different resistance to emotional stress. Stroke simulation was preceded by animal testing to determine individual stress resistance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Neurological disorders are more pronounced in non-stress-resistant animals during all periods of observation. Lymphoid nodules of the tracheal wall of rats react with destruction of lymphoid cells and depletion of small lymphocytes observed in stress-resistant rats already on the 1st day of a stroke. On the 3rd day, the neurological deficit and changes in the cellular composition of the lymphoid formations of the trachea are most pronounced in both groups of rats. By the 7th day, a positive trend towards the restoration of the structure of tracheal lymphoid tissue and normal neurological status is detected only in rats resistant to emotional stress.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Traqueia , Animais , Tecido Linfoide , Masculino , Angústia Psicológica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140390, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927557

RESUMO

Noise is considered one of the environmental hazards that negatively affect health. It can cause damage to the auditory, neurological, hormonal and cardiovascular systems, in addition to impairing psychological and cognitive functions. Considering the significance of vascular disturbances and oxidative stress in the development of the aforementioned negative effects, the purpose of our investigation was to study the level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-Cl), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Cl), and total cholesterol (TCl) in plasma, in addition to the behavioral characteristics of white rats, and the effects of the α2-adrenoblockers beditin and mesedin to reveal their antiatherogenic effect during noise exposure. The "Open field" and "Y-maze" tests were used in order to evaluate the behavioral states of the rats. Investigations were carried out on albino rats divided into 4 groups. The 1st group of rats served as a control. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were exposed to 91 dBA of noise; the duration of exposure was 8 h per day for 60 days. The 3rd group was injected with beditin and the 4th group with mesedin, both intraperitoneally and repeatedly. According to our results, the chronic exposure to high-volume noise leads to the increase of plasma TCl and LDL-Cl concentrations and the decrease of HDL-Cl levels, resulting in increase of the atherogenic coefficient, which is estimated to be one of the main cardiovascular disease risk factors. The "Open field" and "Y-maze" tests revealed that chronic noise exposure caused disturbances in the behavioral activity, a noise duration-dependent delay in movement and orientation, increased anxiety and deficit in the animals' spatial memory. The administration of α2-adrenoblockers to the noise-exposed animals had a regulatoryeffects of varying intensities, depending on the medication used and the studied parameters under the conditions of chronic acoustic stress.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Memória Espacial , Animais , Colesterol , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of cortexin, cerebrolysin and actovegin on memory impairment, cerebral circulation and morphological changes in the hippocampus of rats with chronic brain ischemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted using male rats with chronic brain ischemia caused by stenosis of the common carotid arteries by 50%. Animals received cortexin (0,3; 1 or 3 mg/kg), cerebrolysin (0,8; 2,5 or 7,5 ml/kg) and actovegin (5 ml/kg) in two 10-day courses with 10 days of treatment break. The severity of cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Morris water maze, passive and active avoidance tests. Cerebral circulation using laser flowmetry and brain hippocampus structures were studied in the end of treatment. RESULTS: Cognitive impairment in animals with chronic brain ischemia was accompanied by the development of pathological changes in the CA1 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus. Administration of cortexin (1 and 3 mg/kg) and cerebrolysin (2.5 and 7.5 ml/kg) to rats with chronic brain ischemia had almost no effect on cerebral blood flow, but contributed to the improvement in memory formation and retrieval processes in the Morris water maze. The treatment effect was comparable for both drugs and persisted after 10 days of treatment break. Morphological assessment showed a decrease in the severity of pathological changes in the hippocampal regions. CONCLUSION: The course-administration of cortexin and cerebrolysin lead to a decrease in the severity of memory impairment and pathomorphological changes in the hippocampus in rats with chronic brain ischemia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Aminoácidos , Animais , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Heme/análogos & derivados , Hipocampo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(8): 1030-1035, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Liver biopsies such as tru-cut (sharp needle) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are the most commonly preferred techniques to detect the grade and stage of certain liver diseases. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficiency of USG-guided tru-cut biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology in an experimental alcoholic liver disease model. METHODS: Thirty-six female Wistar albino rats, 4-6 months old, and weighing from 190 to 250 g, were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into six equal groups: G1 (control), G2 (tru-cut control), G3 (FNAC control), G4 (Alcoholic liver disease model), G5 (Alcoholic liver disease model + FNAC), and G6 (Alcoholic liver disease model + tru-cut biopsy). After a histopathological evaluation by light microscopy, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of FNAC and tru-cut biopsy for the diagnosis of liver lesions were calculated. RESULTS: No pathology was detected in G1 except for mild congestion. On the other hand, hepatocyte damage, periportal inflammation, congestion, and fatty changes were detected in all liver tissues of the alcoholic liver disease groups. The sensitivity of hepatocyte damage, inflammation, congestion, and fatty change parameters for FNAC were 33.3%, 80%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, while the sensitivity of the same variables for tru-cut were 66.7%, 40%, 100%, and 20%, respectively. DISCUSSION: Both techniques were superior in some aspects. FNAC can be an attractive alternative to tru-cutbiopsy and applied in routine practice in the diagnosis of non-tumoral liver diseases.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ratos Wistar
5.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 35(5): 910-916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the bone-forming potential of the demineralized human dentin matrix by performing histologic and morphometric analyses. The immunolabeling of osteopontin, a determinant protein for bone repair, was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were selected and submitted to the extraction of the right and left second molars. Tooth sockets were separated into two groups: the control group (right), which was filled with the blood clot, and the experimental group (left), which was filled with demineralized human dentin matrix. Animals were sacrificed at 5, 10, and 21 days. Histologic and histoquantitative analyses (analyses of variance [ANOVA] and Tukey's test) were performed, as well as immunostaining for osteopontin as an osteogenesis indicator. RESULTS: After 5 days, demineralized human dentin matrix was incorporated by new trabeculae. After 10 days, connective tissue organization and new trabeculae were observed in the experimental group, and intense staining for osteopontin close to demineralized human dentin matrix was observed in the experimental group. After 21 days, the experimental group was showing mature trabeculae. A statistical difference was observed (P < .05). There was a higher number of trabeculae in the experimental groups in all periods of analysis. The presence of osteopontin was observed more intensely at 10 days close to demineralized human dentin matrix. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that demineralized human dentin matrix implanted in tooth sockets induces the acceleration of osteogenesis.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Alvéolo Dental/cirurgia , Animais , Dentina , Humanos , Osteopontina , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(9): 1101-1109, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female inflorescences of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are wildly used in the brewing industry. Hops have been also used for ages in folk medicine. Xanthohumol (XN) is a most abundant prenylated flavonoid present in hops. OBJECTIVES: To determine pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of pure XN and XN given in prenylflavonoid extract obtained from spent hops (HOP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six Wistar rats (28 females and 28 males) were administered with XN or HOP. Xanthohumol was administered either intravenously (iv.) (10 mg/kg) or orally (per os (p.o.)) (40, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Extract obtained from spent hops was administered p.o. and its doses were based on XN content (doses were equivalent to XN dose of 40, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively). After administration of XN or HOP serum, XN concentration was measured at different time points (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Non-compartmental analysis was used to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of XN in rats. RESULTS: The XN PK in rats after intravenous administration is characterized by extensive distribution followed by delayed elimination from the body. Enterohepatic recirculation is likely to play a role in XN PK. Some fraction of the orally administered XN reaches central compartment rapidly; however, the overall absorption is very limited and probably saturable. The formulation-dependent factors also play an important role in the bioavailability of the drug. Although the CMAX concentration was higher in female rats receiving XN orally comparing to males, the other pharmacokinetic parameters were unaffected by the rats' sex. CONCLUSIONS: The same doses of XN may be administered to male and female subjects, as its pharmacokinetics is not affected by sex.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Feminino , Flavonoides , Masculino , Propiofenonas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104671, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980069

RESUMO

TEB belongs to the family of triazole fungicides and it is used to protect agricultural crop plants from fungal pathogens. The information regarding its cardiotoxic effects through different pathways particularly by perturbing the oxidative balance and causing damage to the myocardium is still limited. In the present study, oxidative and histopathologic damages caused by TEB in the cardiac tissue of male adult rats, were evaluated. Rats were exposed orally to TEB at 0.9, 9, 27 and 45 mg/kg b.w. for 28 days. Results showed that following TEB treatment malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), antioxidant enzyme activities (GPx and GR) and GSSG levels increased, while GSH levels and thus the GSH/GSSG ratio decreased. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) initially increased at the doses of 0.9, 9 and 27 mg/kg b.w. and then decreased at the dose of 45 mg/kg b.w. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that TEB increased SOD1, CAT and HSP70 protein levels after 24 h. Furthermore, TEB induced various histological changes in the myocardium, including leucocytic infiltration, hemorrhage congestion of cardiac blood vessels and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Therefore, our investigation revealed, that TEB exhibits cardiotoxic effects by changing oxidative balance and damaging the cardiac tissue.


Assuntos
Glutationa , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Antioxidantes , Catalase , Glutationa Peroxidase , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase , Triazóis/toxicidade
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4854, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978383

RESUMO

Chronic imaging of neuronal networks in vitro has provided fundamental insights into mechanisms underlying neuronal function. Current labeling and optical imaging methods, however, cannot be used for continuous and long-term recordings of the dynamics and evolution of neuronal networks, as fluorescent indicators can cause phototoxicity. Here, we introduce a versatile platform for label-free, comprehensive and detailed electrophysiological live-cell imaging of various neurogenic cells and tissues over extended time scales. We report on a dual-mode high-density microelectrode array, which can simultaneously record in (i) full-frame mode with 19,584 recording sites and (ii) high-signal-to-noise mode with 246 channels. We set out to demonstrate the capabilities of this platform with recordings from primary and iPSC-derived neuronal cultures and tissue preparations over several weeks, providing detailed morpho-electrical phenotypic parameters at subcellular, cellular and network level. Moreover, we develop reliable analysis tools, which drastically increase the throughput to infer axonal morphology and conduction speed.


Assuntos
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Axônios , Encéfalo , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Camundongos , Microeletrodos , Modelos Animais , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Gravação em Vídeo
9.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1858, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In cirrhotic children, infection events and sepsis are more frequent and more severe due to immune dysfunction. The objectives of the current study were therefore to develop an experimental model of infection and sepsis in cirrhotic weaning growing rats, by the use of bile duct ligation (BDL) and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Additionally, the correlation of the clinico-histopathological data and serial cytokine levels in septic cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic animals was studied. METHODS: Young Wistar rats of age 21 days and of weight between 70-90 g were divided into 12 groups according to the surgical procedure performed: sham (sacrificed after 2 or 4 weeks), BDL (sacrificed after 2 or 4 weeks), CLP (2- or 4-week old animals sacrificed after 12 or 24 hours), BDL+CLP (2- or 4-week old animals sacrificed after 12 hours). Histopathological studies and determination of serum levels of cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha, for studies of systemic infection, were performed. Murine sepsis scores (MSS) based on the clinical aspects just before euthanasia were also included. RESULTS: A transitory increase in IL-1, IL-10, and TNF-alpha levels was observed, with different patterns according to the groups. Two-hit groups tended to present with higher values of serum cytokines and histopathological scores than their septic non-cirrhotic counterparts. There was a correlation between mortality rate and MSS (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The model is feasible and may be utilized in studies on liver cirrhosis and infection in growing animals.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática , Sepse , Animais , Camundongos , Modelos Teóricos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 202-207, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nanomaterials consist of particles smaller than 100 nm - nanoparticles (NPs). Their nano dimensions allow them to penetrate through various membranes and enter into the bloodstream and disseminate into different body organs. Massive expansion of nanotechnologies together with production of new nanoparticles which have not yet been in contact with living organisms may pose a potential health problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the health impact of NPs after experimental exposure. Comparison of the effect of TiO2 and NPs Fe3O4 in Wistar rats at time intervals 1, 7, 14 and 28 days was performed by studying the cytotoxic effect in the isolated inflammatory cells from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). METHODS: Wistar rats were intravenously (i.v.) given a suspension of NPs TiO2 or Fe3O4 (coated by sodium oleate) via the tail vein. After time intervals of 1, 7, 14 and 28 days, we sacrificed the animals under anaesthesia, performed BAL and isolated the cells. The number of animals in the individual groups was 7-8. We examined the differential count of BAL cells (alveolar macrophages - AM, polymorphonuclear leukocytes - PMN, lymphocytes - Ly); viability and phagocytic activity of AM; the proportion of immature and polynuclear cells and enzymes - cathepsin D - CAT D, lactate dehydrogenase - LDH and acid phosphatase - ACP. RESULTS: We found that TiO2 NPs are relatively inert - without induction of inflammatory and cytotoxic response. Exposure to nanoparticles Fe3O4 induced - under the same experimental conditions - in comparison with the control and TiO2 a more extensive inflammatory and cytotoxic response, albeit only at 1, 7 and 14 days after injection. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that TiO2 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles used in our study were transferred from the bloodstream to the respiratory tract, but this effect was not observed at 28 days after i.v. injection, probably due to their removal from the respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Titânio/toxicidade , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Titânio/administração & dosagem
11.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 122-127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965262

RESUMO

The aim of the work is to identify changes in the state of astrocytes and microglia with unilateral ligation of the carotid artery, sensitization with the cerebral antigen and their combination in the sensorimotor cortex in rats.; Studies were performed on 185 male Wistar white rats weighing 260-290 g. The brain was examined 1, 3, 10, 30 and 90 days after surgery and, respectively, 12 (1), 15 (3), 22 (10 ), 42 (30), 102 (90) days after sensitization (surgical intervention).; Immunohistochemical reactions were carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's protocols. Primary antibodies were used in the work: S100 (Dako, Denmark); GFAP (Dako, Denmark), Iba-1. Densitometric measurements of S100 expression were performed using ImageJ 1.46 and counting the number of labeled GFAP and Iba-1 cells. Statistical processing was performed using t-student test.; In general, the observed reactions suggest that with discirculatory disturbances in the brain in rats, the detected changes in astrocytes and microglia tend to reverse. This can be explained by the fact that the animals used in the experiment were practically healthy and had high compensatory-adaptive potencies. In humans, a similar reverse development of glial reactions cannot be expected, since cerebral hypopefusion / dyscirculation develops against the background of changes in the vascular bed, which, as a rule, also progress. Accordingly, similar changes in human glia of the brain will act as secondary factors contributing to neurodegenerative processes.; Comparatively small hemocirculation disorders in the brain with unilateral ligation of the carotid artery can cause activation of astrocytes and microglia. In this case, the reaction of astrocytes detected by the expression of GFAP is more pronounced than Iba 1 + cells. Perhaps this is due to the close contact of astrocytes with blood vessels. A significant role in glia changes is played by sensitization by cerebral antigens, which develops with impaired hemocirculation in the brain and potentiates the damage caused by it. When extrapolated to humans, it can be assumed that sensitization can make a significant contribution to the development of brain damage in conditions associated with hypoperfusion.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Córtex Sensório-Motor , Animais , Artérias Carótidas , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Masculino , Microglia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 593-602, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933611

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) on the cervical spinal cord (CSC) of rats and the possible protective effect of luteolin (LUT) against CSC tissue damage. Methods: Quantitative data were obtained via stereological, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histopathological techniques. We investigated morphometric value, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, and the expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein molecules, as well as histological changes. Results: The total number of motor neurons in the EMF group significantly decreased in comparison with that in the control group ( P < 0.05). In the EMF + LUT group, we found a significant increase in the total number of motor neurons compared with that in the EMF group ( P < 0.05). SOD enzyme activity in the EMF group significantly increased in comparison with that in the control group ( P < 0.05). By contrast, the EMF+LUT group exhibited a decrease in SOD level compared with the EMF group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggested that exposure to EMF could be deleterious to CSC tissues. Furthermore, the protective efficacy of LUT against SC damage might have resulted from the alleviation of oxidative stress caused by EMF.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Luteolina/farmacologia , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 603-613, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933612

RESUMO

Objective: To detect the effects of shortwave radiation on dose-dependent cardiac structure and function in rats after radiation and to elucidate the mechanism of shortwave radiation induced cardiac injury to identify sensitive indicators and prophylactic treatment. Methods: One hundred Wistar rats were either exposed to 27 MHz continuous shortwave at a power density of 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm 2 for 6 min or undergone sham exposure for the control (the rats had to be placed in the exposure system with the same schedules as the exposed animals, but with an inactive antenna). The Ca 2+, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content in the peripheral serum of the rats were detected by an automatic blood biochemical analyser. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of standard lead II was recorded by a multi-channel physiological recording and analysis system. The cardiac structure of rats was observed by light and electron microscopy. Results: The results showed that the 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm 2 shortwave radiation caused a significant increased in the levels of Ca 2+, AST, CK, and LDH in the peripheral serum of rats. The cardiac structure was damaged by radiation and showed a disordered arrangement of myocardial fibres, the cavitation and swelling of myocardial mitochondria. These injuries were most significant 7 d after radiation and were not restored until 28 d after radiation. Conclusion: Shortwave radiation of 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm 2 can damage rat cardiac function, including damage to the tissue structure and ultrastructure, especially at the level of the myocardial fibres and mitochondria. Shortwave radiation at 5, 10, and 30 mW/cm 2 induced damage to rat heart function and structure with a dose-effect relationship, i.e., the greater the radiation dose was, the more significant the damage was.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/patologia , Coração/efeitos da radiação , Miocárdio/patologia , Ondas de Rádio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Cardiopatias/etnologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 368-373, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a organophosphate insecticide widely used in agriculture with attendant adverse health outcomes. Chronic exposure to CPF induces oxidative stress and elicits harmful effects, including hepatic dysfunction. Molecular hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) could protect rats from hepatotoxicity caused by sub-chronic exposure to CPF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were treated with hydrogen-rich water by oral intake for 8 weeks. Biochemical indicators of liver function, SOD and CAT activity, GSH and MDA levels were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Liver cell damage induced by CPF was evaluated by histopathological and electron microscopy analysis. PCR array analysis was performed to investigated the effects of molecular hydrogen on the regulation of oxidative stress related genes. RESULTS: Both the hepatic function tests and histopathological analysis showed that the liver damage induced by CPF could be ameliorated by HRW intake. HRW intake also attenuated CPF induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by restored SOD activities and MDA levels. The results of PCR Array identified 12 oxidative stress-related genes differentially expressed after CPF exposure, 8 of chich, including the mitochondrial Sod2 gene, were significantly attenuated by HRW intake. The electron microscopy results indicated that the mitochondrial damage caused by CPF was alleviated after HRW treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF induced hepatotoxicity, and the oxidative stress signaling and the mitochondrial pathway may be involved in the protection of molecular hydrogen.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 394-400, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity, as well as a gonadal function, are pivotal factors influencing bone tissue metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dietary induced obesity (DIO) on bone tissue metabolism in sham-operated (SHO) or ovariectomized (OVX) adult female Wistar rats. Additionally, the influence of DIO in SHO or OVX on the concentration of sclerostin in the blood serum was analyzed. After SHO or OVX, the rats were placed in groups (n=8) and either received a standard diet (11.5 MJ/kg) (SHO-CON; OVX-CON) or a high-energy diet (17.6 MJ/kg) (SHO-FAT; OVX-FAT). The experiment lasted for 90 days and allowed for the establishment of osteopenia in OVX females and obesity in the rats that had received the high-energy diet. RESULTS: The results of the study demonstrate that obesity or/and ovariectomy increases the resorption of femora and tibiae, hence decreasing the densitometric and mechanical parameters affecting the bone structure in adult females rats. The strongest osteodegenerative effect was seen in the OVX-FAT females. Interestingly, the degree of bone tissue degradation caused exclusively by ovariectomy was similar to that found in the obese sham-operated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Bone losses invoked by DIO seem to be independent from the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway inhibition induced by sclerostin. While further study is necessary, the obtained results suggest that the usage of sclerostin anti-body in the treatment of osteoporosis can be ineffective, and in obese patients the undertaking of such therapy should be reassessed.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/sangue , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(8): e202000803, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate different concentrations of ciprofloxacin to prevent infection after open fracture contaminated with S. aureus in rats using absorbable local delivery system. METHODS: Fifty-two Wistar rats were assigned to six groups. After 4 weeks, all animals underwent 99mTc-ceftizoxima scintigraphy evaluation, callus formation measurement and histological analysis. ANOVA, t-Student and Kruskal Wallis were used for quantitative variables statistical analysis, whereas qui square and exact Fisher were used for qualitative variables. RESULTS: Treatment using 25% and 50% of ciprofloxacin incorporated at the fracture fixation device were effective in preventing bone infection compared to control group (p<0.05). Chitosan were not effective in preventing bone infection when used alone compared to control group (p>0.05). Histological findings demonstrated bone-healing delay with 50% of ciprofloxacin. No difference in callus formation were observed (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Local delivery treatment for contaminated open fracture using chitosan with ciprofloxacin is effective above 25%.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Ciprofloxacino , Fraturas do Fêmur , Fraturas Expostas , Controle de Infecções , Animais , Calo Ósseo , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Fraturas do Fêmur/complicações , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Infecções , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Staphylococcus aureus
17.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(8): e202000805, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of alcohol exposure and diabetes on apoptotic process in the corpus cavernosum. METHODS: Forty eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, alcoholic and diabetic-alcoholic. Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study protein expression of apoptotic genes (Caspases-3 and 9) by immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR. RESULTS: The immunoreactivity of Caspases-3 and -9 was diffuse and higher in the treated groups though there was no significant difference between the experimental groups, only when compared with the control group. An increase was observed in the gene expression of Caspases-9 in the diabetic and ethanol-diabetic groups when compared with control and ethanol groups. CONCLUSIONS: The association of these factors (ethanol and diabetes) probably can affect the apoptosis mechanism in lesions of the cavernous tissue in the rat penis. Both gene and protein expression of Caspase-9 in diabetic and ethanol-diabetic groups suggest the involvement of the apoptosis cascade from this study model.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Alcoolismo/complicações , Animais , Masculino , Pênis , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(8): 1095-1106, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731821

RESUMO

AIMS: Achilles tendon injuries are a frequent problem in orthopaedic surgery due to their limited healing capacity and the controversy surrounding surgical treatment. In recent years, tissue engineering research has focused on the development of biomaterials to improve this healing process. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of tendon augmentation with a nanostructured fibrin-agarose hydrogel (NFAH) or genipin cross-linked nanostructured fibrin-agarose hydrogel (GP-NFAH), on the healing process of the Achilles tendon in rats. METHODS: NFAH, GP-NFAH, and MatriDerm (control) scaffolds were generated (five in each group). A biomechanical and cell-biomaterial-interaction characterization of these biomaterials was then performed: Live/Dead Cell Viability Assay, water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 (WST-1) assay, and DNA-released after 48 hours. Additionally, a complete section of the left Achilles tendon was made in 24 Wistar rats. Animals were separated into four treatment groups (six in each group): direct repair (Control), tendon repair with MatriDerm, or NFAH, or GP-NFAH. Animals were euthanized for further histological analyses after four or eight weeks post-surgery. The Achilles tendons were harvested and a histopathological analysis was performed. RESULTS: Tensile test revealed that NFAH and GP-NFAH had significantly higher overall biomechanical properties compared with MatriDerm. Moreover, biological studies confirmed a high cell viability in all biomaterials, especially in NFAH. In addition, in vivo evaluation of repaired tendons using biomaterials (NFAH, GP-NFAH, and MatriDerm) resulted in better organization of the collagen fibres and cell alignment without clinical complications than direct repair, with a better histological score in GP-NFAH. CONCLUSION: In this animal model we demonstrated that NFAH and GP-NFAH had the potential to improve tendon healing following a surgical repair. However, future studies are needed to determine the clinical usefulness of these engineered strategies. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(8):1095-1106.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/cirurgia , Microambiente Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Elastina/uso terapêutico , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Tendão do Calcâneo/lesões , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrina/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Masculino , Nanoestruturas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tendões/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/fisiologia
19.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 679-688, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a lung disease in preterm infants. We aimed to explore the role of cell division cycle 2 (CDC2) on histopathologic changes of lung tissues, as well as the viability, apoptosis, and inflammation of lung cells in rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hyperoxia-induced BPD in neonatal rats and hyperoxia-induced A549 cells were constructed. The mRNA expression of CDC2 was detected by qRT-PCR. The fibrosis score of lung tissues was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The viability and apoptosis of A549 cells were detected by cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry. The protein expressions of bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3 were measured by western blot. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß in A549 cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pcDNA3.1-CDC2 was injected into rats to determine the role of CDC2 in hyperoxia-induced BPD in vivo. RESULTS: The expression of CDC2 was decreased in lung tissues of neonatal rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD and hyperoxia-induced A549 cells. The fibrosis score was increased in the lung tissues of neonatal rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Overexpression of CDC2 increased the viability and protein expression of bcl-2; and inhibited the apoptosis, inflammation, and protein expression of bax and caspase-3 in hyperoxia-induced A549 cells. Up-regulation of CDC2 alleviated the histopathologic changes in lung tissues of neonatal rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of CDC2 promoted the viability and inhibited the apoptosis and inflammation of hyperoxia-induced cells, and alleviated the histopathologic changes of lung tissues in neonatal rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Proteína Quinase CDC2/metabolismo , Hiperóxia/complicações , Células A549 , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hiperóxia/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Ratos Wistar
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5671-5685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821096

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the current work was to develop vardenafil hydrochloride (VRD)-loaded ethosome-derived invasomes as a possible transdermal system which could be used for patients suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods: VRD-loaded ethosomes were developed at three concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) and three percentages of ethanol (20%, 30% and 40%, v/v). The best achieved VRD-loaded ethosomes (ETH9) were optimized to invasomes via incorporation of terpenes (limonene, cineole and a 1:1 mixture) at three concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2%, v/v). All systems were evaluated for vesicle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency (EE%), cumulative drug permeated percentages after 0.5hrs (Q0.5h) and 12hrs (Q12h) and steady-state flux (Jss). The optimized system (ETH9-INV8) was further characterized for morphology, histopathology and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was employed to estimate VRD pharmacokinetic parameters from the optimized transdermal system and an oral aqueous drug dispersion, in adults and geriatrics. Results: The optimized invasomal system (ETH9-INV8) was characterized with spherical vesicles (159.9 nm) possessing negative zeta potential (-20.3 mV), promising EE% (81.3%), low Q0.5h (25.4%), high Q12h (85.3%) and the largest steady-state flux (6.4 µg.cm-2h-1). Following a leave-on period of 12hrs in rats, it showed minor histopathologic changes. CLSM studies proved its ability to deeply permeate rat skin. Lower Cmax values, delayed Tmax estimates and greater AUC0-24h folds in adults and geriatrics (≈ 2.18 and 1.69, respectively) were estimated following the transdermal application of ETH9-INV8 system. Conclusion: ETH9-INV8 is a promising transdermal system for VRD.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Geriatria , Modelos Biológicos , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/administração & dosagem , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/farmacocinética , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Lipossomos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade , Ratos Wistar , Absorção Cutânea , Eletricidade Estática
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