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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045459

RESUMO

Broiler chickens experience an acute-phase response (APR) through vaccination, which reflects the innate immunity and stress related to immunization. It is also considered that APR can modulate adaptive immunity and response to infection. As biomarkers for APR, assessing the acute-phase proteins (APPs) function and their levels in response to immunization is of great value for vaccine design, development and administration. In this study, the heterophils/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and the level of APPs was evaluated in broilers with three different Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination regimens. Inactivated ND vaccine (IND) was administered by the intramuscular route. Live attenuated strains, Lasota and Vitapest, was administered by ocular routes. H/L ratio, serum amyloid A (SAA) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured before and after two rounds of vaccination on days 10 and 21. In a comparison between the three vaccines, H/L ratio in IND group significantly increased to 3 fold (1.48 ± 0.41) after the first vaccination while the Lasota and Vitapest showed a milder response. The concentration of SAA increased after 24h by 1.8-fold in IND group (0.116 ± 0.015 mg/L) and 2-fold in Lasota group (0.14 ± 0.002 mg/L). Significant changes were found in Vitapest group after 48h post vaccination (0.113 ± 0.016 mg/L). Elevation pattern of AGP, 24 hours after first vaccination in IND (3.5-fold) and Vitapest (2.5-fold) was different from Lasota in which the peak was reached after 48 hours (2.9-fold). Except for IND group, no significant changes in SAA and AGP concentrations were detected after the second vaccination. A significant positive correlation between SAA values at day 22 and HI titers at day 28 (r = 0.998, P≤0. 0.005) was found. According to these results, different types of ND vaccines can cause different patterns of acute phase responses. Assessment of stress and level of acute-phase proteins can be used for prediction of immune response outcomes in vaccine design and development.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Proteínas Aviárias/imunologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1323-1332, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417249

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have shown that the arterial wall is a potential source of inflammatory markers in COPD. Here, we sought to compare the expression of acute phase reactants (APRs) in COPD patients and controls both at the local (pulmonary arteries and lung parenchyma) and systemic (peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma) compartments. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for suspected primary lung cancer were eligible for the study. Patients were categorized either as COPD or control group based on the spirometry results. Pulmonary arteries and lung parenchyma sections, peripheral blood leukocytes, and plasma samples were obtained from all participants. Gene expression levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4) were evaluated in tissue samples and peripheral blood leukocytes by reverse transciption-PCR. Plasma CRP and SAA protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Proteins were evaluated in paraffin-embedded lung tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results: A total of 40 patients with COPD and 62 controls were enrolled. We did not find significant differences in the gene expression between COPD and control group. Both CRP and SAA were overexpressed in the lung parenchyma compared with pulmonary arteries and peripheral blood leukocytes. The expression of SAA was significantly higher in the lung parenchyma than in the pulmonary artery (2-fold higher for SAA1 and SAA4, P=0.015 and P<0.001, respectively; 8-fold higher for SAA2, P<0.001) and peripheral blood leukocytes (16-fold higher for SAA1, 439-fold higher for SAA2, and 5-fold higher for SAA4; P<0.001). No correlation between plasma levels of inflammatory markers and their expression in the lung and peripheral blood leukocytes was observed. Conclusions: The expression of SAA in lung parenchyma is higher than in pulmonary artery and peripheral blood leukocytes. Notably, no associations were noted between lung expression of APRs and their circulating plasma levels, making the leakage of inflammatory proteins from the lung to the bloodstream unlikely. Based on these results, other potential sources of systemic inflammation in COPD (eg, the liver) need further scrutiny.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda , Pulmão , Linfócitos/imunologia , Artéria Pulmonar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/análise , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/sangue , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/imunologia , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Espirometria/métodos
3.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 36, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345246

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is associated with severe diarrhea in calves, winter dysentery in adult cattle, and respiratory diseases in cattle of all ages. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between white blood cell counts and haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels in post-weaned calves with diarrhea caused by BCoV and those that recovered from diarrhea. Blood and fecal samples were collected twice from the same animals; 17 post-weaned calves with diarrhea (first) and 15 post-weaned calves that recovered from diarrhea (second). Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that all 17 fecal samples from post-weaned calves with diarrhea and one out of 15 from diarrhea-recovered calves were positive for BCoV and negative for Cryptosporidium spp., Escherichia coli K99, Salmonella spp., bovine rotavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. No Eimeria oocysts were detected using the flotation method. In comparison with post-weaned calves with diarrhea, in diarrhea-recovered calves, the lymphocyte count was significantly higher (P = 0.018), and the monocyte count was significantly lower (P = 0.001); however, the number of monocytes was still high. Post-weaned calves with diarrhea had a significantly higher Hp concentration (P < 0.001) compared with diarrhea-recovered calves. The results indicated that increased Hp concentration and monocytosis but not SAA may be associated with diarrhea caused by BCoV. The present study suggests that the monitoring of Hp concentration and monocyte count is useful in the diagnosis of post-weaned calves with diarrhea caused by BCoV in this field.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Reação de Fase Aguda/sangue , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus Bovino , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/imunologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/análise , Contagem de Linfócitos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise , Desmame
4.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 41(1): 150-162, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038378

RESUMO

Objective: Recently, many researches with different viewpoints have focused on application of immunotherapy agents in treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) according to neuroprotective results in some neurodegenerative disease. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is the most commonly used drug for Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients that exerts an immunomodulatory effect against Myelin basic protein (MBP) antigen. Materials and methods: High-dose (2mg/kg) treatment of GA for 28 consecutive days after SCI was compared with its low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) treatment, SCI control and Sham control rat groups. Results: High-dose GA group had significantly worsened outcome in standard functional recovery evaluation test (BBB) 12 weeks after SCI compared to SCI control and low-dose GA groups, which was confirmed by augmented spinal cavity volume and reduced ventral horn motor neurons in high-dose GA group; however, there was no significant difference between low-dose GA and control SCI group. In addition, proliferation test performed on lymphocytes from spleen and lymph nodes one week after SCI showed that high-dose GA injection has more significant effect on Division Index (DI) in response to MBP stimulation compared to low-dose GA and control SCI groups, which was associated with significant increase in IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A secretion. Conclusion: Along with confirmation of deleterious aspects of autoimmunity resulting from autoreactive lymphocytes against myelin antigens in SCI, this study has shown that high-dose immunotherapy using GA, especially in acute phase after SCI, overwhelms any neuroprotective effect of adoptive immune system.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Acetato de Glatiramer/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Proteína Básica da Mielina/imunologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Acetato de Glatiramer/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/imunologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 24(2): 461-467, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756293

RESUMO

The acute inflammatory response to active or passive activities that increase body temperature may aid to reduce chronic low-grade inflammation. This study investigates the impact of temperature and extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) on the acute intracellular Hsp72 (iHsp72) and interleukin-6 (iIL-6) response in monocytes. Whole blood was incubated for 2 h at 37.0 °C, 38.5 °C and 40.0 °C, in the absence or presence of 0.5 µg/ml eHsp72. Flow cytometry was used to assess iHsp72 and iIL-6 expression in total monocytes and the three monocyte subsets. Incubation at 40.0 °C (p < 0.001) but not 38.5 °C (p = 0.085) increased iHsp72 expression when compared with 37.0 °C, while there was no effect of temperature on iIL-6 expression (p = 0.635). Following incubation with eHsp72, the expression of iHsp72 in classical monocytes was reduced at all temperatures (p < 0.001), while there was no effect of eHsp72 on iIL-6 expression (p = 0.071). Large temperature elevations are needed to induce an acute iHsp72 response in monocytes. In addition, contrary to its suggested role as a danger signal for the innate immune system, eHsp72 reduced iHsp72 and iIL-6 expression in monocytes.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Adulto , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/farmacologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino
6.
Immunol Lett ; 207: 17-27, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625342

RESUMO

Sepsis is characterized by delayed acute phase response and lowered immune tolerance in patients. Acute phase serum proteins, like Haptoglobin (Hp), have been associated with increased mortality in bacteria mediated acute lung inflammation and sepsis in neonates. However, it's direct role in modulating the immune response by regulating pro-inflammatory mediators leading to immune tolerant state and if gender affects its expression levels during bacterial infection, especially in blood has not been fully explored. To understand its specific role in endotoxin-mediated immune response, we investigated the correlation between the rise in Hp levels on bacterial infection and its influence on the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in male and female Whole blood (WHB) and PBMCs. Here, we observed pathogen-specific and gender-specific expression of Hp. Gonadal steroid hormones differentially influenced the Hp expression in LPS-induced WHB, where the addition of Estrogen increased Hp expression, with suppression of TNFα, in both genders. Further on evaluating, the influence of Hp on TNFα expression in endotoxin tolerance (ET), we show that increased Hp levels directly reduced TNFα expression in ET models. Interestingly, blockade of secreted Hp significantly reversed the (ET) state, confirmed by a significant rise in TNFα expression in both ex vivo and in vitro ET models, indicating a possible feedback inhibition by Hp on inflammatory mediators like TNFα. We also investigated the role of PKCδ in the regulation of LPS induced secretion of acute phase proteins (Hp) in serum, where inhibition of PKCδ, reduced secretion of anti-microbial proteins in response to LPS shown by restored bacterial growth. These findings clearly highlight the crucial role of Hp in maintaining immune tolerance via suppressing the pro-inflammatory mediators and also in preventing bacterial proliferation in blood during infection.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Sepse/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Endotoxinas/imunologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Haptoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Testosterona/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Metab Brain Dis ; 34(2): 675-679, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637619

RESUMO

Peripheral viral infections are potent triggers of exacerbation in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we used a preclinical model of MS, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to corroborate this comorbidity in an experimental setting. EAE was induced by immunization of mice with MOG peptide, and paralysis was scored using a 5-point scale. At the onset of the chronic phase of the disease (Days 42-58 after MOG injection) the animals were divided into low responders (LR) and high responders (HR) with the mean score of 1.5 and 2.5, respectively. The acute phase response (APR) was induced by intraperitoneal injections of a viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC). Two daily injections were performed on Days 42 and 44 (PIC42,44 challenge) and on Days 54, 55 and 56 (PIC54,55,56 challenge). PIC42,44 challenge had no effect of EAE disease, whereas PIC54,55,56 challenge rapidly increased paralysis but only in HR group. This exacerbation ultimately led to animal death by Day 58. These results demonstrate that antiviral APR is a potent exacerbator of EAE, and that this activity directly correlates with the severity of the disease. This in turn, indicates that antiviral APR might play a pivot role in linking peripheral viral infections with MS exacerbations.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia
8.
Animal ; 13(1): 144-152, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921343

RESUMO

Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation products have been used to improve the performance of nursery pigs. However, research on the influence of this supplement on health is lacking. This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kg) were individually housed in stainless steel pens with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were weighed upon arrival, assigned to one of three groups (n=10/treatment), and fed for 18 days: (1) Control, fed a non-medicated starter diet; (2) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 1 kg/metric ton (SGX1) and (3) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 2 kg/metric ton (SGX2). On day 7 pigs were anesthetized for insertion of an i.p. temperature device, and similarly on day 14 for insertion of a jugular catheter. Pigs were challenged i.v. with LPS (25 µg/kg BW) on day 15. Blood samples were collected at 0.5 h (serum) and 1 h (complete blood cell counts) intervals from -2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to LPS administration at 0 h. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 7, 14 and 18. The supplemented pigs had increased BW and average daily gain before the challenge. In response to LPS, there was a greater increase in i.p. temperature in Control pigs compared with supplemented pigs. In addition, cortisol was reduced in SGX2 pigs while cortisol was elevated in SGX1 pigs at several time points post-challenge. White blood cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes were decreased in SGX1 and SGX2 compared with Control pigs. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cytokine response varied by treatment and dose of treatment. Specifically, serum TNF-α was greatest in SGX2, intermediate in Control, and least in SGX1 pigs, while the magnitude and temporal pattern of IFN-γ in SGX2 pigs was delayed and reduced. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were reduced in both SGX treatment groups compared with Control pigs. These data demonstrate that different supplementation feed inclusion rates produced differential responses, and that feeding SynGenX to weaned pigs attenuated the APR to an LPS challenge.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Lactobacillus acidophilus/química , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Reação de Fase Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fermentação , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia
9.
Nanotoxicology ; 12(10): 1198-1214, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422028

RESUMO

Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO-NPs) are widely used as clinical magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for hepatic diseases diagnosis. USPIO-NPs often damage the hepatocytes and affect the function of liver but its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, USPIO-NPs caused higher cytotoxicity and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage in hepatic L02 cells than SPIO-NPs. Subsequently, USPIO-NPs affected more genes' expression than SPIO-NPs analyzed through microarray and bioinformatics analysis. The affected genes were involved in several biological processes, including calcium ion homeostasis, inflammatory response-related leukocyte chemotaxis, and migration. In addition, the level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium ion was increased by USPIO-NPs. USPIO-NPs also upregulated the genes related to acute-phase inflammation, including IL1B, IL6, IL18, TNFSF12, TNFRSF12, SAA1, SAA2, JAK1, STAT5B, and CXCL14. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion was elevated by USPIO-NPs as detected using ELISA. On the other hand, USPIO-NPs changed the morphology of ER and triggered the ER stress and unfolded protein response PERK/ATF4 pathway. Furthermore, blocking ER stress with inhibitor or ATF4 small interfering RNA counteracted IL-6-related acute-phase inflammation and cytotoxicity caused by USPIO-NPs. Taken together, we found that the USPIO-NPs could trigger stronger IL-6-related acute-phase inflammation than SPIO-NPs in hepatocytes. We demonstrated, for the first time, that IL-6-related acute-phase inflammation caused by NPs was regulated by PERK/ATF4 signaling. The PERK/ATF4 pathway explored in this study could be a candidate for diagnostic and therapeutic target against NPs-induced liver injury and cytotoxicity, which would be helpful for USPIO-NPs medical application.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Meios de Contraste/toxicidade , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/toxicidade , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Tamanho da Partícula , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 121: 117-123, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390438

RESUMO

In neonatal period, lamb's immune system goes through rapid adaptation to the extra-uterine environment. Success of this process can influence the animal's future performance and, thus, the quantitative assessment of it would greatly benefit sheep producers. The current study was conducted to investigate the acute phase response (APR) (measured through serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and albumin (ALB)) in relation to later life growth (measured at 122 days of age), and naturally occurring Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in neonatal lambs grown in organic farm. Serum (n = 692) and faecal (n = 141) samples were collected from 269 lambs in their first 3 weeks of life. The ewes' colostrum (n = 181) SAA concentrations were positively associated with the lambs' serum SAA and Hp concentrations at 2 to 4 days of age. Hp and ALB concentrations at the second week of age were positively associated with the growth rate at 122 days of age. Lamb serum globulin (GLOB) concentrations and Cryptosporidium-positive faecal samples were negatively associated at the second and third weeks of life. These findings suggest the importance of interactions between the immune system and environmental factors at the second week of the lambs' lives and its association with future performance.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Ganho de Peso , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Colostro/química , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Giardia/fisiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Agricultura Orgânica , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 49(2): 361-370, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900796

RESUMO

Acute-phase reactants indicate inflammation and are increasingly used in veterinary medicine to indicate and to monitor progression of disease. Hemostasis and inflammation have interconnected pathophysiologic pathways and influence each other on different levels. This study established observed normal ranges for acute-phase reactants and for coagulation and thromboelastographic (TEG) parameters in 49 dromedary camels ( Camelus dromedarius) and assessed the response to chronic and acute inflammation. Chronically infected animals suffering from lymph abscessation due to Corynebacterium spp. had significantly higher concentrations of the acute-phase reactants haptoglobin ( P < 0.005) and fibrinogen ( P < 0.013) and an increased clot strength characterized by an increase of the TEG parameters MA ( P < 0.039), representing the maximum amplitude of the clot strengths, and G, the global clot strength ( P < 0.022), compared to healthy animals. When the acute-phase and hemostatic responses of 10 males receiving a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine and of 9 males that were surgically castrated over 7 days were studied, haptoglobin proved to be a minor positive acute-phase protein, with moderate levels in healthy animals. It increased significantly after both vaccination and castration and remained elevated 7 days postinsult. The negative reactant iron significantly decreased over the 7-day period after castration, whereas a similar decrease following vaccination lasted less than 3 days. Fibrinogen reacted as a positive, minor reactant, with a significant increase and a peak on days 3-5, with higher values seen after castration. Prothrombin time showed a slight shortening at days 5-7, and the TEG parameters MA and G showed significantly increased values, similar to fibrinogen. The acute-phase protein serum amyloid A showed poor repeatability, suggesting that the assay was not reliable.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Camelus , Infecções por Corynebacterium/veterinária , Hemostasia/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/microbiologia , Animais , Corynebacterium/fisiologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Masculino , Espanha
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 76: 305-315, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544770

RESUMO

The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1.2-fold change, p < 0.05): 25 protein spots were more abundant in warm-acclimated males and 22 were enriched in cold-acclimated males. The majority of differentially regulated proteins were associated with acute phase response signalling involved in: i) activation of the complement system (complement C3-H1), ii) neutralization of proteolytic enzymes (inter-alpha inhibitor H3, fetuin, serpinA1, antithrombin, alpha2-macroglobulin), iii) scavenging of free hemoglobin and radicals (haptoglobin, Wap65 kDa), iv) clot-formation (fibrinogen beta and alpha chain, T-kininogen) and v) the host's immune response modulation (ApoA1 and ApoA2). However, quite different sets of these proteins or proteoforms were involved in response to cold and warm temperatures. In addition, cold acclimation seems to be related to the proteins involved in lipid metabolism (apolipoproteins A and 14 kDa) and stress response (corticosteroid binding globulin). We discovered a strongly regulated protein Cap31 upon cold acclimation, which can serve as a potential blood biomarker of cold response in carp. These studies significantly extend our knowledge concerning mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation in poikilotherms.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/imunologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/imunologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Carpas/sangue , Carpas/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/veterinária , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/imunologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406276

RESUMO

Information about the acute phase proteins (APP) response in cats naturally infected with hemoplasmas and in cats co-infected with different species of hemoplasmas is lacking. This study evaluated serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and albumin in 48 cats naturally infected with hemoplasmas, including 25 with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and 23 co-infected with different hemoplasmas agents; and in 10 healthy control cats. Infected cats had significantly higher Hp and lower albumin than controls. Symptomatic cats had significantly higher SAA and Hp, and lower albumin than asymptomatic animals, and also than controls. Asymptomatic cats had significantly higher Hp than controls. Concentrations of APP were not significantly different between single infected and co-infected cats. According with these results, hemoplasmosis should be considered when alterations in APP are detected in diseased cats with compatible clinical signs. Furthermore, a subclinical infection should be considered in apparently healthy cats from endemic areas with increased Hp.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/análise , Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/análise , Masculino , Mycoplasma/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Albumina Sérica/análise , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 75: 41-47, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407612

RESUMO

A proteomic and biochemical approach was performed to assess the effects of an induced muscle injury on the haemolymph of bivalve molluscs. For this purpose, Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to puncture of adductor muscle for three consecutive days, and their haemolymph proteome was then compared to healthy animals using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify proteins that differed significantly in abundance. Those proteins were then subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and 6 proteins, namely myosin, tropomyosin, CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD), triosephosphate isomerase, EP protein and small heat shock protein were identified. SOD and tropomyosin changes were verified by spectrophotometric measurements and western blotting, respectively. As some of the proteins identified are related to muscular damage and oxidative stress, other biomarkers associated with these processes that can be evaluated by automatic biochemical assays were measured including troponin, creatine kinase (CK), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) for muscle damage, and SOD, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and esterase activity (EA) for oxidative stress. Significantly higher concentrations of troponin, CK, AST, and TEAC were observed in mussels after puncture, being also possible biomarkers of non-specific induced damage.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Mytilus/imunologia , Proteoma/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia
16.
J Anim Sci ; 96(4): 1474-1483, 2018 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471465

RESUMO

Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design. In addition, two animals were randomly and independently selected from each pen (16/dietary treatment) and used to measure fecal cortisol metabolite. Additionally, animals removed from the pen one (M1), two (M2), or three (M3) times and classified as morbid were bled in conjunction with a healthy control (H) removed at the same time and the serum analyzed for the same parameters. A quadratic response to time (P < 0.01) was detected for haptoglobin concentrations and for antibody titers for bovine viral diarrhea type 1 (BVD-I) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR; P < 0.01). Haptoglobin was lowest on arrival, highest on day 14, and similar to baseline levels by day 27. Titer levels for BVD-I and IBR were lowest on arrival, higher on day 14, and significantly higher on day 27. Titers for bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVD-II) responded linearly (P < 0.05) with lower levels on arrival and highest levels on day 27. Haptoglobin was elevated in morbid animals compared to healthy pen mates (P < 0.05). Titer levels for BVD-I and IBR were also higher in healthy animals compared to animals pulled for morbidity (P < 0.01). Fecal cortisol was higher on arrival than on day 14 (P < 0.05). Dietary treatment had no effect on any of the parameters investigated. In summary, high-energy receiving diets based on fermentable fiber from by-products can be fed to newly received growing cattle without negative effects on antibody production toward vaccines, inflammation, or overall stress. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations and titer levels for BVD-I and IBR viruses are higher in healthy animals compared to sick animals.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Ração Animal/análise , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/imunologia , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/imunologia , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/análise , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Haptoglobinas/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays
17.
Cardiovasc Res ; 114(2): 226-232, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206916

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation, induced by disease or experimental intervention, is well established to result in elevated levels of circulating triglycerides, and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), in most mammalian species. However, the relationship between inflammation and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations is less clear. Most reports indicate that systemic inflammation, as observed during sepsis or following high dose experimental endotoxaemia, lowers total, and LDL-C in man. However, isolated reports have suggested that certain inflammatory conditions are associated with increased LDL-C. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence that low-grade inflammation specifically of intestinal origin may be associated with increased serum LDL-C levels. Preliminary insights into potential mechanisms that may mediate these effects, including those connecting inflammation to trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE), are considered. We conclude that this evidence supports the potential downregulation of major mediators of TICE by inflammatory mediators in vitro and during intestinal inflammation in vivo. The TICE-inflammation axis therefore merits further study in terms of its potential to regulate serum LDL-C, and as a readily druggable target for hypercholesterolaemia.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Enterite/sangue , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Reação de Fase Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/microbiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/imunologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterócitos/imunologia , Enterócitos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Immunobiology ; 223(2): 171-177, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055564

RESUMO

Aminobisphosphonates (NBP) are used for treatment of metastatic bone disease. Frequently, patients undergoing NBP-treatment experience side-effects, known as acute phase response (APR), resulting from cytokine production by Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. As opposed to NBP, statins reduce intracellular phosphoantigen levels and prevent NBP-induced Vγ9Vδ2-T cell activation in vitro. We conducted a pilot study in patients with (bone-)metastasized malignancies receiving NBP-treatment and evaluated the phenotype and function of circulating Vγ9Vδ2-T cells in vivo and the effects of statins on Vγ9Vδ2-T cell responses and the associated APR. We observed reduced expression of perforin, granzyme B and HLA-DR on Vγ9Vδ2-T cells in patients treated with NBP and statins. However, statins could not prevent NBP-induced changes in circulating Vγ9Vδ2-T cell numbers or production of IFNγ and TNFα. Consistent with this, simvastatin could not prevent the occurrence of APR upon NBP-infusion. These observations call for the exploration of alternative strategies to prevent collateral APR upon NBP treatment.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/química , Feminino , Granzimas/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perforina/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos
19.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 79: 51-58, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056547

RESUMO

Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein that is expressed rapidly in response to infection and inflammation in vertebrates. Here, we detected the expression of porcine SAA3, an isoform of porcine SAA, during porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, which is a major threat to the pig industry. In response to PRRSV infection, porcine SAA3 expression was upregulated significantly in porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages and in extrahepatic tissues, including the lungs and inguinal, mandibular, and hilar lymph nodes, which were affected mainly by PRRSV infection, demonstrating that porcine SAA3 is a tissue-derived isoform that is induced in extrahepatic tissues during the acute phase response. Overexpression of porcine SAA3 increased PRRSV titers in cultured cells, and the exogenous administration of porcine SAA3 facilitated PRRSV adsorption to cells, suggesting that porcine SAA3 assists PRRSV replication. Our data provide insights into the role of porcine SAA3 during PRRSV infection.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Suínos , Replicação Viral
20.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 31(4): 985-989, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254303

RESUMO

Many studies have been carried out in order to determine the toxicity of medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to compare and analyze the hepatic response against two doses of Nerium oleander, (N. oleander) “kaner” leaf decoction. Aqueous leaf decoction was injected intramuscularly into both hind limbs of male rats (200∓10g), assigned into three categories (n=4): control group with no treatment; group I, injected with 5 ml/ kg; and group II injected with 10 ml/ kg of leaf decoction, respectively. Animals were sacrificed 6 h after administration and hepato-histological changes were then observed. The decoction induced an acute phase reaction reflected by a more significant recruitment of inflammatory cells in group II than in group I and controls, as observed by histological studies. These results indicated that both doses can induce an acute-phase condition. Hence, traditional practice of medicinal plants without preliminary dose assessment must not be administered.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nerium/química , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Folhas de Planta/química , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Ectodisplasinas/imunologia , Ectodisplasinas/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Injeções Intramusculares , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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