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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e000920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667500

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the presence and identify the species of haemosporidian parasites in eared doves (Zenaida auriculata) in Brazil. Two hundred and eleven male and female eared doves were trap-captured in four different regions of Londrina city, in southern Brazil. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes through heart puncture after euthanasia in a CO2 chamber. A nested PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. was performed, followed by an enzymatic digestion to identify the genus. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine the closely related species. Out of 211 eared doves, 209 (99.05%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. and/or Plasmodium spp. RFLP analysis showed that 72.72% (152/209) of eared doves were positive only for Haemoproteus spp., 6.22% (13/209) were positive only for Plasmodium spp., and 21.05% (44/209) of eared doves had mixed infections. Genetic analysis found four samples that were homologous with Haemoproteus multipigmentatus and one that was homologous with Plasmodium sp. This is the first molecular study of hemoparasites from eared doves in Brazil, and it is also the first description of H. multipigmentatus and Plasmodium spp. infection in eared doves in Brazil.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Doenças das Aves , Columbidae , Plasmodium , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Columbidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107956, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659234

RESUMO

The species name Cryptosporidium bollandi n. sp. is proposed for Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 2 based on morphological, biological and molecular characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA (18S) sequences revealed that C. bollandi n. sp. was most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (5.1% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances of 10.0%, 12.2% and 25.2% from Cryptosporidium molnari, Cryptosporidium huwi and Cryptosporidium scophthtalmi, respectively. At the actin locus, C. bollandi n. sp. was again most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (6.8% genetic distance) and exhibited 15.5% (C. molnari), 18.4% (C. huwi), 22.9% (C. scophthalmi) and up to 27.5% genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. (Cryptosporidium felis). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences showed that C. bollandi n. sp. exhibited 12.9% (C. molnari) to 21.1% (C. canis) genetic distance from all other Cryptosporidium spp. Genetic data as well as previous histological analysis clearly supports the validity of C. bollandi n. sp. as a separate species.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Actinas/química , Actinas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Genótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/química , Washington/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2955-2963, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647992

RESUMO

Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, and a recently reported new species, T. haneyi. Infections by these apicomplexan parasites limit performance and cause economic losses for the horse industry. Equine piroplasmosis is widespread in the northern regions of Nigeria, where an increasing portion of the animal population is composed of horses. This disease has remained epidemiologically challenging, especially as the movement of horses increases across Nigeria. In this study, blood samples from 300 horses were collected in three states of northwestern Nigeria. The presence of piroplasms was screened by nested PCR targeting 18S rDNA and positive samples were analyzed using species-specific-nested PCR-targeting genes including ema1 (T. equi), rap1 (B. caballi), and a gene coding a protein of unknown function (T. haneyi). Species-specific-nPCR results demonstrated that the prevalence of T. equi was 13.0% (39/300), B. caballi was 3.3% (10/300) and T. haneyi was 2.7% (8/300). Mixed infections with T. equi and B. caballi was 2.7% (8/300) while T. equi, B. caballi, and T. haneyi multiple infection prevalence was 0.6% (2/300). We used 18S rDNA sequences to determine close relationships between T. equi by phylogenetic analysis and demonstrated that among 57 sequences of Theileria parasites, 28 samples belonged to clade A (49%), 13 samples were found to be clade C (22%), and 16 were clade D (28%). These results demonstrate the genetic diversity of T. equi circulating in horses from Nigeria.


Assuntos
Babesiose/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Theileriose/diagnóstico , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Theileria/genética , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
4.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(8): 487-493, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report PCR results and vaccination status of rabbits with rabbit haemorrhagic disease following an investigation into sudden or unexpected death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PCR testing for RHDV2 and RHDV1 was performed on rabbit liver samples at two laboratories. Laboratory A reported results as positive or negative; Laboratory B reported results quantitatively as RNA copies per mg liver, categorised as negative, inconclusive or positive. The vaccination status of rabbits with both histopathological features of rabbit haemorrhagic disease and positive PCR test results were collated. RESULTS: PCR results matched histopathological findings in 188 of 195 (96%) cases. Seven individuals showed equivocal results, all of which had histopathological features of RHD but three tested PCR-negative and four results conflicted between laboratories. RHDV2 was the serotype detected in all PCR-positive cases. Histological features of rabbit haemorrhagic disease and PCR test results were positive in 125 rabbits; 51 unvaccinated, 56 in-date with Nobivac Myxo-RHD and 13 vaccinated against RHDV2 - although nine of these were vaccinated within 10 days of death. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: PCR testing complements histopathology in cases of sudden death in rabbits by confirming the diagnosis and identifying virus serotype, but there can be false negatives. Although RHDV2 is currently prevalent in UK pet rabbits, vaccination against both RHDV1 and RHDV2 is recommended. Failures of RHDV2 vaccine are infrequent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Coelhos , Reino Unido , Vacinação/veterinária
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e003520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520088

RESUMO

Blood samples and swabs from ocular conjunctiva and mouth were obtained from 64 cats. Of 64 serum samples, 19 were positive for Leishmania antibodies by ELISA (29.80%). Eight cats were positive by PCR (12.5%) in swab samples from mouth and/or ocular mucosa. Poor kappa agreement between serological and molecular results (k = 0.16) was obtained. From five positive PCR samples one was L. braziliensis and four were L. infantum. Phylogenetic analysis performed with the five isolates of Leishmania, showed that samples of L. infantum isolated from the cats were phylogenetically close to those isolated from domestic dogs in Brazil, while the L. braziliensis is very similar to the one described in humans in Venezuela. The study demonstrated that, despite high seropositivity for Leishmania in cats living in the study region, poor agreement between serological and molecular results indicate that positive serology is not indicative of Leishmania infection in cats. Parasite DNA can be detected in ocular conjunctiva and oral swabs from cats, indicating that such samples could be used for diagnosis. Results of phylogenetic analyzes show that L. infantum circulating in Brazil is capable of infecting different hosts, demonstrating the parasite's ability to overcome the interspecies barrier.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
6.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(5): 908-919, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567274

RESUMO

A multiplex PCR method was developed to detect the main pathogens of Qinghai Tibetan sheep endometritis. First, the genomes of five standard bacterial strains were extracted and specific primers were selected; the multiplex PCR method was established by using the genome of the standard strain as a template. The samples were collected by sterile cotton swab from Tibetan sheep uterus, and then placed in LB medium and numbered. After 48 h, the genomes of cultured bacteria were extracted and detected by single PCR method, then the positive samples were recorded. The positive samples detected by single PCR were selected for multiplex PCR detection and recorded again. The coincidence rate between these two methods was calculated to measure the accuracy of multiplex PCR. In order to identify the species of the pathogen, 30 positive samples verified by single and multiplex PCR were randomly selected for bacterial isolation and identification. In the 600 samples, the infected ratio of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) was 47.33%, Escherichia coli 34.83%, Staphylococcus aureus 6.5%, Salmonella and Trueperella pyogenes were negatively detected. Among the positive samples detected by multiplex PCR, the positive ratio of GBS was 45.50%, E. coli 33.50%, S. aureus 6.5%. Comparison of two detection results, Multiplex PCR detection coincidence rate is more than 95%. The isolated pathogens were identified as E. coli, GBS and S. aureus, which was consistent with the results of two methods. The multiplex PCR method was successfully established and the main pathogens of endometritis in Qinghai Tibetan sheep were GBS, E. coli and S. aureus.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Endometrite , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Endometrite/microbiologia , Endometrite/veterinária , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Tibet
7.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e40, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476314

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the high-level mupirocin resistance (HLMR) in Gram-positive bacteria isolated from companion animals. A total of 931 clinical specimens were collected from diseased pets. The detection of mupirocin-resistant bacteria and plasmid-mediated mupirocin resistance genes were evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility tests, polymerase chain reactions, and sequencing analysis. Four-hundred and six (43.6%) bacteria were isolated and 17 (4.2%), including 14 staphylococci and 3 Corynebacterium were high-level mupirocin-resistant (MICs, ≥ 1,024 ug/mL) harboring mupA. Six staphylococci of HLMR strains had plasmid-mediated mupA-IS257 flanking regions. The results show that HLMR bacteria could spread in veterinary medicine in the near future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Immunogenetics ; 72(5): 325-332, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488290

RESUMO

Described here is a new, more efficient method for defining major histocompatibility complex-Y (MHC-Y) genotypes in chickens. The MHC-Y region is genetically independent from the classical MHC (MHC-B) region. MHC-Y is highly polymorphic and potentially important in the genetics of disease resistance. MHC-Y haplotypes contain variable numbers of specialized MHC class I-like genes, along with members of four additional gene families. Previously, MHC-Y haplotypes were defined by patterns of restriction fragments (RF) generated in labor-intensive procedures that were difficult to use to define MHC-Y genotypes for large numbers of samples. The method reported here is much simpler. MHC-Y genotypes are distinguished via patterns of PCR products generated from heritable short tandem repeat (STR) regions found immediately upstream of the MHC class I-like genes located throughout MHC-Y haplotypes. To validate the method, fully pedigreed families were analyzed for STR-defined haplotypes in light of haplotypes defined previously by RF patterns. STR-defined MHC-Y patterns segregate in fully pedigreed families as expected and correspond with haplotypes assigned by RF patterns. The patterns provided in STR chromatograms generated by capillary electrophoresis are distinct for different haplotypes and can be scored easily. Investigations into the influence of MHC-Y genetics on immune responses can now realistically be conducted with large sample sets.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Família Multigênica/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 395-399, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556163

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in cats, rats, and chickens in the border areas of Yunnan Province. A total of 259 samples was collected from 10 border areas in Yunnan Province including 94 cats, 58 rats, and 107 chickens. Samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and the positive products were analyzed by multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the genotypes. Toxoplasma gondii deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected from 15.96% of 94 cats, 15.52% of 58 rats, and 6.54% of 107 chickens, respectively, and the average infection rate is 11.97%. Using the multilocus PCR-RFLP, we found that the genotype of T. gondii in cats and rats was ToxoDB#9. Because of low DNA concentration, no genotype was determined from chickens. These results fill the gaps of knowledge in the prevalence and genotype of T. gondii in the border areas of Yunnan Province and have implications for the better control of T. gondii infection in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2813-2819, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583163

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can inhabit in the gastrointestinal tract of various hosts. Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep may pose a threat to the survival and productivity, causing considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. However, it is yet to know whether black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China are infected with Cryptosporidium. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in Yunnan province, China. A total of 590 fecal samples were obtained from black-boned goats and black-boned sheep from five counties in Yunnan province, and the prevalence and species distribution of Cryptosporidium were determined by amplification of the 18S rDNA fragment using the nested PCR. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence was 13.2% (78/590), with 18.0% (55/305) in black-boned goats and 8.1% (23/285) in black-boned sheep. The age and sampling site were identified as main factors that result in significant differences in Cryptosporidium prevalence. Three species, namely C. muris, C. xiaoi, and C. ubiquitum, were identified in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in the present study, with C. muris (46/78) as the predominant species. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China, and the findings will facilitate better understanding, prevention, and control of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos/parasitologia
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2821-2828, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594238

RESUMO

Horses might play an important role as reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, which is one of the most important zoonotic microsporidian pathogens, with a wide range of hosts. Nevertheless, limited information is available on the infection rates and genotypes of E. bieneusi in horses, and no data are available on the occurrence and molecular characteristics of E. bieneusi in horses in Turkey. We determined the prevalence of E. bieneusi among horses raised on farms from two provinces of Central Anatolia Region, by amplification of the partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using nested PCR. We identified the genotypes of E. bieneusi isolates by analyzing the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi was 18.7% (56/300), with no significant differences in infection rates among age groups or between genders of horses. Sequence analysis revealed eight genotypes: two known genotypes (ERUSS1, BEB6) and six novel genotypes (named ERUH2 to ERUH7). The genotype ERUSS1 was the most common and was found on all farms, age groups, and genders. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all the identified genotypes in ruminant-specific group 2. Our findings contribute to the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Cavalos/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia
12.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 425-444, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451034

RESUMO

When it is desired to identify infectious agents involved in an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease, a variety of possible sampling methods may be used. For field use, the deep nasopharyngeal swab, transtracheal wash, and nonendoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage are most feasible. At present, bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction testing are most commonly used to identify infectious agents. Interpretation of test results can be challenging, particularly for opportunistic pathogens. Evidence-based guidelines for precise interpretation of microbiologic tests results are lacking; however, approaches that have been practically useful for the management of bovine respiratory disease outbreaks are presented.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/diagnóstico , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/genética , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/microbiologia , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Bovinos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 463-466, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404029

RESUMO

A juvenile raccoon (Procyon lotor) was submitted dead to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for rabies testing without history. The animal had marked hypoplasia of the cerebellum. Histology demonstrated that most folia lacked granule cells and had randomly misplaced Purkinje cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of parvoviral antigen in a few neurons and cell processes. PCR targeting feline and canine parvovirus yielded a positive signal. Sequencing analyses from a fragment of the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) gene and a portion of the viral capsid protein 2 (VP2) gene confirmed the presence of DNA of a recent canine parvovirus variant (CPV-2a-like virus) in the cerebellum. Our study provides evidence that (canine) parvovirus may be associated with cerebellar hypoplasia and dysplasia in raccoons, similar to the disease that occurs naturally and has been reproduced experimentally by feline parvoviral infection of pregnant cats, with subsequent intrauterine or neonatal infections of the offspring.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anormalidades , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Guaxinins/virologia , Animais , Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/virologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/virologia , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e017119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294720

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterize the importance of the Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in the genesis of cattle tick fever (CTF) among dairy calves in the northwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 300 calves were collected, followed by DNA extraction and nested PCR using oligonucleotide primers to amplify fragments of the semi-nested for the msp5 gene (A. marginale), sbp-4 (B. bovis) and rap-1a (B. bigemina) Among the examined calves, the prevalence of A. marginale was 55.6% (n=167/300), B. bovis was 4.0% (n=12/300) and B. bigemina was 15.3% (n=46/300), by PCR techniques. Parasitic forms of A. marginale and B. bigemina were found in 36,3% and 2,6% of the blood smears while B. bovis was not detected. There was a statistical difference between the positivity of infected animals in the age groups 1 (10-70 days) and (>70-300 days) for A. marginale and B. bigemina. A total of 15 calves with the classic symptoms of disease were examined, and the samples obtained were confirmed as a simple infection by A. marginale through semi-nested PCR. These results confirm bovine anaplasmosis as the primary cause of CTF among the calves of dairy cattle within the studied area.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/genética , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
15.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(2): 103-110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282314

RESUMO

To diagnose dogs infected by Leishmania infantum rK39 rapid diagnosis test is widely used in the Americas, while dual path platform (DPP) was recently adopted by Brazil. In this study we assessed the performance of rK39-RDT and DPP tests in recent urban transmission scenarios of Argentina. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated with a sera panel and field samples, taken as true infected those from parasitological and/or PCR positive tests. Since none of these tests can be taken as a gold standard, the performance was also evaluated using Latent Class Analysis, a statistical modeling technique which allows to estimating sensitivity and specificity defining a latent class variable as the reference standard. The sensitivity of both tests in the panel was around 92% (symptomatic dogs 96%, asymptomatic 83%), while the sensitivity in field samples of rK39-RDT was 77%, and DPP 98% (mean in symptomatic dogs 89%, asymptomatic 82%). The specificity was similar for both tests and samples, around 98%. Therefore, these tests are acceptable for program dog population-based studies, as spatial stratification, focus intervention and follow up, and they could be used for individual screening and confirmation of clinical presumptive diagnosis in polysymptomatic dogs. The inability to discriminate between immunity and actual infectiousness suggest that a combination with other non-immunological based tests will be required for highly sensitive/specific diagnosis in order to targeting control measures in individual reservoirs from public health perspective, as for individual management from animal health perspective.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Arch Razi Inst ; 75(1): 39-46, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292001

RESUMO

The present study was conducted as the first molecular detection of Anaplasma species in tick samples based on the sequencing of major surface proteins 4 (msp4) gene fragments in different parts of Iran. A total of 130 tick specimens were collected from Hormozgan, Lorestan, and Guilan, Iran, within 2015 to 2017. Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) species were identified in different geographical regions. An amplicon of 464-bp msp4 of Anaplasma was amplified using polymerase chain reaction in various tick species. Three sequences, including one Anaplasma marginale from R. (Boophilus) species and two Anaplasma ovis from Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were obtained after sequencing. It is concluded that bovine and ovine anaplasmosis agents are present in tick samples in Iran. The use of the gene families of six major surface proteins for the detection of various Anaplasma species is recommended.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma ovis/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 394-400, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274974

RESUMO

We developed a model to predict the cyclic pattern of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA detection by reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) from 4 major swine-centric veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States and to use historical data to forecast the upcoming year's weekly percentage of positive submissions and issue outbreak signals when the pattern of detection was not as expected. Standardized submission data and test results were used. Historical data (2015-2017) composed of the weekly percentage of PCR-positive submissions were used to fit a cyclic robust regression model. The findings were used to forecast the expected weekly percentage of PCR-positive submissions, with a 95% confidence interval (CI), for 2018. During 2018, the proportion of PRRSV-positive submissions crossed 95% CI boundaries at week 2, 14-25, and 48. The relatively higher detection on week 2 and 48 were mostly from submissions containing samples from wean-to-market pigs, and for week 14-25 originated mostly from samples from adult/sow farms. There was a recurring yearly pattern of detection, wherein an increased proportion of PRRSV RNA detection in submissions originating from wean-to-finish farms was followed by increased detection in samples from adult/sow farms. Results from the model described herein confirm the seasonal cyclic pattern of PRRSV detection using test results consolidated from 4 VDLs. Wave crests occurred consistently during winter, and wave troughs occurred consistently during the summer months. Our model was able to correctly identify statistically significant outbreak signals in PRRSV RNA detection at 3 instances during 2018.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Estações do Ano , Suínos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 369-381, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306863

RESUMO

Microcystis is a widespread freshwater cyanobacterium that can produce microcystin, a potent hepatotoxin harmful to animals and humans. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor for the presence of toxigenic Microcystis spp. to provide early warning of potential microcystin contamination. Microscopy, which has been used traditionally to identify Microcystis spp., cannot differentiate toxigenic from non-toxigenic Microcystis. We developed a PCR-based method to detect toxigenic Microcystis spp. based on detection of the microcystin synthetase C (mcyC) gene and 16S rRNA gene. Specificity was validated against toxic and nontoxic M. aeruginosa strains, as well as 4 intergeneric freshwater cyanobacterial strains. Analytical sensitivity was as low as 747 fg/µL genomic DNA (or 3 cells/µL) for toxic M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, we tested 60 water samples from 4 farm ponds providing drinking water to swine facilities in the midwestern United States using this method. Although all water samples were positive for Microcystis spp. (i.e., 16S rRNA gene), toxigenic Microcystis spp. were detected in only 34 samples (57%). Seventeen water samples contained microcystin (0.1-9.1 µg/L) determined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, of which 14 samples (82%) were positive for mcyC. A significant correlation was found between the presence of toxigenic Microcystis spp. and microcystin in water samples (p = 0.0004). Our PCR method can be a low-cost molecular tool for rapid and specific identification of toxigenic Microcystis spp. in farm ponds, improving detection of microcystin contamination, and ensuring water safety for farm animals.


Assuntos
Microcistinas/isolamento & purificação , Microcystis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Tanques/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Eutrofização , Fazendas , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
19.
Vet Ital ; 56(1)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343093

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an intracellular and extracytoplasmic protozoan that belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. In this observational study, fecal samples were randomly collected from 800 dairy cattle, in 10 industrial dairy farms in Mashhad, Iran (from 2011 to 2015 years). The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was determined by modified cold Ziehl­Neelsen's staining. Results of microscopy observation showed that 23 samples (2.87%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocyst. Twenty two samples were confirmed by PCR. The identification of Cryptosporidium andersoni was determined by restriction digestions of PCR products, using SspI, VspI, and DdeI enzymes. Differences between healthy and diarrheic groups as well as between age groups were not observed.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 486-489, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242771

RESUMO

A 2-y-old Brahman bull was presented with progressive hindlimb ataxia and paraparesis that led to recumbency. Postmortem examination revealed scattered pinpoint, red-brown foci within the brainstem and gray matter of the spinal cord, and a larger lesion within the spinal cord at the level of T13. Histology of the section of T13 contained cross-sections of nematodes consistent with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Evidence of inflammation was present in other affected areas of the spinal cord and brain. DNA extraction and nested PCR were performed, which demonstrated 98% identity and 100% coverage to both P. tenuis and P. andersoni. Our case highlights the utility of DNA sequencing in parasite identification.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Ataxia/veterinária , Encéfalo/patologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Medula Espinal/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
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