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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 129-134, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056410

RESUMO

Menopause complications such as cardiovascular and bone diseases represent a major public health concern. We sought to determine whether a high-fat diet (HFD) can augment ovariectomy-induced bone resorption in a rat model of menopause possibly via the upregulation of the inflammatory biomarkers and dyslipidemia. Rats were either ovariectomized and fed a standard laboratory chow (model group) or were ovariectomized and fed with a HFD for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. Ovariectomy significantly (p<0.05) increased body weight, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and biomarker of bone resorption, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), which were augmented by feeding animals with a HFD. This was confirmed through immunohistochemical study, where ovariectomy induced expression of p65/NF-kB protein in tibia bone sections of the model group, which were augmented by HFD. HFD augments ovariectomy-induced bone resorption through increased inflammatory biomarkers and NF-kB in rats.


Las complicaciones de la menopausia, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares y óseas, representan un importante problema de salud pública. Intentamos determinar si una dieta alta en grasas (HFD) puede aumentar la resorción ósea inducida por ovariectomía en un modelo de menopausia en ratas, a través de la regulación positiva de los biomarcadores inflamatorios y la dislipidemia. Las ratas fueron ovariectomizadas y alimentadas con una comida estándar de laboratorio (grupo modelo) o fueron ovariectomizadas y alimentadas con un HFD durante 15 semanas antes de ser sacrificadas. La ovariectomía aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) el peso corporal, dislipidemia, resistencia a la insulina, citocinas proinflamatorias, factor de necrosis tumoral a (TNF-α) e interleucina-6 (IL-6), y el biomarcador de resorción ósea, factor nuclear-kB (NF-kB), que se aumentaron alimentando animales con un HFD. Esto se confirmó a través del estudio inmunohistoquímico, donde la ovariectomía indujo la expresión de la proteína p65 / NF-kB en secciones de hueso de tibia del grupo modelo, que fueron aumentadas por HFD. HFD aumenta la resorción ósea inducida por ovariectomía a través del aumento de biomarcadores inflamatorios y NF-kB en ratas.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/análise , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Menopausa , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/complicações
2.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(2): 141-144, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020289

RESUMO

Androgen deprivation therapy and aromatase inhibitors are known to cause a decrease in bone mineral density and an increase in fractures. Patients receiving these treatments have been shown to have a fracture risk equal to or greater than that of patients with osteoporosis with prevalent fractures. This manual was created to prevent fractures in patients with cancer treatment-induced bone loss with high fracture risks who cannot be treated under the current Japanese guideline for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. This manual recommends drug treatment for patients with BMD - 2.0 ≤ T score < - 1.5 with the family history of hip fracture or 15% or more 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures by FRAX®; or in patients with BMD T score < - 2.0. It is important to verify whether the use of this manual can reduce fractures and improve the quality of life of patients with cancer treatment-induced bone loss by prospective studies.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Sociedades Médicas , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
3.
Life Sci ; 244: 117336, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972206

RESUMO

AIMS: Postmenopausal osteoporosis and other osteolytic bone diseases are often caused by the elevation in osteoclastogenesis and/or increased osteoclastic bone resorption, leading to excessive bone loss. Hederagenin (Hed) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin extracted from various natural medicinal plants and exhibits numerous biological activities and may offer benefits against bone-related conditions. We evaluated the effects of Hed on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro and the in vivo therapeutic benefits in the mouse model of ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. MAIN METHODS: In vitro, osteoclast formation were determined by TRAcp staining; bone resorption were examined using Hydroxyapatite resorption assay and Podosomal actin belt formation assay; Related molecular mechanisms were determined by western blot assay. Construction of OVX mice by bilateral oophorectomy to simulate bone loss in vivo. KEY FINDINGS: In vitro cellular assays showed that Hed inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and osteoclast bone (hydroxyapatite) resorption as well as marker gene expression from BMM culture. Mechanistically, Hed attenuated RANKL-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and MAPK signaling pathway (ERK and p38) activation which curbed the downstream induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. Consistent with the in vitro findings, Hed administration effectively protected OVX mice from bone loss by reducing osteoclast number and activity on bone surface. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provided promising evidence for the potential use of Hederagenin in the treatment of osteoclast-mediated osteolytic bone diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Ligante RANK/genética , Transdução de Sinais
4.
World Neurosurg ; 136: e407-e418, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) and anterior bone loss (ABL) are 2 complications in cervical disc replacement (CDR), which have impacts on the clinical outcomes. Physiologically, bone formation (HO) and bone loss are 2 sides of bone remodeling. However, clinically, some patients experienced anterior HO (AHO) after CDR, whereas other patients experienced ABL. Is there any factor in determining the fate of the vertebral bone in the anterior region? Is ABL the opposite of AHO? This study aims to answer these questions. METHODS: Seventy patients with 1-level Prestige-LP CDR were retrospectively reviewed and were divided into an AHO group or ABL group. Radiologic outcomes, including cervical lordosis, sagittal vertical axis, functional spine unit angle, disc angle, range of motion, implant migration, subsidence, and adjacent segment degeneration were evaluated. Patient-reported clinical outcomes were also evaluated. RESULTS: AHO group showed significantly lower disc angle after surgery (0.9° ± 4.2°), compared with ABL group (6.7° ± 4.7°) (P < 0.001). The preoperative segmental range of motion was significantly higher in the AHO group (10.2° ± 3.3°) than in the ABL group (8.2° ± 3.7°) (P = 0.042). No correlation was observed between clinical outcomes and the presence of anterior bone remodeling. Both groups maintained cervical alignment and functional spine unit angle during long-term follow-up. No significant difference was found in the end plate preparation, implant subsidence, migration, or adjacent segment degeneration rate between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in the disc angle showed the role of mechanical load in the anterior bone remodeling. Combined the results with the basic concepts of bone remodeling, ABL may be the opposite of AHO.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Ossificação Heterotópica/etiologia , Substituição Total de Disco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lordose/etiologia , Lordose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ossificação Heterotópica/fisiopatologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: One of the common complications occurring after cranioplasty (CP) is aseptic bone-flap resorption (ABFR). Reoperation necessary because of the development of ABFR can lead to unfavorable complications during subsequent surgery using a synthetic skull implant, and also necessarily leads to higher costs. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic factors that may help to predict the development of ABFR. METHODS: In this study, 303 CP surgeries performed between 2002 and 2017 were examined retrospectively to identify factors predicting the occurrence of ABFR. A number of these factors (e.g., time lapse between decompressive craniectomy (DC) and CP, bone-flap size, specific laboratory signs, and the reason for the original DC) were analyzed as possibly influencing the risk of developing ABFR. RESULTS: ABFR of an autologous bone flap that subsequently required a CP with synthetic skull implants occurred in 10 of 303 patients (3.0%). CP timing and patients' Karnofsky Performance Scores (KPS) (p = 0.008; p = 0.012) were identified as significant factors with an impact on the development of ABRF. Age did not reveal a significant value, but statistical analysis shows a clear trend. The younger the age, the more likely it was that an ABFR would develop. CONCLUSION: The risk of ABFR lessens the longer the period of time elapsed between DC and CP. Age does not reveal a significant value, but statistical analysis shows that there is a clear trend.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/epidemiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reabsorção Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
6.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 80: 102369, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677454

RESUMO

People with sickle cell disease often report severe bone pain with repeated bouts of vaso-occlusive crises, but the extent of skeletal injury incurred during these painful episodes remain unclear. We sought to quantify bone degradation by comparing urinary concentrations of carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1), a well-described marker of bone resorption, in a prospective cohort of 52 adults with sickle cell disease enrolled in the Sickle Cell Pain Markers Study. We also questioned if changes in urinary CTX-1 concentrations correlated with changes in hemolysis and inflammatory markers measured both during and after resolution of a painful vaso-occlusive episode. Thirty-one of the 52 adults enrolled in the study had paired urine samples for CTX-1 analysis. Urinary CTX-1, corrected for urine creatinine, significantly decreased from a mean of 3.45 µg/mmol during vaso-occlusive crises to 2.62 µg/mmol at recovery (p = 0.01). Thus, increased bone loss appears to correlate with acute vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease. Our finding that urinary CTX-1 can be used to probe bone degradation in sickle cell disease provides an important new tool for diagnosing and monitoring response to therapy for people with sickle cell-related bone loss.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/urina , Biomarcadores , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/urina , Colágeno Tipo I/urina , Dor/etiologia , Peptídeos/urina , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 32(1): 105-116, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685348

RESUMO

Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR), alternatively called progressive condylar resorption, is an uncommon aggressive form of degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint seen mostly in adolescent and young women. ICR occurring before the completion of growth results in a shorter mandibular condyloid process, ramus and body, compensatory growth at the gonial angle and coronoid process, as well as an increase in anterior facial vertical dimension. Management options discussed include oral appliances, orthodontics, medical management, orthognathic surgery with and without disc repositioning, and alloplastic temporomandibular joint replacement.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Côndilo Mandibular/cirurgia , Ortodontia Corretiva , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/cirurgia , Adolescente , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Côndilo Mandibular/patologia , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Articulação Temporomandibular
8.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 61(2): 36-40, nov. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095356

RESUMO

La osteonecrosis de los maxilares asociada a bifosfonatosfuedefinida como «Área de hueso expuesto en la región máxilo facial que permanece expuesta al menos por 8 semanas, siempre que los pacientes hayan sido prescriptos con bifosfonatos, y en ausencia de terapia radiante¼. (1) En la actualidad se agregó "hueso expuesto o hueso que se puede sondear a través de una fistula intra o extra oral" (2). Presentamos un caso clínico de una paciente femenina de 70 años de edad, diagnosticada con cáncer de hueso (osteosarcoma) con foco en la pelvis, historia de consumo de bifosfonatosvía endovenosa durante tres años, zolendronato 70mg, semanalmente. Al momento de la consulta, se encontraba en periodo de remisión de la enfermedad de base y sin consumo de medicación antiresortiva desde hace un año (AU)


Osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with bisphosphonates was defined as «Area of exposed bone in the maxillofacial region that remains exposed for at least 8 weeks, provided that patients have been prescribed with bisphosphonates, and in the absence of radiant therapy¼. (1) At present, "exposed bone or bone that can be probed through an intra or extra oral fistula" was added (2). We present a clinical case of a 70-year-old female patient, diagnosed with bone cancer (osteosarcoma) with a focus on the pelvis, history of consumption of bisphosphonates intravenously for three years, zolendronate 70 mg, weekly. At the time of the consultation, he was in the period of remission of the underlying disease and without consumption of antiresortive medication for a year (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Unidade Hospitalar de Odontologia , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; 233(12): 1299-1309, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617814

RESUMO

The effect of dental implant parameters, length and diameter, and thread parameters consisting of thread depth, width, pitch and inner angle on Max von-Mises stress in implant-abutment and cancellous bone is investigated. A three-dimensional finite element model of a threaded dental implant and mandibular segment is built. Face-centered central composite design is applied as the design of experiments method to study and optimize the six independent variable parameters at three levels by applying response surface methodology. The simultaneous analysis of these parameters is run to obtain a better perspective on their effects on responses. The effects of linear, square, and interactive terms on responses through Pareto, main effects, and interaction plots are determined through analysis of variance. A second-order polynomial equation is fitted to the model to predict the response magnitude. The results indicate that implant diameter and its interaction with thread depth are effective in decreasing the likelihood of bone resorption. The implant length affects the Max von-Mises stress in implant-abutment, with no effect on the Max von-Mises stress in cancellous bone. The optimization process caused about 10% and 30% reduction in the magnitude of Max von-Mises stress in implant-abutment and cancellous bone, respectively.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Estatística como Assunto , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Prótese , Estresse Mecânico
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7839-7849, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576127

RESUMO

Background: Nobiletin (NOB), a polymethoxy flavonoid, possesses anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, has been reported that it played role in anti-osteoporosis treatment. However, previous research did not focus on practical use due to lack of hydrophilicity and cytotoxicity at high concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a therapeutic formulation for osteoporosis based on the utilization of NOB. Methods: In this study, NOB-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(e-caprolactone) (NOB-PEG-PCL) was prepared by dialysis method. The effects on osteoclasts and anti-osteoporosis functions were investigated in a RANKL-induced cell model and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Results: Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy examination results revealed that the NOB-PEG-PCL had a round shape, with a mean diameter around 124 nm. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 76.34±3.25% and 7.60±0.48%, respectively. The in vitro release of NOB from NOB-PEG-PCL showed a remarkably sustained releasing characteristic and could be retained at least 48 hrs in pH 7.4 PBS. Anti-osteoclasts effects demonstrated that the NOB-PEG-PCL significantly inhibited the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells stimulated by RANKL. Furthermore, the NOB-PEG-PCL did not produce cytotoxicity on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). The mRNA expressions of genetic markers of osteoclasts including TRAP and cathepsin K were significantly decreased in the presence of NOB-PEG-PCL. In addition, the NOB-PEG-PCL inhibited OC differentiation of BMMs through RANKL-induced MAPK signal pathway. After administration of the NOB-PEG-PCL, NOB-PEG-PCL prevented bone loss and improved bone density in OVX mice. These findings suggest that NOB-PEG-PCL might have great potential in the treatment of osteoporosis. Conclusion: The results suggested that NOB-PEG-PCL micelles could effectively prevent NOB fast release from micelles and extend circulation time. The NOB-PEG-PCL delivery system may be a promising way to prevent and treat osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Flavonas/uso terapêutico , Micelas , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteogênese , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Flavonas/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Poliésteres/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 33(suppl 1): e069, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576953

RESUMO

Observational studies have indicated that crestal bone level changes at implants are typically associated with clinical signs of inflammation, but still mechanical overload has been described as possible factor leading to hard-tissue deficiencies at implant sites without mucosal inflammation. The aim of this paper was systematically review the literature regarding the possible effect of traumatic occlusal forces on the peri-implant bone levels. Literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scielo and Lilacs, including the following terms: oral OR dental AND implant$ AND (load OR overload OR excessive load OR force$ OR bruxism) AND (bone loss OR bone resorption OR implant failure$). Databases were searched for the past 10 years of publications, including: clinical human studies, either randomized or not, cohort studies, case control studies, case series and animal research. Exclusion criteria were review articles, guidelines and in vitro and in silico (finite element analysis) research, as well as retrospective studies. The PICO questions formulated was: "does traumatic occlusal forces lead to peri-implant bone loss?" The database searches as well as additional hand searching, resulted in 807 potentially relevant titles. After inclusion/exclusion criteria assessment 2 clinical and 4 animal studies were considered relevant to the topic. The included animal studies did not reveal an association between overload and peri-implant bone loss when lower overloads were applied, whereas in the presence of excessive overload it seemed to generate peri-implant bone loss, even in the absence of inflammation. The effect of traumatic occlusal forces in peri-implant bone loss is poorly reported and provides little evidence to support a cause-and-effect relationship in humans, considering the strength of a clinically relevant traumatic occlusal force.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Força de Mordida , Bruxismo/complicações , Oclusão Dentária Traumática/complicações , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
12.
World Neurosurg ; 132: e479-e486, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of pediatric skull defects after decompressive craniectomy (DC) poses unique problems, particularly in children younger than 24 months. These problems include complications such as resorption and infection as well as difficulties with plagiocephaly and reconstruction. The goal of this study was to evaluate bone resorption complications after cranioplasty in patients <24 months. METHODS: A single-center retrospective case study was performed of all patients younger than 24 months who underwent cranioplasty after DC between 2011 and 2018. The following variables were assessed: injury cause, age at craniotomy, time to cranioplasty, craniectomy size, mode of fixation, drain use, shunt use, subdural fluid collection, resorption, need for synthetic graft revision, and plagiocephaly. RESULTS: A total of 10 patients were identified who met inclusion criteria; 3 patients were excluded for insufficient follow-up. Ages ranged from <1 day to 19 months, with a mean of 10.7 months. Overall rate of cranioplasty resorption was 85.7%, 57.1% of which required revision with synthetic graft. There were univariate trends toward more frequent implant resorption with subdural fluid collection (P = 0.1071) and without shunt placement (P = 0.1429). These effects persisted through multivariable analysis and even reached statistical significance in the case of subdural collection when controlling for operative and demographic characteristics (P = 0.01138, P = 0.0694). In addition, univariate analysis showed a trend toward more frequent neurologic complications with greater craniotomy-to-cranioplasty intervals (P = 0.1043), which reached significance on multivariable analysis (P = 0.00518). CONCLUSIONS: In patients younger than 24 months undergoing cranioplasty subdural collection, a lack of shunt placement and increased time to cranioplasty were associated with increased rates of resorption.


Assuntos
Craniectomia Descompressiva/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(8)2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451476

RESUMO

A 16-year-old female patient showed up at the orthopaedics unit complaining of intolerable pain on her left hip. While being questioned and her clinical history written down, she shared that as part of her daily exercise routine, she ran 10 miles (16 km) daily at a speed of 9.5-10.5 mph (15-17 km/hour). MRI was consequently ordered, confirming the presence of a stress fracture. Therefore, immediate suspension of physical activity was indicated, followed by the prescription of crutches as well as restricted weight bearing. Gradually, she recovered complete functionality and approximately a month after she had entirely healed. While on a skiing trip, again she abruptly developed an acute pain on her right hip. Another MRI was ordered; its result confirmed a new stress fracture. Her previous treatment has proved so successful, a conservative approach was once again prescribed for her, showing optimum results 6 months later.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Reabsorção Óssea , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Colo do Fêmur , Fraturas de Estresse , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Reabsorção Óssea/diagnóstico , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Muletas , Feminino , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/etiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/fisiopatologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/terapia , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/patologia , Fraturas de Estresse/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas de Estresse/etiologia , Fraturas de Estresse/fisiopatologia , Fraturas de Estresse/terapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Corrida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398803

RESUMO

In traditional oriental medicine, the fruit of Forsythia suspensa has been used as a nutritional supplement to alleviate inflammation and treat gastrointestinal diseases. However, there is no information available on its beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the beneficial effects of F. suspensa water extract (WFS) on osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. The microarchitecture of trabecular bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography. Osteoclast differentiation was evaluated based on tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone resorption activity was examined on a bone-like mineral surface. The mechanism of action of WFS was assessed by evaluating the expression and activation of signaling molecules. Phytochemical constituents were identified and quantitated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. WFS reduced ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation and resorption activity. WFS suppressed RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, a crucial transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation by decreasing c-Fos protein levels and suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase. We also identified 12 phytochemicals in WFS including lignans, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids. Collectively, these results suggest that WFS inhibits osteoclast differentiation and can potentially be used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Forsythia/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático/métodos , Camundongos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Am J Pathol ; 189(10): 2077-2089, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381888

RESUMO

Osteomyelitis remains a serious inflammatory bone disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide and for which there is no effective treatment. Despite scientific evidence that Staphylococcus bacteria are the most common causative species for human bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO), much remains to be understood about the underlying virulence mechanisms. Herein, we show increased levels of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in infected bone in a Staphylococcus-induced chicken BCO model and in human osteomyelitis samples. Administration of synthetic [poly(I:C)] or genetic (Alu) dsRNA induces human osteoblast cell death. Similarly, infection with Staphylococcus isolated from chicken BCO induces dsRNA accumulation and cell death in human osteoblast cell cultures. Both dsRNA administration and Staphylococcus infection activate NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP)3 inflammasome and increase IL18 and IL1B gene expression in human osteoblasts. Pharmacologic inhibition with Ac-YVAD-cmk of caspase 1, a critical component of the NLRP3 inflammasome, prevents DICER1 dysregulation- and dsRNA-induced osteoblast cell death. NLRP3 inflammasome and its components are also activated in bone from BCO chickens and humans with osteomyelitis, compared with their healthy counterparts. These findings provide a rationale for the use of chicken BCO as a human-relevant spontaneous animal model for osteomyelitis and identify dsRNA as a new treatment target for this debilitating bone pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteocondrose/veterinária , Osteomielite/etiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/epidemiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Galinhas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamassomos , Necrose , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/microbiologia , Osteocondrose/epidemiologia , Osteocondrose/etiologia , Osteomielite/epidemiologia , Osteomielite/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(7): 2211-2213, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369506

RESUMO

In this report, the authors introduce a rare complication after reduction malarplasty in 2 patients. One patient underwent temporal rhytidectomy and malar osteotomy. The other patient underwent zygoma grinding without osteotomy. Both patients presented malar depression and cheek ptosis after surgery and visited the clinic. Physical examination, cephalometric radiographs, and facial 3-dimensional computed tomography were conducted, which indicated total zygomatic arch bone resorption. After examining the possible causes of the complication, the authors concluded that preserving enough blood supply and performing adequate rigid fixation of the separated zygoma bone are key prevention for bone resorption. This is the first report of total zygomatic arch bone resorption after reduction malarplasty.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Zigoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Blefaroptose/diagnóstico por imagem , Blefaroptose/etiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Face/cirurgia , Ossos Faciais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Osteotomia , Exame Físico , Radiografia , Ritidoplastia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
17.
South Med J ; 112(8): 428-432, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are at increased risk for low bone mass and fragility fractures, and those who are nonambulatory may be at even higher risk. Patients with IDs often are vitamin D deficient, but there is little information concerning how vitamin D treatment of patients with IDs affects markers of bone formation and resorption. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 23 institutionalized individuals with IDs who were the subject of a performance improvement continuing medical education project designed to reduce risk for fracture by optimizing serum vitamin D levels. Patients were divided into those with normal weight-bearing (NWB) physical activity (15 patients: 14 men, 1 woman) and those with low weight-bearing (LWB) physical activity (8 patients: 7 men, 1 woman). All of the subjects received 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 weekly for 4 to 8 weeks, followed by a maintenance dose of 50,000 IU monthly for 3 to 6 months. Bone turnover markers (type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide [CTX], type 1 N-terminal propeptide [P1NP], and parathyroid hormone [PTH]) and 25(OH)-vitamin D levels were measured before and after vitamin D supplementation. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences in the serum levels of 25OH-D, PTH, P1NP, or CTX between the two groups (NWB and LWB). Vitamin D levels were increased to a higher value in LWB subjects than in NWB subjects (61 ± 4.1 vs 48.4 ± 2.2 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Vitamin D treatment suppressed PTH (20.5% ± 14.3% vs 31.4% ± 7.7%, P = not significant) and P1NP (33.0% ± 6.2% vs 29.4% ± 6.9%, P = not significant) similarly in both groups. Although CTX levels declined by 26.4% ± 5.3% (P = 0.0002) in NWB individuals (as anticipated), vitamin D supplementation resulted in an unexpected 25.8% ± 8% increase (P = 0.01) in CTX in LWB individuals, suggesting osteoclast activation. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-dose vitamin D appeared to suppress osteoclast activity in NWB adults with IDs, the increase in serum CTX levels in those with LWB activity implies activation of osteoclasts that could exacerbate their unique low bone mass and increase fracture risk. The results support the use of a lower-dose vitamin D regimen in this patient group with LWB.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336616

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals are essential for transmission of cell signals and other physiological functions. However, excessive amounts of ROS can cause cellular imbalance in reduction-oxidation reactions and disrupt normal biological functions, leading to oxidative stress, a condition known to be responsible for the development of several diseases. The biphasic role of ROS in cellular functions has been a target of pharmacological research. Osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic progenitors in the bone and are essential for skeletal growth and remodeling, for the maintenance of bone architecture throughout lifespan, and for calcium metabolism during bone homeostasis. ROS, including superoxide ion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are important components that regulate the differentiation of osteoclasts. Under normal physiological conditions, ROS produced by osteoclasts stimulate and facilitate resorption of bone tissue. Thus, elucidating the effects of ROS during osteoclast differentiation is important when studying diseases associated with bone resorption such as osteoporosis. This review examines the effect of ROS on osteoclast differentiation and the efficacy of novel chemical compounds with therapeutic potential for osteoclast related diseases.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/genética , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Gen Dent ; 67(4): 58-62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355766

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of factors related to the patient (age, sex, bruxism, and general health) or prosthesis (use of old dentures, duration of denture wear, and nocturnal wear) on the mandibular ridge resorption rate (RRR) of complete denture (CD) wearers. This retrospective cohort study was composed of edentulous patients who sought prosthodontic treatment for maxillary and mandibular CDs. The mandibular RRR was estimated based on panoramic radiographs (n = 120) obtained at the time of the clinical examination. The total height of the alveolar process was considered to be 3 times the distance from the inferior border of the mandible to the lower border of the mental foramen. Radiographic measurements were performed by 1 calibrated examiner. Data were collected from dental records related to the patient or prosthesis. Data were evaluated by 1-way analysis of variance or Student t test at a significance level of 5%. Of the factors evaluated, age (P ∼ 0.000), previous use of CDs (P ∼ 0.000), and bruxism history (P = 0.003) were statistically significant for the mandibular RRR. The RRR was greater among patients older than 60 years, those who had been wearing old CDs, and those who reported bruxism. Thus, the study results showed the negative influence of advanced age, use of old dentures, and bruxism on mandibular RRR.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Reabsorção Óssea , Prótese Total/efeitos adversos , Mandíbula/patologia , Fatores Etários , Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Bruxismo/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 116: 109017, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158803

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Osteoporosis prevailing in elderly involves a marked increase in bone resorption showing an initial fall in bone mineral density leading to a significant reduction in bone formation. AIM: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Heamatococcus pluvialis microalgae on osteoporosis in D-galactose-treated rats. The underlying mechanism was tracked targeting the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/ nuclear factor-κß ligand (RANKL) pathway using micro-computed tomography scanning. METHODS: Osteoporosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose (200 mg/kg/day) for eight consecutive weeks. Osteoporotic rats were orally treated with H. pluvialis biomass (BHP; 450 mg/kg), its polar (PHP; 30 mg/kg) and carotenoid (CHP; 30 mg/kg) fractions for the last 2 weeks of D-Gal injection. Twenty four hours after the last dose of the treatments, tibia bones of the rats were scanned using micro-computed tomography scanning for bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness/separation/number (Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, Tb.N) evaluation, blood samples were withdrawn and sera were used for biochemical assessment. Moreover, femur bones were examined histopathologically using several stains. RESULTS: Induction of osteoporosis was associated with a marked reduction in BMD, BV/TV, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, Tb.N and in serum levels of phosphorus and catalase. On the other hand, a significant elevation in serum levels of calcium, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and interleukin-6 was observed. Moreover, up-regulation of OPG was detected in osteoporotic rats. Oral treatment with BHP, and PHP incremented tibia BMD and serum phosphorus level along with the decrease in serum levels of calcium, BALP, interleukin-6, OPG and RANKL. However, treatment with CHP almost restored all the fore mentioned parameters to normal values. Furthermore, the histopathological evaluation emphasized the biochemical outcomes. CONCLUSION: H. pluvialis fractions rich in astaxanthin ameliorated bone loss in experimentally-induced osteoporosis in rats probably through the down-regulation of serum OPG in concurrence with up-regulation of serum RANKL.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/etiologia , Microalgas/fisiologia , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/sangue , Reabsorção Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Cálcio/sangue , Catalase/sangue , Glucose , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/sangue , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/patologia , Osteoprotegerina/sangue , Ratos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/patologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
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