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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50721, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103402

RESUMO

Objetivo: apresentar atualizações para a ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em pacientes suspeitos e confirmados com COVID-19. Método: revisão compreensiva da literatura, com síntese narrativa das evidências de diretrizes e recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma e National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Resultados: as principais atualizações trazem informações sobre especificidades das manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar; preparação do ambiente, recursos humanos e materiais, reconhecimento da parada cardiorrespiratória e ações iniciais; estratégias de ventilação e acesso invasivo da via aérea; ajustes do ventilador mecânico e manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em pacientes pronados. Considerações finais: profissionais de saúde envolvidos no atendimento à parada cardiorrespiratória de pacientes suspeitos e/ou confirmados com COVID-19 podem encontrar inúmeros desafios, portanto devem seguir com rigor o protocolo estabelecido para maximizar a efetividade das manobras de ressuscitação e minimizar o risco de contágio pelo vírus e sua disseminação.


Objective: to present updates for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19. Method: comprehensive literature review with narrative synthesis of the evidence of guidelines and recommendations from World Health Organization, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma and National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Results: the main updates bring information about the specifics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers; preparation of the environment and human and material resources, recognition of cardiorespiratory arrest and initial actions; ventilation and invasive airway access strategies; mechanical ventilator adjustments and cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers in patients in the prone position. Final considerations: health professionals involved in the care of cardiorespiratory arrest of suspected and/or confirmed patients with COVID-19 can face numerous challenges, so they must strictly follow the protocol established to maximize the effectiveness of resuscitation maneuvers and minimize the risk of contagion by the virus and its spread.


Objetivo: apresentar actualizaciones para la reanimación cardiopulmonar en pacientes sospechos os y confirmados con COVID-19. Método: revisión exhaustiva de la literatura con síntesis narrativa de la evidencia de guías y recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma and National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Resultados: las principales actualizaciones aportan información sobre los detalles de las maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar; preparación del medio ambiente y recursos humanos y materiales, reconocimiento de paro cardiorrespiratorio y acciones iniciales; estrategias de ventilación y acceso invasivo a las vías aéreas; ajustes del ventilador mecánico y maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar en pacientes en decúbito prono. Consideraciones finales: los profesionales de la salud involucrados en la atención del paro cardiorrespiratorio de pacientes sospechosos y/o confirmados con COVID-19 pueden enfrentar numerosos desafíos, por lo que deben seguir estrictamente el protocolo establecido para maximizar la efectividad de las maniobras de reanimación y minimizar el riesgo de contagio por el virus y supropagación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Parada Cardíaca/reabilitação , Massagem Cardíaca/métodos , Equipe de Enfermagem/normas
4.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the knowledge of basic education students before and after educational intervention on Basic Life Support in a situation of adult cardiorespiratory arrest. METHOD: quasi-experimental study conducted with 335 students from three elementary schools. Data was collected using an instrument that captured sociodemographic data and knowledge about Basic Life Support. Subsequently, they were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics. RESULTS: students' knowledge in the post-test (p <0.05) was significantly higher than in the pre-test. The average of the pre-test scores was 4.12 ± 1.7 and, in the post-test it was 6.53 ± 1.9 (p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: the results demonstrated effectiveness of the intervention with the expansion of knowledge about Basic Life Support in cardiorespiratory arrest. The results reinforce the importance of Nursing in health education actions in elementary schools.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Adulto , Criança , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estudantes
5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053586

RESUMO

An extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) is considered as a therapy option for cardiovascular failure that is refractory to therapy. It can significantly improve the survival rate with favourable neurological results in highly selected patients. The initially defibrillatable heart rhythm and the short low-flow time < 60 minutes are of particular prognostic value. An essential prerequisite for deciding on eCPR is the existence of a reversible cause for cardiac arrest. Whether an eCPR directly at the emergency site (out-of-hospital variant) or in the clinic, e.g. in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (in-hospital variant) can be recommended must be clarified in further randomized-controlled, multicentre studies. Both variants have advantages and disadvantages. With the out-of-hospital eCPR, the "collapse-to-start-eCPR-time" can be significantly reduced under certain conditions. With the in-hospital eCPR external negative influences can be greatly minimized.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 295, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being utilized in patients with massive pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the efficacy and the safety remain uncertain. This study aimed to investigate clinical courses and outcomes in ECMO-treated patients with acute PE. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with acute PE rescued by ECMO from January 2012 to December 2019 were retrospectively analysed. Clinical features, laboratory biomarkers, and imaging findings of these patients were reviewed, and the relationship with immediate outcome and clinical course was investigated. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (76.2%) experienced refractory circulatory collapse requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or ECMO support within 2 h after the onset of cardiogenic shock, and none could receive definitive reperfusion therapy before ECMO initiation. Before or during ECMO support, more than 90% of patients had imaging signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. In normotension patients, the computed tomography (CT) value was a valuable predictor of rapid disease progression compared with cardiac troponin I level. Ultimately, in-hospital death occurred in ten patients (47.6%) and 90% of them died of prolonged CPR-related brain death. Cardiac arrest was a significant predictor of poor prognosis (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ECMO appears to be a safe and effective circulatory support in patients with massive PE. Close monitoring in intensive care unit is recommended in patients with RV dysfunction and aggressive use of ECMO may reduce the risk of sudden cardiac arrest and improve clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Morte Encefálica , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Reperfusão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(35): 2785-2790, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972061

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of mild hypothermia therapy on liver after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods: Thirty-three inbred Chinese Wuzhishan (WZS) minipigs, weighted (28±2) kg, were used to establish a ventricular fibrillation model. And 30 animals survived after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reached basic life support. The surviving animals were randomly divided into two groups: mild hypothermia group (group M, n=15) and conventional treatment group (group C, n=15). All the animals were observed for 24 hours. Blood samples were extracted at baseline, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h after successful resuscitation. The concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were detected at the time points. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The data were compared between the two groups, LSD test was used when the variance was homogeneous, and Tamhane T2 test was used when the variance was uneven. Results: Eleven pigs (73.3%) in the group M and 8(53.3%) in the group C survived at 24 h after successful resuscitation, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)=1.229, P=0.225). After successful resuscitation, the AST, ALT increased in both group but less in M group (all P<0.05). After successful resuscitation, the concentrations of TFN-α and IL-6 in the blood increased in both groups, reached the peak at 4h, and then decreased gradually. The concentrations of TFN-α in group M were lower than those in group C at 0.5, 2, 4 and 6 h after successful resuscitation (t=0.01, 0.01, 0.87, 0.86, all P<0.05). The concentrations of IL-6 in the group M were lower than those in group C at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h after successful resuscitation (t=0.23, 0.78, 0.11, 0.80, all P<0.05). Conclusions: After successful resuscitation, the release of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-6, and cell apoptosis may involve in liver ischemia reperfusion injury. After successful resuscitation, the liver undergoes ischemia-reperfusion injury, which may be related to the release of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-6. Mild hypothermia therapy can prevent the release of TNF-α, IL-6 to reduce the degree of liver damage after resuscitation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipotermia , Animais , Fígado , Suínos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Fibrilação Ventricular
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21685, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872040

RESUMO

Chest injuries are common and inevitable complications of chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study aimed to investigate lung parenchymal and thoracic skeletal injuries after CPR by using computed tomography (CT) and to analyze the correlation between the duration of CPR and related complications.We examined 43 non-traumatic cardiac arrest patients who were successfully resuscitated after CPR and had chest CT scans within 24 hours of CPR. Lung parenchymal injuries were assessed by quantifying the lung contusion score (LCS) on the CT images, and each skeletal injury was investigated by classifying the location and the distribution. Other CPR-related chest injuries were also described, such as pleural effusion/hemothorax, pneumothorax, and retrosternal hematoma. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine whether the duration of CPR was correlated with each complication.Lung contusions were found in all of the patients (mean LCS: 22, range: 5-47). The distribution of lung contusions were predominantly in the bilateral dependent portions of the lungs (41 patients). All of the rib fractures occurred in the anterior arc (43 patients), and the sternal fractures occurred predominantly in the mid-sternal body (31 patients). In patients younger than 70 years old, the number of rib fractures significantly increased among those who underwent CPR for more than 25 minutes compared to those who received CPR for less than 25 minutes (median 4.5 vs 9; mean 8.3 vs 5.6 per person, respectively; P = .035). The risk of sternal fracture tended to be higher for patients who received CPR for more than 10 minutes compared to those who received CPR for less than 10 minutes (odds ratio: 3.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86-15.06; P = .079). However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the duration of CPR and LCS or other CPR-related chest injuries.The duration of CPR was associated with the number of rib fractures and the occurrence of sternal fractures, but it did not affect the extent of CPR-related lung contusions or other CPR-related chest injuries. All of the rib fractures occurred in the anterior arc, while the sternal fractures occurred predominantly in the mid-sternal body. However, since this study was conducted in a single institution, the number of patients included was relatively small, thus limiting the statistical analysis.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Esterno/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/etiologia , Esterno/lesões , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 541, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness and indications of open-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OCCPR) have been still debatable. Although current guidelines state that the presence of signs of life (SOL) is an indication for OCCPR, scientific evidence corroborating this recommendation has been scarce. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of OCCPR to closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCCPR) in severe trauma patients with SOL upon arrival at the emergency department (ED). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study analyzing data from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database, a nationwide trauma registry in the USA, between 2010 and 2016 was conducted. Severe trauma patients who had SOL upon arrival at the hospital and received cardiopulmonary resuscitation within the first 6 h of ED admission were identified. Survival to hospital discharge was evaluated using logistic regression analysis, instrumental variable analysis, and propensity score matching analysis adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 2682 patients (OCCPR 1032; CCCPR 1650) were evaluated; of those 157 patients (15.2%) in the OCCPR group and 193 patients (11.7%) in the CCCPR group survived. OCCPR was significantly associated with higher survival to hospital discharge in both the logistic regression analysis (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.99 [1.42-2.79], p <  0.001) and the instrumental variable analysis (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.02-1.31], p = 0.021). In the propensity score matching analysis, 531 matched pairs were generated, and the OCCPR group still showed significantly higher survival at hospital discharge (89 patients [16.8%] in the OCCPR group vs 58 patients [10.9%] in the CCCPR group; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.66 [1.13-2.42], p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CCCPR, OCCPR was associated with significantly higher survival at hospital discharge in severe trauma patients with SOL upon ED arrival. Further studies to confirm these results and to assess long-term neurologic outcomes are needed.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Sinais Vitais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 326-327, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869769

RESUMO

The risk of transmission of COVID-19 or other serious respiratory infections during a pandemic event can dissuade lay rescuers from practicing resuscitation maneuvers; this may result in a reduction in efficacy in the treatment of the subject with cardiorespiratory arrest; this can also happen in occupational settings for the "designed first aid worker". In this letter we propose some considerations on the adaptation of the guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation to pandemic events and on the protection of workers designated to first aid.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Primeiros Socorros , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
13.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 755-769, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981615

RESUMO

There are approximately 350,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and 200,000 in-hospital cardiac arrests annually in the United States, with survival rates of approximately 5% to 10% and 24%, respectively. The critical factors that have an impact on cardiac arrest survival include prompt recognition and activation of prehospital care, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and rapid defibrillation. Advanced life support protocols are continually refined to optimize intracardiac arrest management and improve survival with favorable neurologic outcome. This article focuses on current treatment recommendations for adult nontraumatic cardiac arrest, with emphasis on the latest evidence and controversies regarding intracardiac arrest management.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida , Infusões Intraósseas , Infusões Intravenosas , Monitorização Fisiológica , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem
15.
Cell ; 183(1): 16-27.e1, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882182

RESUMO

Neurological complications have emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Beside respiratory insufficiency, many hospitalized patients exhibit neurological manifestations ranging from headache and loss of smell, to confusion and disabling strokes. COVID-19 is also anticipated to take a toll on the nervous system in the long term. Here, we will provide a critical appraisal of the potential for neurotropism and mechanisms of neuropathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 as they relate to the acute and chronic neurological consequences of the infection. Finally, we will examine potential avenues for future research and therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Animais , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
16.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(9): 565-568, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909405

RESUMO

A case of bilateral extensive subcutaneous emphysema secondary to external cardiac massage is reported. This is a rare complication. It occurs with a pneumothorax after resuscitation maneuvers. The diagnosis is based on a bundle of anamnestic, clinical and radiological arguments. This case demonstrates the importance of performing a simple prehospital thoracostomy on the finger without chest tube placement and demonstrates the need for systematic investigation of possible complications in any patient who has undergone external cardiac massage.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Pneumotórax , Enfisema Subcutâneo , Humanos , Radiografia
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916740

RESUMO

In an 81-year-old patient, acute hemodynamic instability requiring resuscitation occurred during an elective transurethral prostate resection. The procedure was ended prematurely and after ROSC a CT diagnosis was carried out, which confirmed the suspected diagnosis of fulminant pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulant therapy with heparin was initiated. About two hours after admission to the intensive care unit, hemorrhage requiring massive transfusion developed, which according to viscoelastometric diagnostics was most likely due to fulminant hyperfibrinolysis. This case report describes the pathophysiology of so-called post-cardiac arrest coagulopathy and discusses the use of antifibrinolytic therapy in patients with thrombotic complications such as pulmonary artery embolism.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Embolia Pulmonar , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar
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