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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1125-1129, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594158

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relationship between exposure factors in early pregnancy and preterm birth (PB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) of neonates. Methods: A total of 3 172 pregnant women who were enrolled in the project of Chinese Pregnant Women Cohort Study-Peking Union Medical College (CPWCS-PUMC) from July 25, 2017 to July 24, 2018 and delivered before December 31, 2018 were selected as subjects in this study. The relationship between exposure factors in early pregnancy and adverse outcomes of neonatal delivery was analyzed by using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The incidence rates of PB, LBW and SGA were 4.76%, 3.53% and 5.74%, respectively. In terms of PB, the analysis results showed that the gestational weight gain (GWG) and living in northern China were protective factors, while premature rupture of membranes, gestational hypertension, dental examination or treatment within 1-3 years and family with 3-4 members were risk factors. In the respect of LBW, GWG and daily consumption of milk and dairy products were the protective factors, while premature rupture of membranes, gestational hypertension, sedentary working time more than 6 hours, dental examination or treatment within 1-3 years and passive smoking were risk factors. For SGA, baby girl, passive smoking, peanut oil consumption and unsalted taste were risk factors, while folic acid supplementation was protective factor. Conclusion: The risk factors for PB, LBW and SGA were multifactorial, and relevant specific measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of adverse neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
BMJ ; 367: l5517, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of routine ultrasonography in the third trimester in reducing adverse perinatal outcomes in low risk pregnancies compared with usual care and the effect of this policy on maternal outcomes and obstetric interventions. DESIGN: Pragmatic, multicentre, stepped wedge cluster randomised trial. SETTING: 60 midwifery practices in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 13 046 women aged 16 years or older with a low risk singleton pregnancy. INTERVENTIONS: 60 midwifery practices offered usual care (serial fundal height measurements with clinically indicated ultrasonography). After 3, 7, and 10 months, a third of the practices were randomised to the intervention strategy. As well as receiving usual care, women in the intervention strategy were offered two routine biometry scans at 28-30 and 34-36 weeks' gestation. The same multidisciplinary protocol for detecting and managing fetal growth restriction was used in both strategies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was a composite of severe adverse perinatal outcomes: perinatal death, Apgar score <4, impaired consciousness, asphyxia, seizures, assisted ventilation, septicaemia, meningitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leucomalacia, or necrotising enterocolitis. Secondary outcomes were two composite measures of severe maternal morbidity, and spontaneous labour and birth. RESULTS: Between 1 February 2015 and 29 February 2016, 60 midwifery practices enrolled 13 520 women in mid-pregnancy (mean 22.8 (SD 2.4) weeks' gestation). 13 046 women (intervention n=7067, usual care n=5979) with data based on the national Dutch perinatal registry or hospital records were included in the analyses. Small for gestational age at birth was significantly more often detected in the intervention group than in the usual care group (179 of 556 (32%) v 78 of 407 (19%), P<0.001). The incidence of severe adverse perinatal outcomes was 1.7% (n=118) for the intervention strategy and 1.8% (n=106) for usual care. After adjustment for confounders, the difference between the groups was not significant (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.20). The intervention strategy showed a higher incidence of induction of labour (1.16, 1.04 to 1.30) and a lower incidence of augmentation of labour (0.78, 0.71 to 0.85). Maternal outcomes and other obstetric interventions did not differ between the strategies. CONCLUSION: In low risk pregnancies, routine ultrasonography in the third trimester along with clinically indicated ultrasonography was associated with higher antenatal detection of small for gestational age fetuses but not with a reduced incidence of severe adverse perinatal outcomes compared with usual care alone. The findings do not support routine ultrasonography in the third trimester for low risk pregnancies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR4367.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Índice de Apgar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Tocologia/métodos , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BJOG ; 126(12): 1491-1497, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between marijuana use and a composite adverse pregnancy outcome using biological sampling. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single tertiary center. POPULATION: Young women (13-22 years old) with singleton, non-anomalous pregnancies delivered from September 2011 to May 2017. METHODS: Exposure was defined as marijuana detected on universal urine toxicology testing or by self-report. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to estimate the effect of any marijuana use on the primary composite outcome. The effect of marijuana exposure was also estimated for self-reported use, toxicology-detected use, and multiple use detected by toxicology. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary composite outcome included spontaneous preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, stillbirth, or small for gestational age. RESULTS: Of 1206 pregnant young women, 17.5% (n = 211) used marijuana. Among the women who used marijuana, 8.5% (n = 18) were identified by self-report alone, 63% (n = 133) by urine toxicology alone, and 28.4% (n = 60) by both. Urine toxicology testing results were available for 1092 (90.5%) births. The composite outcome occurred more frequently in pregnancies exposed to marijuana (46 versus 34%, P < 0.001). This remained significant after adjusting for race/ethnicity and tobacco in the multivariable model (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.09-2.05). When marijuana exposure was defined by self-report only, the association with adverse pregnancy outcome became non-significant (adjusted OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.62-1.64). CONCLUSION: In a population of young women with nearly universal biological sampling, marijuana exposure was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The heterogeneity of findings in existing studies evaluating the impact of marijuana on mothers and neonates may result from the incomplete ascertainment of exposure. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Marijuana use, as detected by universal urine testing, was associated with a composite adverse pregnancy outcome among young mothers.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Mães , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/urina , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 786-790, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357799

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the interaction of pregnancy-induced hypertension and history of preterm birth on the risk of small for gestational age. Methods: Stratified multistage random sampling method was used to choose samples from 30 districts and counties of Shaanxi province. Information on childbearing-age women with their children between January 2010 and November 2013 was retrospectively collected through face-to-face questionnaire survey. The childbearing-aged women were in pregnancy or having had definite outcomes of pregnancy. Enumeration data were described by percentage, and measurement data were described by Mean±SD, and χ(2) test was used to compare the rates. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the interaction between pregnancy-induced hypertension and history of preterm birth on the risk of small for gestational age, and by using small for gestational age as dependent variables, pregnancy-induced hypertension and history of preterm birth as independent variables. Confounding factors were under control. Firstly, the association between pregnancy-induced hypertension and small for gestational age has been analyzed in primiparas, secondly, interaction of pregnancy-induced hypertension and history of preterm birth on the risk of small for gestational age has been analyzed in multiparas. Results: A total of 25 751 women of childbearing age and their children were recruited. 60.55% (15 592/25 751) were primiparas, 39.45% (10 159/25 751) were multiparas, the rate of history of preterm birth was 1.89% (192/10 159) for multiparas. The incidence rates of pregnancy-induced hypertension and small for gestational age were 1.55% and 15.49% in pregnant woman (400/25 751) and their newborns (3 990/25 751). Unconditioned logistic regression analysis showed that compared with woman without pregnancy-induced hypertension, primiparas with pregnancy-induced hypertension had increased risk of small for gestational age (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.02-2.00, P=0.041). Regarding multiparas, the main effect of pregnancy-induced hypertension had a positive correlation with small for gestational age (OR=1.34, 95%CI: 0.91-1.96), but there was no statistical significance (P=0.138). The main effect of history of preterm birth was positively correlated with small for gestational age (OR=1.61, 95%CI: 1.13-2.31, P=0.009). The interaction term "pregnancy-induced hypertension×history of preterm birth" was positively associated with risk of small for gestational age (OR=5.93, 95%CI: 1.19-29.61, P=0.030). Conclusions: Pregnancy-induced hypertension was associated with increased risk for small for gestational age in both primiparas and multiparas, and history of preterm birth further increased risk for small for gestational age in pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension, indicating that there was multiplication interaction between pregnancy-induced hypertension and history of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Women Birth ; 32(5): 404-411, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived discrimination in perinatal care and birth outcomes of women giving birth to an Aboriginal baby in South Australia using methods designed to respect Aboriginal culture and communities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based study of women giving birth to Aboriginal infants in South Australia, July 2011-June 2013. Women completed a structured questionnaire with an Aboriginal researcher. Study measures include: standardised measure of perceived discrimination in perinatal care; maternal smoking, cannabis use and exposure to stressful events and social health issues; infant birthweight and gestation. PARTICIPANTS: 344 women (mean age 25, range 15-43 years) living in urban, regional and remote areas of South Australia. RESULTS: Half of women (51%) perceived that they had experienced discrimination or unfair treatment by hospitals or health services providing care during pregnancy and soon after childbirth. Women experiencing three or more stressful events or social health issues were more likely to perceive that care was discriminatory or unfair. Aboriginal women who perceived that they had experienced discrimination in perinatal care were more likely to have a baby with a low birthweight (Adj Odds Ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.8) or small for gestational age (Adj Odds Ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5), adjusting for parity, smoking and cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence of the 'inverse care law'. Aboriginal women most at risk of poor infant health outcomes were the least likely to perceive that they received care well matched to their needs. Building stronger evidence about what works to create cultural safety in perinatal health care is an urgent priority.


Assuntos
Discriminação (Psicologia) , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Fumar , Austrália do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 705, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is becoming an increased burden to the world. Previous studies have confirmed its effects on adverse birth outcomes, but few associated with premature small for gestational age (SGA). We report a retrospective cohort study conducted in Changzhou city to evaluate the association between air pollutants (PM2.5, SO2 and NO2) and premature SGA during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 46,224 births were collected from January, 2013 to December, 2016, in Changzhou Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, finally 2709 preterm births were admitted for study. Corresponding air monitoring data were collected from Changzhou Environmental Protection Agency. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between these air pollutants and premature SGA controlling for individual covariates in single- and multi-pollutant models. RESULTS: We found that, in the third trimester, every 10 µg/m3 increments in PM2.5 concentration were associated with premature SGA (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-2.83; OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-3.58) in two- and three-pollutants models. In the whole gestation, a 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentration in two- and three-pollutant models were related to premature SGA (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.38-2.47; OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.18-2.57). The OR (95% CI) of premature SGA were increasing across quintiles of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 concentrations during the whole gestation period adjusting for confounders (P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that pregnant women exposed to PM2.5, combined with other pollutants in the third trimester have a higher risk to deliver premature SGA babies, providing further evidence linking PM2.5 and pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 104(6): F643-F647, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report outcomes to 1 year, in infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), explore factors associated with infant mortality and examine the relationship between surgical techniques and postoperative morbidity. DESIGN: Prospective national population cohort study. SETTING: Paediatric surgical centres in the UK and Ireland. METHOD: Data were collected to 1 year for infants with CDH live-born between 1 April 2009 to 30 September 2010. Factors associated with infant mortality are explored using logistic regression. Postoperative morbidity following patch versus primary closure, minimally invasive versus open surgery and biological versus synthetic patch material is described. Data are presented as n (%) and median (IQR). RESULTS: Overall known survival to 1 year was 75%, 95% CI 68% to 81% (138/184) and postoperative survival 93%, 95% CI 88% to 97% (138/148). Female sex, antenatal diagnosis, use of vasodilators or inotropes, being small for gestational age, patch repair and use of surfactant were all associated with infant death. Infants undergoing patch repair had a high incidence of postoperative chylothorax (11/54 vs 2/96 in infants undergoing primary closure) and a long length of hospital stay (41 days, IQR 24-68 vs 16 days, IQR 10-25 in primary closure group). Infants managed with synthetic patch material had a high incidence of chylothorax (11/34 vs 0/19 with biological patch). CONCLUSION: The majority of infant deaths in babies born with CDH occur before surgical correction. Female sex, being born small for gestational age, surfactant use, patch repair and receipt of cardiovascular support were associated with a higher risk of death. The optimum surgical approach, timing of operation and choice of patch material to achieve lowest morbidity warrants further evaluation.


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/mortalidade , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 146(3): 308-314, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration or timing) in late pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes (preterm delivery or small for gestational age, SGA). METHODS: An analysis of data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, between 2012 and 2014. Preterm delivery was defined as delivery before 37 gestational weeks. SGA was defined as neonatal birthweight below the 10th percentile of the predicted birthweight distribution. RESULTS: In total, 11 192 women were included in the analysis. After adjustment for potential confounders, 9.1-10 hours of nocturnal sleep was associated with a lower likelihood of SGA (odds ratio [OR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.99) as compared with 7.1-9 hours. As compared with intermediate mid-sleep time (between 02:46 and 04:00), early mid-sleep time (at or earlier than 02:45) was associated with a higher likelihood of preterm delivery (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.28-2.10). CONCLUSION: Among a large cohort of pregnant Chinese women, 9.1-10 hours of nocturnal sleep was associated with a lower risk of SGA, whereas early mid-sleep time was associated with a higher risk of preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 697-701, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238622

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relations between dietary intake during pregnancy and the incidence of their babies with small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Data on demographics, dietary intake of protein, fat, and carbohydrates of the pregnant mothers during the first, second and third trimester, were collected. Information related to birth weight and gestational age of the infants were also gathered. A total of 8 102 women, who delivered their babies at the First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from March 2012 to September 2016, were enrolled in this project. Among them, 961 mothers had infants with SGA but the other 7 141 of them having normal infants. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of dietary nutrient intake on SGA the first, second and third trimester. Results: We found that low dietary intake of protein during the first trimester and following trimesters during pregnancy were positively associated with higher risk of SGA (OR=1.534, 95%CI: 1.217-1.934; OR=1.268, 95%CI: 1.005-1.599; OR=1.310, 95%CI: 1.036-1.655). When adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, we found that when mothers were with a pre-pregnancy BMI less than 18.5 or with low maternal intake of protein during the first trimester, positive association with higher risk of SGA (OR=1.872, 95%CI: 1.033-3.395; OR=1.754, 95%CI: 1.125-2.734), was noticed. However, for mothers with a pre-pregnancy BMI between 18.5 and 24.0 or with low protein intake during the first trimester, significant association with higher risk of SGA (OR=1.465, 95%CI: 1.089-1.972) was found. Conclusions: Through our observation, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy seemed to be associated with the risk of SGA but the effects of dietary intake were different, according to the BMI of pre-pregnancy population. Early pregnancy appeares as the key period for dietary intake which may influence the SGA.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez/fisiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012245, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stillbirth affects 2.6 million pregnancies worldwide each year. Whilst the majority of cases occur in low- and middle-income countries, stillbirth remains an important clinical issue for high-income countries (HICs) - with both the UK and the USA reporting rates above the mean for HICs. In HICs, the most frequently reported association with stillbirth is placental dysfunction. Placental dysfunction may be evident clinically as fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small-for-dates infants. It can be caused by placental abruption or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and many other disorders and factorsPlacental abnormalities are noted in 11% to 65% of stillbirths. Identification of FGA is difficult in utero. Small-for-gestational age (SGA), as assessed after birth, is the most commonly used surrogate measure for this outcome. The degree of SGA is associated with the likelihood of FGR; 30% of infants with a birthweight < 10th centile are thought to be FGR, while 70% of infants with a birthweight < 3rd centile are thought to be FGR. Critically, SGA is the most significant antenatal risk factor for a stillborn infant. Correct identification of SGA infants is associated with a reduction in the perinatal mortality rate. However, currently used tests, such as measurement of symphysis-fundal height, have a low reported sensitivity and specificity for the identification of SGA infants. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound assessment of fetal growth by estimated fetal weight (EFW) and placental biomarkers alone and in any combination used after 24 weeks of pregnancy in the identification of placental dysfunction as evidenced by either stillbirth, or birth of a SGA infant. Secondary objectives were to investigate the effect of clinical and methodological factors on test performance. SEARCH METHODS: We developed full search strategies with no language or date restrictions. The following sources were searched: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process and Embase via Ovid, Cochrane (Wiley) CENTRAL, Science Citation Index (Web of Science), CINAHL (EBSCO) with search strategies adapted for each database as required; ISRCTN Registry, UK Clinical Trials Gateway, WHO International Clinical Trials Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing studies; specialist abstract and conference proceeding resources (British Library's ZETOC and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index). Search last conducted in Ocober 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of pregnant women of any age with a gestation of at least 24 weeks if relevant outcomes of pregnancy (live birth/stillbirth; SGA infant) were assessed. Studies were included irrespective of whether pregnant women were deemed to be low or high risk for complications or were of mixed populations (low and high risk). Pregnancies complicated by fetal abnormalities and multi-fetal pregnancies were excluded as they have a higher risk of stillbirth from non-placental causes. With regard to biochemical tests, we included assays performed using any technique and at any threshold used to determine test positivity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted the numbers of true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative test results from each study. We assessed risk of bias and applicability using the QUADAS-2 tool. Meta-analyses were performed using the hierarchical summary ROC model to estimate and compare test accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: We included 91 studies that evaluated seven tests - blood tests for human placental lactogen (hPL), oestriol, placental growth factor (PlGF) and uric acid, ultrasound EFW and placental grading and urinary oestriol - in a total of 175,426 pregnant women, in which 15,471 pregnancies ended in the birth of a small baby and 740 pregnancies which ended in stillbirth. The quality of included studies was variable with most domains at low risk of bias although 59% of studies were deemed to be of unclear risk of bias for the reference standard domain. Fifty-three per cent of studies were of high concern for applicability due to inclusion of only high- or low-risk women.Using all available data for SGA (86 studies; 159,490 pregnancies involving 15,471 SGA infants), there was evidence of a difference in accuracy (P < 0.0001) between the seven tests for detecting pregnancies that are SGA at birth. Ultrasound EFW was the most accurate test for detecting SGA at birth with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 21.3 (95% CI 13.1 to 34.6); hPL was the most accurate biochemical test with a DOR of 4.78 (95% CI 3.21 to 7.13). In a hypothetical cohort of 1000 pregnant women, at the median specificity of 0.88 and median prevalence of 19%, EFW, hPL, oestriol, urinary oestriol, uric acid, PlGF and placental grading will miss 50 (95% CI 32 to 68), 116 (97 to 133), 124 (108 to 137), 127 (95 to 152), 139 (118 to 154), 144 (118 to 161), and 144 (122 to 161) SGA infants, respectively. For the detection of pregnancies ending in stillbirth (21 studies; 100,687 pregnancies involving 740 stillbirths), in an indirect comparison of the four biochemical tests, PlGF was the most accurate test with a DOR of 49.2 (95% CI 12.7 to 191). In a hypothetical cohort of 1000 pregnant women, at the median specificity of 0.78 and median prevalence of 1.7%, PlGF, hPL, urinary oestriol and uric acid will miss 2 (95% CI 0 to 4), 4 (2 to 8), 6 (6 to 7) and 8 (3 to 13) stillbirths, respectively. No studies assessed the accuracy of ultrasound EFW for detection of pregnancy ending in stillbirth. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical markers of placental dysfunction used alone have insufficient accuracy to identify pregnancies ending in SGA or stillbirth. Studies combining U and placental biomarkers are needed to determine whether this approach improves diagnostic accuracy over the use of ultrasound estimation of fetal size or biochemical markers of placental dysfunction used alone. Many of the studies included in this review were carried out between 1974 and 2016. Studies of placental substances were mostly carried out before 1991 and after 2013; earlier studies may not reflect developments in test technology.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Natimorto
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(5): 591-597, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089011

RESUMO

Objective: We analyzed the maternal and perinatal outcomes in early onset preeclampsia (EOPE) and late onset preeclampsia (LOPE) pregnant women who had scheduled caesarean deliveries. We sub-analyzed the two categories into HIV positive and HIV negative. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at a regional hospital in Durban, South Africa during 14 months. A total of 14304 deliveries were registered. Out of the 1759 preeclampsia, 351 (19.9%) were EOPE and 1408 (80.1%) were LOPE. Hundred and twenty preeclamptics (n = 120) scheduled for caesarean delivery were selected and divided into two categories namely EOPE (n = 60) and LOPE (n = 60). Each preeclampsia category was then further stratified into HIV positive (n = 30) and HIV negative (n = 30) groups. Maternal demographic, clinical details for preeclampsia, blood laboratory tests, maternal, and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Results: Women with EOPE were older compared to those with LOPE (P = 0.0001). Also the HIV positive women were older compared to the HIV negative groups in both EOPE and LOPE categories (P = 0.03). However, multiparous and primiparous were predominant in EOPE and LOPE categories, respectively (P = 0.00 and P = 0.00). The severity of hypertension and the HIV status did not differentiate the 2 groups. Overall, maternal complications (eclampsia, persistent postpartum hypertension, HELLP syndrome, maternal death) and poor fetal outcomes occurred predominately in EOPE. Conclusion: This study confirms the heterogeneity of preeclampsia and shows that the timing of onset of this pregnancy disorder is important to disease severity. Further HIV status influences maternal and neonatal outcome.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Eclampsia/etiologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Síndrome HELLP/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Paridade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 649-659, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041507

RESUMO

A linkage of dichorionic (DC) twin pregnancies with selective intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) to alterations in placental gene expression is unclear. The aim of the study was to identify placental genes related to hypoxia, adipogenesis and human growth which may contribute to IUGR development. The study group (IUGR/AGA) comprised dichorionic (DC) twin pregnancies, where the weight of the twins differed by > 15%; in addition, one twin was small for gestational age (< 10th percentile-SGA) (IUGR) while the other was appropriate for gestational age (> 10th percentile-AGA). In the control group (AGA/AGA), both fetuses were AGA and their weights differed by < 15%. In the first step (selection), placental expression of 260 genes was analysed by commercial PCR profiler array or qPCR primer assay between six pairs of IUGR/AGA twins. In the second stage (verification), the expression of 20 genes with fold change (FC) > 1.5 selected from the first stage was investigated for 75 DC pregnancies: 23 IUGR/AGA vs. 52 AGA/AGA. The expression of Angiopoetin 2, Leptin and Kruppel-like factor 4 was significantly higher, and Glis Family Zinc Finger 3 was lower, in placentas of SGA fetuses (FC = 3.3; 4.4; 1.6; and - 1.8, respectively; p < 0.05). The dysregulation of gene expression related to angiogenesis and growth factors in placentas of twins born from IUGR/AGA pregnancies suggest that these alternations might represent biological fetal adaptation to the uteral condition. Moreover, DC twin pregnancies may be a good model to identify the differences in placental gene expression between SGA and AGA fetuses.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez de Gêmeos/genética , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipóxia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(5): 458-462, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the differences in growth and metabolism between small for gestational age (SGA) infants and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. METHODS: A total of 1 370 preterm infants were enrolled in this study. According to the association between gestational age and birth weight, they were divided into SGA group with 675 infants and AGA group with 695 infants. The two groups were compared in terms of general conditions, physical growth and blood biochemical parameters. RESULTS: The SGA group had a significantly longer length of hospital stay than the AGA group (P<0.05). Compared with the AGA group, the SGA group had significantly lower body weight, body weight Z score, and body length at discharge and significantly higher incidence rate of extrauterine growth retardation and growth rate of head circumference (P<0.05). Compared with the AGA group, the SGA group had significantly longer time to full enteral nutrition and duration of parenteral nutrition (P<0.05). Compared with the AGA group, the SGA group had significantly higher levels of albumin, prealbumin, and serum phosphorus on admission and total bile acid before discharge, as well as a significantly lower albumin level before discharge (P<0.05). The incidence rates of asphyxia, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial damage, feeding intolerance, pneumonia, sepsis, hypoglycemia and hypothyroxinemia in the SGA group were significantly higher than in the AGA group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with AGA infants, SGA infants have significantly delayed physical development during hospitalization and significantly higher incidence rates of extrauterine growth retardation and related complications.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15470, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) is a risk factor for perinatal outcomes, since it may increase the probability of gestational complications including gestational diabetes or cesarean delivery. Additionally, IPWC may affect neonatal outcomes increasing the prevalence of newborns small for gestational age or preterm birth. However, the association between IPWC and perinatal outcomes has not systematically synthesized thus far. This study protocol aims to provide a clear, transparent and standardized procedure for systematically reviewing the association between IPWC and perinatal outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review and meta-analyses protocol is based on the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols and the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science will be systematically searched from their inception. No limits will be defined by study design, as such different tools to assess risk of bias will be used:Odd ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals will be reported to evaluate associations between IPWC and perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will systematically synthesize the evidence regarding the association between IPWC and perinatal outcomes. Data will be extracted from published articles and findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Ethical approval and informed consent will not be required due to the nature of the study. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018100449.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15733, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare heterogenous autoimmune disorder with severe life-threatening complications shown during pregnancy. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically compare the pregnancy outcomes (both maternal and fetal) in patients with APS. METHODS: Web of Science, Google Scholar, Medicus, Cochrane Central, Embase, and Medline were searched for relevant English publications. The main inclusion criteria were based on studies that compared pregnancy outcomes in patients with APS vs a control group. Statistical analysis was carried out by the RevMan software version 5.3. This analysis involved dichotomous data, and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to represent the analysis. RESULTS: Eight studies consisting of a total number of 212,954 participants were included. Seven hundred seventy participants were pregnant women with APS and 212,184 participants were assigned to the control group. Pregnancy-induced hypertension was significantly higher in women with APS (RR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.33 - 2.45; P = .0002). The risks of fetal loss (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.76; P = .05), abortion (RR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.46-4.01; P = .0006), thrombosis (RR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.47-5.44; P = .002), and preterm delivery (RR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.52-2.35; P = .00001) were also significantly higher in women with APS. However, placental abruption (RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.78-2.34; P = .29) and pulmonary embolism were not significantly different (RR: 1.47, 95% CI: 0.11-19.20; P = .77). The risk of neonatal mortality (RR: 3.95, 95% CI: 1.98-7.86; P = .0001), infants small for gestational age (RR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.04-1.82; P = .02), premature infants (RR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.52-2.28; P = .0001), and infants who were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (RR: 3.35, 95% CI: 2.29-4.89; P = .00001) were also significantly higher in women with APS. CONCLUSION: This analysis showed APS to be associated with significantly worse pregnancy outcomes when compared to the control group. A significantly higher risk of maternal and fetal complications was observed in this category of patients. Therefore, intense care should be given to pregnant women with APS to monitor unwanted outcomes and allow a successful pregnancy.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/classificação , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 110, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal infants have poorer birth outcomes than non-Aboriginal infants. Harmful use of tobacco, alcohol, and other substances is higher among Aboriginal women, as is violence, due to factors such as intergenerational trauma and poverty. We estimated the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA) births, preterm births, and perinatal deaths that could be attributed to these risks. METHODS: Birth, hospital, mental health, and death records for Aboriginal singleton infants born in Western Australia from 1998 to 2010 and their parents were linked. Using logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation approach, associations with birth outcomes and population attributable fractions were estimated after adjusting for demographic factors and maternal health during pregnancy. RESULTS: Of 28,119 births, 16% of infants were SGA, 13% were preterm, and 2% died perinatally. 51% of infants were exposed in utero to at least one of the risk factors and the fractions attributable to them were 37% (SGA), 16% (preterm) and 20% (perinatal death). CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of adverse outcomes were attributable to the modifiable risk factors of substance use and assault. Significant improvements in Aboriginal perinatal health are likely to follow reductions in these risk factors. These results highlight the importance of identifying and implementing risk reduction measures which are effective in, and supported by, Aboriginal women, families, and communities.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Modelos Logísticos , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 119, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with several infant outcomes, but it is unclear whether these associations reflect causal relationships. We conducted a study of interpregnancy change in BMI (IPC-BMI) to improve understanding of the associations between BMI and large for gestational age (LGA), small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm birth (PTB). METHODS: Birth certificate data from 2481 linked sibling pairs (Texas, 2005-2012) were used to estimate IPC-BMI and evaluate its association with LGA, SGA, and PTB in the younger sibling of the pair. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using data from the full sample and within strata defined by prepregnancy BMI for the older sibling. RESULTS: On average, women gained 1.1 BMI units between pregnancies. In the full sample, interpregnancy BMI decreases were associated with reduced odds of LGA and increased odds of SGA and PTB (IPC-BMI < -1 versus 0 to < 1: LGA aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4, 1.1; SGA aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0, 2.7; PTB aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.8). In stratified analyses, similar associations were observed in some, but not all, strata. Findings for interpregnancy BMI increases were less consistent, with little evidence for associations between these outcomes and the most extreme IPC-BMI increases. CONCLUSIONS: There is growing evidence that interpregnancy BMI decreases are associated with LGA, SGA, and PTB. However, taken as a whole, the literature provides insufficient evidence to establish causal links between maternal BMI and these outcomes.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/complicações , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Texas
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