Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.628
Filtrar
1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD000280, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are born with low glycogen stores and require higher glucose intake to match fetal accretion rates. In spite of the myriad benefits of breast milk for preterm infants, it may not adequately meet the needs of these rapidly growing infants. Supplementing human milk with carbohydrates may help. However, there is a paucity of data on assessment of benefits or harms of carbohydrate supplementation of human milk to promote growth in preterm infants. This is a 2020 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether human milk supplemented with carbohydrate compared with unsupplemented human milk fed to preterm infants improves growth, body composition, and cardio-metabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes without significant adverse effects. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2019, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE via PubMed on 22 August 2019. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Published and unpublished controlled trials were eligible if they used random or quasi-random methods to allocate preterm infants in hospital fed human milk to supplementation or no supplementation with additional carbohydrate. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed trial quality and the quality of evidence at the outcome level using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. We planned to perform meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We planned to use a fixed-effect model and to explore potential causes of heterogeneity via sensitivity analyses. We contacted study authors for additional information. MAIN RESULTS: One unblinded, quasi-randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing effects of carbohydrate supplementation of human milk in the form of a prebiotic in 75 preterm infants was eligible for inclusion in this review. We identified two publications of the same trial, which reported different methods regarding blinding and randomisation. Study authors confirmed that these publications pertain to the same trial, but they have not yet clarified which method is correct. We were unable to reproduce analyses from the data presented. At 30 days of age, the mean weight of preterm infants in the trial was greater in the prebiotic carbohydrate-supplemented group than in the unsupplemented group (MD 160.4 grams, 95% CI 12.4 to 308.4 grams; one RCT, N = 75; very low-quality evidence). We found no evidence of a clear difference in risk of feeding intolerance (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.15; one RCT, N = 75 infants; very low-quality evidence) or necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.3; one RCT, N = 75 infants; very low-quality evidence) between the prebiotic-supplemented group and the unsupplemented group. Duration of hospital stay was shorter in the prebiotic group than in the control group at a median (range) of 16 (9 to 45) days (95% CI 15.34 to 24.09) and 25 (11 to 80) days (95% CI 25.52 to 34.39), respectively. No other data were available for assessing effects of carbohydrate supplementation on short- and long-term growth, body mass index, body composition, and neurodevelopmental or cardio-metabolic outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found insufficient evidence on the short- and long-term effects of carbohydrate supplementation of human milk in preterm infants. The only trial included in this review presented very low-quality evidence, and study authors provided uncertain information about study methods and analysis. The evidence may be limited in its applicability because researchers included a small sample of preterm infants from a single centre. However, the outcomes assessed are common to all preterm infants, and this trial demonstrates the feasibility of prebiotic carbohydrate supplementation in upper-middle-income countries. Future trials should assess the safety and efficacy of different types and concentrations of carbohydrate supplementation for preterm infants fed human milk. Although prebiotic carbohydrate supplementation in preterm infants is currently a topic of active research, we do not envisage that further trials of digestible carbohydrates will be conducted, as this is currently done as a component of multi-nutrient human milk fortification. Hence we do not plan to publish any further updates of this review.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Prebióticos , Peso Corporal , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Intolerância Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD000433, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants require high protein intake to achieve adequate growth and development. Although breast milk feeding has many benefits for this population, the protein content is highly variable, and inadequate to support rapid infant growth. This is a 2020 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether protein-supplemented human milk compared with unsupplemented human milk, fed to preterm infants, improves growth, body composition, cardio-metabolic, and neurodevelopmental outcomes, without significant adverse effects. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2019, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE via PubMed on 23 August 2019. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Published and unpublished RCTs were eligible if they used random or quasi-random methods to allocate hospitalised preterm infants who were being fed human milk, to additional protein supplementation or no supplementation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently abstracted data, assessed risk of bias and the quality of evidence at the outcome level, using GRADE methodology. We performed meta-analyses, using risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data, and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed-effect model and had planned to explore potential causes of heterogeneity via subgroup or sensitivity analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs, involving 204 preterm infants. The risk of bias for most methodological domains was unclear as there was insufficient detail reported. Low-quality evidence showed that protein supplementation of human milk may increase in-hospital rates of growth in weight (MD 3.82 g/kg/day, 95% CI 2.94 to 4.7; five RCTs, 101 infants; I² = 73%), length (MD 0.12 cm/wk, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.17; four RCTs, 68 infants; I² = 89%), and head circumference (MD 0.06 cm/wk, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12; four RCTs, 68 infants; I² = 84%). Protein supplementation may lead to longer hospital stays (MD 18.5 days, 95% CI 4.39 to 32.61; one RCT, 20 infants; very low-quality evidence). Very low quality evidence means that the effect of protein supplementation on the risk of feeding intolerance (RR 2.70, 95% CI 0.13 to 58.24; one RCT, 17 infants), or necrotizing enterocolitis (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.07 to 17.12; one RCT, 76 infants) remains uncertain. No data were available about the effects of protein supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality evidence showed that protein supplementation of human milk, fed to preterm infants, increased short-term growth. However, the small sample sizes, low precision, and very low-quality evidence regarding duration of hospital stay, feeding intolerance, and necrotising enterocolitis precluded any conclusions about these outcomes. There were no data on outcomes after hospital discharge. Our findings may not be generalisable to low-resource settings, as none of the included studies were conducted in these settings. Since protein supplementation of human milk is now usually done as a component of multi-nutrient fortifiers, future studies should compare different amounts of protein in multi-component fortifiers, and be designed to determine the effects on duration of hospital stay and safety, as well as on long-term growth, body composition, cardio-metabolic, and neurodevelopmental outcomes.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Viés , Estatura , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD000341, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As preterm infants do not experience the nutrient accretion and rapid growth phase of the third trimester of pregnancy, they are vulnerable to postnatal nutritional deficits, including of fat. Consequently, they require higher fat intakes compared to their full term counterparts to achieve adequate growth and development. Human milk fat provides the major energy needs of the preterm infant and also contributes to several metabolic and physiological functions. Although human milk has many benefits for this population, its fat content is highly variable and may be inadequate for their optimum growth and development. This is a 2020 update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2000. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether supplementation of human milk with fat compared with unsupplemented human milk fed to preterm infants improves growth, body composition, cardio-metabolic, and neurodevelopmental outcomes without significant adverse effects. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2019, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE via PubMed on 23 August 2019. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials were eligible if they used random or quasi-random methods to allocate preterm infants fed human milk in hospital to supplementation or no supplementation with additional fat. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: No new randomised controlled trials matching the selection criteria were found but we extracted data from the previously included trial due to changes in review outcomes from when the protocol was first published. Two reviewers independently abstracted data, assessed trial quality, and the quality of evidence at the outcome level using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. We planned to perform meta-analyses using risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We planned to use a fixed-effect model and to explore potential causes of heterogeneity via sensitivity analyses. MAIN RESULTS: One randomised trial involving 14 preterm infants was included. There was no evidence of a clear difference between the fat-supplemented and unsupplemented groups in in-hospital rates of growth in weight (MD 0.6 g/kg/day, 95% CI -2.4 to 3.6; 1 RCT, n = 14 infants, very low-quality evidence), length (MD 0.1 cm/week, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.3; 1 RCT, n = 14 infants, very low-quality evidence) and head circumference (MD 0.2 cm/week, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.4; 1 RCT n = 14 infants, very low-quality evidence). There was no clear evidence that fat supplementation increased the risk of feeding intolerance (RR 3.0, 95% CI 0.1 to 64.3; 1 RCT, n = 16 infants, very low-quality evidence). No data were available regarding the effects of fat supplementation on long-term growth, body mass index, body composition, neurodevelopmental, or cardio-metabolic outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The one included trial suggests no evidence of an effect of fat supplementation of human milk on short-term growth and feeding intolerance in preterm infants. However, the very low-quality evidence, small sample size, few events, and low precision diminishes our confidence that these results reflect the true effect of fat supplementation of human milk in preterm infants, and no long-term outcomes were reported. Further high-quality research should evaluate the effect on short and long-term growth, neurodevelopmental and cardio-metabolic outcomes in the context of the development of multicomponent fortifiers. Optimal dosage, adverse effects, and delivery practices should also be evaluated.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
4.
Am J Nurs ; 120(9): 67, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858704

RESUMO

Editor's note: The mission of Cochrane Nursing is to provide an international evidence base for nurses involved in delivering, leading, or researching nursing care. Cochrane Corner provides summaries of recent systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library. For more information, see https://nursing.cochrane.org.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ganho de Peso
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236994, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854110

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prematurity has been identified as a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and birth-week has not been strongly evidenced. We evaluated the correlation between the degree of prematurity and the incidence of autism in a cohort of 871 children born prematurely and followed from birth. The cohort was reduced to 416 premature infants born between 2011-2017 who were followed for 2-14 years, and analyzed according to birth week (degree of prematurity), and according to gender. RESULTS: 43 children (10.3%) received a definite diagnosis of ASD. There was a significant correlation between birth week and the risk of ASD, with 22.6% of children diagnosed with ASD when born at 25 weeks, versus 6% of ASD diagnoses at 31 weeks of prematurity. For children born after 32 weeks, the incidence decreased to 8-12.5%. A strong link was found between earlier birth week and increased autism risk; the risk remained elevated during near-term prematurity in boys. A correlation between early birth week and an elevated risk for ASD was seen in all children, but accentuated in females, gradually decreasing as birth week progresses; in males the risk for ASD remains elevated for any birth week. CONCLUSION: A statistically significant increase in rates of autism was found with each additional week of prematurity. Females drove this direct risk related to degree of prematurity, while males had an elevated risk throughout prematurity weeks, even at near-term. We recommend including ASD screening in follow up of infants born prematurely, at all levels of prematurity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21096, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702856

RESUMO

RATIONAL: Injury of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in macular area of premature infants is very rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A preterm infant delivered under general anesthesia. The infant was born at 28 weeks' and 4 days' gestation, with a birth weight of 1.15 kg and a treatment of oxygen inhalation after birth. According to the related protocol formulated by the Ophthalmology Branch of the Chinese Medical Association in 2014, the infant was regularly checked in our hospital. DIAGNOSIS: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination showed injuries of the photoreceptors and RPE in macular area. INTERVENTIONS: The fundus screening at 40 weeks' and 4 days' gestation (corrected gestational age) showed retinopathy of prematurity in bilateral eyes, with round yellow-white lesions at the macular area of right eye and sub-temporal macular area. OCT examination showed interrupted signals in the external limiting membrane (ELM), inner segment of the photoreceptors (IS)/outer segment of the photoreceptors (OS) layer, interdigitation zone (IZ), and RPE of the central fovea of macula of the right eye, with the area of defect of approximately 184 µm. Enhanced signal reflection was found under the defect area. Interrupted signals were also found in the IS/OS layer of the central fovea of macula of the left eye, with the area of defect of approximately 222 µm. Fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) examination showed transmitted fluorescence at the macular area of the right eye and sub-temporal macular area of the left eye, suggesting retinopathy of prematurity in bilateral eyes. OUTCOMES: Several factors, such as photic damage, eye injuries, hyperpyrexia, and underlying diseases, could cause macular retinal injuries. However, the baby had not received any radiation from high energy intense light sources, and had no history of hyperpyrexia or trauma. Fundamental screening was performed 1 year and 4 months of age and no obvious change was found in the round yellow-white lesions of the eyes compared with that in earlier stages. We have contacted with the patient for the follow-up OCT and FFA examinations a month later to check the possible structural changes of the macular area. LESSONS: The retina of a preterm infant is underdeveloped, we speculated that the bilateral retinal injuries in this baby could be caused by various factors.


Assuntos
Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/lesões , China , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628715

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the best energy intake in Parenteral Nutrition (PN) for preterm newborns, considering both possible benefits for growth and risk of complications. METHODS: Quasi-experimental study comparing two cohorts of newborns, receiving Energy-Enhanced vs. Standard PN (Cohort A, from 1st January 2015 to 31 January 2016 and Cohort B from 1st February 2016 to 31 March 2017; respectively) after implementation of a change in the PN protocol. The primary outcome measure was growth at 24 months of life. The PN associated complications were also measured. RESULTS: We enrolled 132 newborns in two Cohorts, similar for prenatal and postnatal clinical characteristics. Although, body weight and length at 24 months of life were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the Cohort A (11.1, 95% CI 10.6 to 11.6 Kg; 85.0 95% CI 83.8 to 86.2 cm) compared with Cohort B (10.4, 95% CI 9.9 to 10.9 Kg; 81.3 95% CI 79.7 to 82.8 cm), body weight and length Z-Score in the first 24 months of life were similar between the two Cohorts. The rate of PN associated complications was very high in both study Cohorts (up to 98% of enrolments). Multivariate analysis showed that length at 24 months was significantly associated with receiving standard PN (cohort A) in the first week of life and on the energy intake in the first week of life. We also found a marginally insignificant association between Cohort A assignment and body weight at 24 months of life (p = 0.060). CONCLUSIONS: Energy-enhanced PN in early life has not significant effects on long-term growth in preterm newborns. The high prevalence of PN associated complications, poses concerns about the utility of high energy intake recommended by current guidelines for PN.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrição Parenteral , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013392, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about the optimal point at which multi-component fortifier should be added to human milk for promoting growth in preterm infants. The most common practice is to start fortification when the infant's daily enteral feed volume reaches 100 mL/kg body weight. Another approach is to commence fortification earlier, in some cases as early as the first enteral feed. Early fortification of human milk could increase nutrient intake and growth rates but may increase the risk of feed intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). OBJECTIVES: To assess effects on growth and safety of early fortification of human milk versus late fortification in preterm infants To assess whether effects vary based upon gestational age (≤ 27 weeks; 28 to 31 weeks; ≥ 32 weeks), birth weight (< 1000 g; 1000 to 1499 g; ≥ 1500 g), small or appropriate for gestational age, or type of fortifier (bovine milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF); human milk-based HMF; formula powder) SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 8); OVID MEDLINE (R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions (R) (1946 to 15 August 2019); MEDLINE via PubMed (1 August 2018 to 15 August 2019) for the previous year; and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literatue (CINAHL) (1981 to 15 August 2019). We searched clinical trials databases and reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared early versus late fortification of human milk in preterm infants. We defined early fortification as fortification started at < 100 mL/kg/d enteral feed volume or < 7 days postnatal age, and late fortification as fortification started at ≥ 100 mL/kg/d feeds or ≥ 7 days postnatal age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and independently extracted data. We analysed treatment effects in individual trials, and we reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included two trials with a total of 237 infants. All participants were very low birth weight infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Early fortification was started at 20 mL/kg/d enteral feeds in one study and 40 mL/kg/d in the other study. Late fortification was started at 100 mL/kg/d feeds in both studies. One study used bovine milk-based fortifier, and the other used human milk-based fortifier. Meta-analysis showed that early fortification may have little or no effect on growth outcomes including time to regain birth weight (MD -0.06 days, 95% CI -1.32 to 1.20 days), linear growth (MD 0.10 cm/week, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.22 cm/week), or head growth (MD -0.01 cm/week, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.06 cm/week) during the initial hospitalisation period. Early fortification may have little or no effect on the risk of NEC (MD -0.01, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.06). The certainty of evidence was low for these outcomes due to risk of bias (lack of blinding) and imprecision (small sample size). Early fortification may have little or no effect on incidence of surgical NEC, time to reach full enteral feeds, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, proportion of infants with feed interruption episodes, duration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), duration of central venous line usage, or incidence of invasive infection, all-cause mortality, and duration of hospital stay. The certainty of evidence was low for these outcomes due to risk of bias (lack of blinding) and imprecision (small sample size). We did not have data for other outcomes such as subsequent weight gain after birth weight is regained, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, postdischarge growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence is insufficient to support or refute early fortification of human milk in preterm infants. Further large trials would be needed to provide data of sufficient quality and precision to inform policy and practice.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Peso ao Nascer , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
9.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003122, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional supplements may improve short-term growth of infants born small (preterm or small for gestational age), but there are few data on long-term effects and concerns that body composition may be adversely affected. Effects also may differ between girls and boys. Our systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of macronutrient supplements for infants born small on later growth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched OvidMedline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to January 30, 2020, and controlled-trials.com, clinicaltrials.gov, and anzctr.org.au on January 30, 2020. Randomised or quasirandomised trials were included if the intention was to increase macronutrient intake to improve growth or development of infants born small and growth was assessed after discharge. Primary outcome was body mass index (BMI) in childhood. Data were pooled using random-effect models. Outcomes were evaluated in toddlers (< 3 years), childhood (3 to 8 years), adolescence (9 to 18 years), and adulthood (>18 years). Forty randomised and 2 quasirandomised trials of variable methodological quality with 4,352 infants were included. Supplementation did not alter BMI in childhood (7 trials, 1,136 children; mean difference [MD] -0.10 kg/m2, [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 0.16], p = 0.45). In toddlers, supplementation increased weight (31 trials, 2,924 toddlers; MD 0.16 kg, [0.01 to 0.30], p = 0.03) and length/height (30 trials, 2,889 toddlers; MD 0.44 cm, [0.10 to 0.77], p = 0.01), but not head circumference (29 trials, 2,797 toddlers; MD 0.15 cm, [-0.03 to 0.33], p = 0.10). In childhood, there were no significant differences between groups in height (7 trials, 1,136 children; MD 0.22 cm, [-0.48 to 0.92], p = 0.54) or lean mass (3 trials, 354 children; MD -0.07 kg, [-0.98 to 0.85], p = 0.88), although supplemented children appeared to have higher fat mass (2 trials, 201 children; MD 0.79 kg, [0.19 to 1.38], p = 0.01). In adolescence, there were no significant differences between groups in BMI (2 trials, 216 adolescents; MD -0.48 kg/m2, [-2.05 to 1.08], p = 0.60), height (2 trials, 216 adolescents; MD -0.55 cm, [-2.95 to 1.86], p = 0.65), or fat mass (2 trials, 216 adolescents; MD -1.3 5 kg, [-5.76 to 3.06], p = 0.55). In adulthood, there also were no significant differences between groups in weight z-score (2 trials, 199 adults; MD -0.11, [-0.72 to 0.50], p = 0.73) and height z-score (2 trials, 199 adults; MD -0.07, [-0.36 to 0.22], p = 0.62). In subgroup analysis, supplementation was associated with increased length/height in toddler boys (2 trials, 173 boys; MD 1.66 cm, [0.75 to 2.58], p = 0.0003), but not girls (2 trials, 159 girls; MD 0.15 cm, [-0.71 to 1.01], p = 0.74). Limitations include considerable unexplained heterogeneity, low to very low quality of evidence, and possible bias due to low or unbalanced followup. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we found no evidence that early macronutrient supplementation for infants born small altered BMI in childhood. Although supplements appeared to increase weight and length in toddlers, effects were inconsistent and unlikely to be clinically significant. Limited data suggested that supplementation increased fat mass in childhood, but these effects did not persist in later life. PROSPERO registration: CRD42019126918.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369502

RESUMO

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was to analyze and evaluate the impact of prematurity and accelerated weight gain on the risk of childhood and adolescent obesity. CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched until December 2019 which yielded 19 studies with a total of 169,439 children enrolled were systematically reviewed. The results revealed that preterm infants had a greater likelihood of childhood obesity (defined as BMI ≥95th percentile for age-sex), than term infants (OR = 1.19, 95% CI [1.13, 1.26]). However, no difference of childhood obesity was found between "small for gestational age"(SGA) and "appropriate for gestational age"(AGA) among preterms. Accelerated weight gain (defined as weight gain velocity during first two years after birth) significantly increased the likelihood of subsequent childhood obesity among preterms (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.57, 2.231]). In conclusion, accelerated weight gain at infancy among preterm children may be a critical contributor to obesity in later life. Establishing optimal growth trajectories and timely referral to health care providers may be of clinical importance.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Humanos , Risco
11.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101168, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Weight gain is the main criterion for hospital discharge. This study measured the effectiveness of treating preterm neonates with massage therapy. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Web of Science, Ovid-Medline, CINAHL, ProQuest, and PubMed (up to July 24, 2018). STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials involving preterm infants with very-low-birth weight or low-birth-weight that examined the effect of massage therapy, and at least one outcome assessing infants' weight change or weight gain. RESULTS: Pooled effect estimate from 15 trials with 697 participants showed that massage therapy improved daily weight gain by 5.07 g/day (95% CI 2.19-7.94, p = 0.0005). More benefits were observed when preterm neonates received moderate pressure massage (5.60 g/day, 95% CI 2.64-8.56, p = 0.0002) than when receiving light-pressure therapy (1.08 g/day, 95% CI 0.29-1.86, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy is beneficial for preterm infant weight gain.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Massagem/métodos , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postnatal vitamin D supplementation is standard of care in neonates and preterm infants. Despite routine supplementation of vitamin D, a wide range of complications related to vitamin D deficiency has been described in the literature. Since standard vitamin D supplementation might be not sufficient in preterm infants with a genetic predisposition for vitamin D deficiency, we investigated the outcome of preterm infants with regard to their genetic estimated vitamin D levels. METHODS: Preterm infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams were included in the German Neonatal Network at the time of their birth and tested at the age of five. The vitamin D level was genetically calculated based on three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: rs12794714, rs7944926 and rs2282679) which alter vitamin D synthesis pathways. Specific alleles of these polymorphisms are validated markers for low plasma vitamin D levels. Outcome data were based on baseline data at the time of birth, typical complications of prematurity, body measurements at the age of five and occurrence of bone fractures. T-test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical comparison. RESULTS: According to their genetic predisposition, 1,924 preterm infants were divided into groups of low (gsVitD < 20. Percentile), intermediate and high vitamin D level estimates. Low genetic vitamin D level estimates could not be shown to be associated with any adverse outcome measures examined. The analyses covered data on aforementioned determinants. CONCLUSION: Low genetic vitamin D level estimates could not be shown to be associated with previously described adverse outcome in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses whether low birthweight/preterm (LBW/PT) adolescents with persistent inattention (PIA) have neuropsychological deficits that distinguish them from adolescents with school age limited inattention (SAL) and those largely unaffected (UA). METHOD: Three latent classes (PIA, SAL, UA), derived from an earlier analysis of a LBW/PT birth cohort were compared on non-executive and executive functioning measures assessed at age 16. RESULTS: The PIA class displayed the poorest performance on executive functioning, which was exaggerated in the context of lower IQ. The PIA and the SAL classes had poorer performance on non-executive functioning relative to the UA class. Both types of functioning mediated the relationship of class to school service use and grade retention. CONCLUSION: Neuropsychological impairment characterizes children and adolescents with inattention problems. Problems in executive functioning characterize the subset whose inattention persists through adolescence. Subsequent research can examine the potential for remediating these deficits to address academic and social problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Atenção , Função Executiva , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the optimal choice for feeding premature babies. However, the prevalence rate of extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants remains high. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze the macronutrients present in human milk and the correlation with the growth of in-hospital preterm infants. METHODS: This prospective study is based on data from 99 in-hospital preterm infants younger than 37 weeks of gestational age on an exclusively human milk diet. Infants who had previously received parenteral nutrition were eligible, but they had to have reached full enteral feeding at the time that the samples were taken. A total of 3282 samples of raw human milk or donor pasteurized milk were collected. The levels of lactose, protein, fat, and energy in the samples were measured using a Miris human milk analyzer. The primary outcome was weight growth velocity (g/kg/day) which was obtained using two-point approach. RESULTS: The mean (±standard deviation) macronutrient composition per 100 mL of milk was 7.2 (±0.3) g of lactose, 1.1 (±0.2) g of true protein, 3.5 (±0.9) g of fat, and 66.9 (±6.5) kcal of energy. The protein concentration in human milk had a positive, significant correlation with body weight gain, with a coefficient of 0.41 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for gestational age, postmenstrual age, small-for-gestational age, intraventricular hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus or congestive heart failure, duration of total parenteral nutrition support, bottle feeding or use of orogastric tube, and ventilator support, total daily protein intake was associated with body weight growth (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both the protein concentration in human milk and the daily total protein intake had a positive correlation with the body weight gain of premature infants. Routine analysis of breast milk and individualized fortification might be indicated to optimize the growth of preterm infants.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(9): 1120-1134, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101461

RESUMO

Rationale: Antenatal factors, such as chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, and postnatal injury, are associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) after preterm birth. IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) is markedly decreased in normal preterm infants, but whether IGF-1 treatment can prevent BPD or PH is unknown.Objectives: To evaluate whether postnatal treatment with rhIGF-1 (recombinant human IGF-1)/BP3 (binding peptide 3) improves lung growth and prevents PH in two antenatal models of BPD induced by intraamniotic exposure to endotoxin (ETX) or sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1), and in a postnatal model due to prolonged hyperoxia.Methods: ETX or sFlt-1 were administered into the amniotic sac of pregnant rats at Embryonic Day 20 to simulate antenatal models of chorioamnionitis and preeclampsia, respectively. Pups were delivered by cesarean section at Embryonic Day 22 and treated with rhIGF-1/BP3 (0.02-20 mg/kg/d intraperitoneal) or buffer for 2 weeks. Study endpoints included radial alveolar counts (RACs), vessel density, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). Direct effects of rhIGF-1/BP3 (250 ng/ml) on fetal lung endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation and alveolar type 2 cell proliferation were studied by standard methods in vitro.Measurements and Main Results: Antenatal ETX and antenatal sFlt-1 reduced RAC and decreased RVH in infant rats. In both models, postnatal rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment restored RAC and RVH to normal values when compared with placebo injections. rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment also preserved lung structure and prevented RVH after postnatal hyperoxia. In vitro studies showed that rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment increased lung endothelial cell and alveolar type 2 cell proliferation.Conclusions: Postnatal rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment preserved lung structure and prevented RVH in antenatal and postnatal BPD models. rhIGF-1/BP3 treatment may provide a novel strategy for the prevention of BPD in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(5): 504-509, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postnatal thyroid dysfunction is common in preterm infants but the relationship between mild dysfunction and neurodevelopment is unclear. Our aim is to describe the relationship between thyroid function and neurodevelopment. DESIGN: Cohort analysis. PATIENTS: 1275 infants born under 31 weeks' gestation; there were no exclusion criteria. SETTING: The infants were part of a UK daily iodine supplementation trial. MAIN OUTCOMES: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid-binding globulin and total thyroxine levels were measured in dried blood spots on postnatal days 7, 14, 28 and the equivalent of 34 weeks' gestation. Neurodevelopment was measured using the Bayley-III Scales of infant development at 2 years of age. RESULTS: No infant was identified as hypothyroid through routine screening. The 3% of infants consistently in the top decile of gestationally age-adjusted thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had a reduction in cognitive score of 7 Bayley units when compared with those not in the top decile (95% CI -13 to -1). A reduction in motor composite score of 6 units (95% CI -12 to <-0.1) and fine motor score of 1 unit (95% CI -2 to -0.1) was also identified. The 0.7% of infants consistently in the bottom decile of age-adjusted thyroxine levels had a reduction in motor composite score of 14 units (95% CI -25 to -2) and its two subset scores, fine and gross motor, of 2 units (95% CI respectively -4.5 to <-0.1 and -4.3 to -0.3). CONCLUSIONS: Preterm infants with consistent 'mild' thyroid dysfunction score less on neurodevelopmental tests at 2 years of age. Many of these infants will not be detected by current clinical protocols or screening programmes.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireotropina/sangue , Reino Unido
17.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1196-1207, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in preterm infants is associated with higher morbidity and impaired neurodevelopment. Early nutrition support may prevent EUGR in preterm infants, but it is not known if this improves organ development and brain function in the short and long term. OBJECTIVE: Using pigs as models for infants, we hypothesized that diet-induced EUGR impairs gut, immunity, and brain development in preterm neonates during the first weeks after birth. METHODS: Forty-four preterm caesarean-delivered pigs (Danish Landrace × Large White × Duroc, birth weight 975 ± 235 g, male:female ratio 23:21) from 2 sows were fed increasing volumes [32-180 mL/(kg·d)] of dilute bovine milk (EUGR group) or the same diet fortified with powdered bovine colostrum for 19 d (CONT group, 50-100% higher protein and energy intake than the EUGR group). RESULTS: The EUGR pigs showed reduced body growth (-39%, P < 0.01), lower plasma albumin, phosphate, and creatine kinase concentrations (-35 to 14%, P < 0.05), increased cortisol and free iron concentrations (+130 to 700%, P < 0.05), and reduced relative weights of the intestine, liver, and spleen (-38 to 19%, all P < 0.05). The effects of EUGR on gut structure, function, microbiota, and systemic immunity were marginal, although EUGR temporarily increased type 1 helper T cell (Th1) activity (e.g. more blood T cells and higher Th1-related cytokine concentrations on day 8) and reduced colon nutrient fermentation (lower SCFA concentration; -45%, P < 0.01). Further, EUGR pigs showed increased relative brain weights (+19%, P < 0.01), however, memory and learning, as tested in a spatial T-maze, were not affected. CONCLUSION: Most of the measured organ growth, and digestive, immune, and brain functions showed limited effects of diet-induced EUGR in preterm pigs during the first weeks after birth. Likewise, preterm infants may show remarkable physiological adaptation to deficient nutrient supply during the first weeks of life although early life malnutrition may exert negative consequences later.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imunidade/fisiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Colostro , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Leite , Modelos Animais , Apoio Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD010333, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are subjected to stress, including sound of high intensity. The sound environment in the NICU is louder than most home or office environments and contains disturbing noises of short duration and at irregular intervals. There are competing auditory signals that frequently challenge preterm infants, staff and parents. The sound levels in NICUs often exceed the maximum acceptable level of 45 decibels (dB), recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Hearing impairment is diagnosed in 2% to 10% of preterm infants versus 0.1% of the general paediatric population. Noise may cause apnoea, hypoxaemia, alternation in oxygen saturation, and increased oxygen consumption secondary to elevated heart and respiratory rates and may, therefore, decrease the amount of calories available for growth. Elevated levels of speech are needed to overcome the noisy environment in the NICU, thereby increasing the negative impacts on staff, newborns, and their families. High noise levels are associated with an increased rate of errors and accidents, leading to decreased performance among staff. The aim of interventions included in this review is to reduce sound levels to 45 dB or less. This can be achieved by lowering the sound levels in an entire unit, treating the infant in a section of a NICU, in a 'private' room, or in incubators in which the sound levels are controlled, or reducing the sound levels that reaches the individual infant by using earmuffs or earplugs. By lowering the sound levels that reach the neonate, the resulting stress on the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, and endocrine systems can be diminished, thereby promoting growth and reducing adverse neonatal outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective To determine the effects of sound reduction on growth and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of neonates. Secondary objectives 1. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction on short-term medical outcomes (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity). 2. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction on sleep patterns at three months of age. 3. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction on staff performance. 4. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on parents' satisfaction with the care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, abstracts from scientific meetings, clinical trials registries (clinicaltrials.gov; controlled-trials.com; and who.int/ictrp), Pediatric Academic Societies Annual meetings 2000 to 2014 (Abstracts2ViewTM), reference lists of identified trials, and reviews to November 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Preterm infants (< 32 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) or < 1500 g birth weight) cared for in the resuscitation area, during transport, or once admitted to a NICU or a stepdown unit. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed data collection and analyses according to the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. MAIN RESULTS: One small, high quality study assessing the effects of silicone earplugs versus no earplugs qualified for inclusion. The original inclusion criteria in our protocol stipulated an age of < 48 hours at the time of initiating sound reduction. We made a deviation from our protocol and included this study in which some infants would have been > 48 hours old. There was no significant difference in weight at 34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA): mean difference (MD) 111 g (95% confidence interval (CI) -151 to 374 g) (n = 23). There was no significant difference in weight at 18 to 22 months corrected age between the groups: MD 0.31 kg, 95% CI -1.53 to 2.16 kg (n = 14). There was a significant difference in Mental Developmental Index (Bayley II) favouring the silicone earplugs group at 18 to 22 months corrected age: MD 14.00, 95% CI 3.13 to 24.87 (n = 12), but not for Psychomotor Development Index (Bayley II) at 18 to 22 months corrected age: MD -2.16, 95% CI -18.44 to 14.12 (n =12). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: To date, only 34 infants have been enrolled in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of reducing sound levels that reach the infants' ears in the NICU. Based on the small sample size of this single trial, we cannot make any recommendations for clinical practice. Larger, well designed, conducted and reported trials are needed.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Som/efeitos adversos , Estresse Fisiológico , Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Ruído , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(2): 160-165, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact on early development of prematurity and summer birth and the potential 'double disadvantage' created by starting school a year earlier than anticipated during pregnancy, due to being born preterm. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: We investigated the impact of gestational and school-entry age on the likelihood of failing to achieve a 'Good Level of Development' (GLD) on the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile in 5-year-old children born moderate-to-late preterm using data from the Born in Bradford longitudinal birth cohort. We used hierarchical logistic regression to control for chronological maturity, and perinatal and socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: Gestational age and school-entry age were significant predictors of attaining a GLD in the 10 337 children who entered school in the correct academic year given their estimated date of delivery. The odds of not attaining a GLD increased by 1.09 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.11) for each successive week born early and by 1.17 for each month younger within the year group (95% CI 1.16 to 1.18). There was no interaction between these two effects. Children starting school a year earlier than anticipated during pregnancy were less likely to achieve a GLD compared with (1) other children born preterm (fully adjusted OR 5.51 (2.85-14.25)); (2) term summer births (3.02 (1.49-6.79)); and (3) preterm summer births who remained within their anticipated school-entry year (3.64 (1.27-11.48)). CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the developmental risks faced by children born moderate-to-late preterm, and-for the first time-illustrate the increased risk associated with 'double disadvantage'.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(2): 134-140, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk of neurodevelopmental delay, but data on long-term outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries remain scarce. OBJECTIVES: To examine neurodevelopment using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd edition (Bayley-III) and neurological findings in 2-year-old preterm infants, and to compare with healthy Vietnamese infants. Further, to assess factors associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study to follow up preterm infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary children's hospital in Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: Infants born at <37 weeks of gestational age. MAIN OUTCOMES: Bayley-III assessment and neurological examination at 2-year corrected age (CA) compared with healthy Vietnamese infants. RESULTS: Of 294 NICU preterm infants, Bayley-III scores of all 184/243 (76%) survivors at 2 years CA were significantly lower than those of healthy Vietnamese peers in all three domains: cognition (mean (SD): 84.5 (8.6) vs 91.4 (7.5), p<0.001), language (mean (SD): 88.7 (12.5) vs 95.9 (11.9), p<0.001) and motor (mean (SD): 93.1 (9.0) vs 96.8 (9.3), p=0.003). The mean differences in Bayley-III scores between preterm and healthy Vietnamese infants were -6.9 (-9.1 to -4.7), -7.2 (-10.5 to -3.8) and -3.7 (-6.1 to -1.2) for cognitive, language and motor scores, respectively. The prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment was 17% for cognitive, 8% for language and 4% for motor performance. In total, 7% were diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Higher maternal education was positively associated with infant neurodevelopment (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Vietnamese preterm infants in need of neonatal intensive care showed poor neurodevelopment at 2 years. Higher maternal education was positively associated with infant neurodevelopment. Standard follow-up programmes for preterm infants should be considered in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Vietnã
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA