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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17575, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651860

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chylothorax remains a poorly understood phenomenon, and no optimal treatment or guidelines have been established. This is the first report of treating congenital chylothorax and lymphedema in a low-birth-weight infant by lymphovenous anastomosis (LVA). PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of successful LVA for persistent congenital chylothorax and lymphedema resistant to other conservative therapies. DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis of chylothorax was confirmed by the predominance of lymphocytes in the pleural fluid draining from the chest tube. In addition, the infant developed oliguria and generalized lymphedema. INTERVENTIONS: LVA under local anesthesia combined with light sedation was performed at his medial thighs and left upper arm. OUTCOMES: Although his subcutaneous edema markedly improved, the decrease in chest tube drainage was gradual. No additional treatment was required. LESSONS: LVA is of considerable value as a surgical treatment option in the setting of persistent congenital chylothorax and lymphedema, because LVA is a less invasive procedure.


Assuntos
Quilotórax/congênito , Vasos Linfáticos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Quilotórax/cirurgia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cavidade Pleural/cirurgia
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1125-1129, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594158

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relationship between exposure factors in early pregnancy and preterm birth (PB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) of neonates. Methods: A total of 3 172 pregnant women who were enrolled in the project of Chinese Pregnant Women Cohort Study-Peking Union Medical College (CPWCS-PUMC) from July 25, 2017 to July 24, 2018 and delivered before December 31, 2018 were selected as subjects in this study. The relationship between exposure factors in early pregnancy and adverse outcomes of neonatal delivery was analyzed by using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The incidence rates of PB, LBW and SGA were 4.76%, 3.53% and 5.74%, respectively. In terms of PB, the analysis results showed that the gestational weight gain (GWG) and living in northern China were protective factors, while premature rupture of membranes, gestational hypertension, dental examination or treatment within 1-3 years and family with 3-4 members were risk factors. In the respect of LBW, GWG and daily consumption of milk and dairy products were the protective factors, while premature rupture of membranes, gestational hypertension, sedentary working time more than 6 hours, dental examination or treatment within 1-3 years and passive smoking were risk factors. For SGA, baby girl, passive smoking, peanut oil consumption and unsalted taste were risk factors, while folic acid supplementation was protective factor. Conclusion: The risk factors for PB, LBW and SGA were multifactorial, and relevant specific measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of adverse neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17512, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease affected by multiple factors such as infection and preterm birth. The role of sepsis in the development of ROP remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify the impact of sepsis on ROP. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using terms related to sepsis and ROP. Cohort or case-control studies that reported the association of sepsis and ROP were eligible. The odds ratios (ORs) together with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted from the studies or computed by authors if not provided. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that sepsis increased the risk for the development of any stage ROP (OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.65-2.82). Both early onset (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.97-3.18) and late-onset (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.22-1.55) sepsis were associated with severe ROP. Furthermore, both bacterial sepsis (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.21-2.50) and fungal sepsis (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 2.05-4.28) were also found to be associated with severe ROP. CONCLUSION: Sepsis increased the risk of any stage ROP, especially for the severe ROP. Further high-quality clinical studies are needed to eliminate heterogeneity and publication bias to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/etiologia , Sepse/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Razão de Chances
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013201, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH) remains a substantial issue in neonatal intensive care units worldwide. Current therapies to prevent or treat GMH-IVH are limited. Stem cell-based therapies offer a potential therapeutic approach to repair, restore, and/or regenerate injured brain tissue. These preclinical findings have now culminated in ongoing human neonatal studies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of stem cell-based interventions for prevention or treatment of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GM-IVH) in preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 1), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 7 January 2019); Embase (1980 to 7 January 2019); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 7 January 2019). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We attempted to identify randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, and cluster trials comparing (1) stem cell-based interventions versus control; (2) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) of type or source versus MSCs of other type or source; (3) stem cell-based interventions other than MSCs of type or source versus stem cell-based interventions other than MSCs of other type or source; or (4) MSCs versus stem cell-based interventions other than MSCs. For prevention studies, we included extremely preterm infants (less than 28 weeks' gestation), 24 hours of age or less, without ultrasound diagnosis of GM-IVH; for treatment studies, we included preterm infants (less than 37 weeks' gestation), of any postnatal age, with ultrasound diagnosis of GM-IVH. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For each of the included trials, two review authors independently planned to extract data (e.g. number of participants, birth weight, gestational age, type and source of MSCs, other stem cell-based interventions) and assess the risk of bias (e.g. adequacy of randomisation, blinding, completeness of follow-up). Primary outcomes considered in this review are all-cause neonatal mortality, major neurodevelopmental disability, GM-IVH, and extension of pre-existing non-severe GM-IVH. We planned to use the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Our search strategy yielded 769 references. We did not find any completed studies for inclusion. One randomised controlled trial is currently registered and ongoing. Five phase 1 trials are described in the excluded studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently no evidence is available to show the benefits or harms of stem cell-based interventions for treatment or prevention of GM-IVH in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
JAMA ; 322(12): 1195-1205, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550037

RESUMO

Importance: Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria can identify patients for whom treatment might be beneficial for preventing symptomatic infection and other health outcomes. Objective: To systematically review benefits and harms of asymptomatic bacteriuria screening and treatment in adults, including during pregnancy, to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed (publisher-supplied records), and Cochrane Collaboration Central Registry of Controlled Trials; surveillance through May 24, 2019. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies on benefits and harms of screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria; RCTs on benefits and harms of asymptomatic bacteriuria treatment. Eligible populations included unselected, asymptomatic individuals without known urinary tract conditions. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Independent critical appraisal and data abstraction by 2 reviewers. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate benefits of the interventions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Symptomatic infection; function, morbidity, mortality; pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Results: Nineteen studies (N = 8443) meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Two cohort studies (n = 5289) found fewer cases of pyelonephritis in the cohorts of screened pregnant women (0.5%) than within retrospective comparisons of unscreened cohorts (2.2% and 1.8%); the larger study estimated a statistically significant relative risk of 0.30 (95% CI, 0.15-0.60). No studies examined screening in nonpregnant populations. Among 12 trials of asymptomatic bacteriuria screening and treatment during pregnancy (n = 2377; 1 conducted within past 30 years), there were reduced rates of pyelonephritis (range, 0%-16.5% for the intervention group and 2.2%-36.4% for the control group; pooled risk ratio [RR], 0.24 [95% CI, 0.14-0.40]; 12 trials) and low birth weight (range, 2.5%-14.8% for the intervention group and 6.7%-21.4% for the control group; pooled RR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.46-0.90]; 7 trials). There was no significant difference in infant mortality (pooled RR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.29-3.26]; 6 trials). Five RCTs of asymptomatic bacteriuria treatment in nonpregnant adults (n = 777) did not report any significant differences in risk of infection, mobility, or mortality. Limited evidence on harms of screening or treatment was available, and no statistically significant differences were identified. Conclusions and Relevance: Screening and treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy was associated with reduced rates of pyelonephritis and low birth weights, but the available evidence was not current, with only 1 study conducted in the past 30 years. Benefits of asymptomatic bacteriuria treatment in nonpregnant adult populations were not found. Trial evidence on harms of asymptomatic bacteriuria antibiotic treatment was limited.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriúria/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Pielonefrite/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 127, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558926

RESUMO

Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important predictor of newborn survival and development. Given its pathophysiology, malaria is presumed to be one of the risk factors for low birth weight. This study aims to determine the association between malaria in pregnant women (PW) and LBW (weight < 2500 g). Methods: We conducted a case-control analytical study based on the administration of a questionnaire and an observation chart. We calculated the crude odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted odds ratio to determine this association. Logistic regression was applied to recognize the variables which act as determinants of the issue under discussion. Results: This study involved 156 women (78 cases and 78 controls). The prevalence of LBW was 12.32% (105/852); 41.02% (64/156) of women had had malaria during pregnancy and 42.14% of parturients had received three doses of IPT (intermittent preventive treatment). A significant association between malaria and LBW emerged. Crude odds ratio= 3.75 [P = 0.0001 (p < 0.05)] and adjusted OR = 2.82 [P = 0.01 (p < 0.05)] were calculated taking into account the various confusion factors. Conclusion: Malaria during pregnancy is a factor increasing the risk of LBW. Efforts should be made to improve IPT coverage and the use of long lasting impregnated mosquito nets in order to prevent malaria during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Peso ao Nascer , Malária/complicações , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Camarões , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1152-1159, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390705

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports that maternal exposure to vanadium (V) is associated with adverse birth outcomes including preterm birth and low birth weight. However, the effect of V exposure on intrauterine fetal growth and the underlying biological mechanism are still unclear. The present study includes 227 mother-infant pairs from the Shanghai Maternal-Child Pairs Cohort to assess the gender-specific effect of intrauterine V exposure on fetal growth and related cytokines. Maternal blood samples were collected to measure V concentration and biomarkers of growth. We used multiple linear regression to evaluate the gender-specific effect of prenatal V exposure on birth parameter and growth-related cytokines. Mixed-effect models were applied to assess the non-linear association between gestational V exposure and intrauterine fetal growth. Covariates adjusted in the regression models as potential confounders including maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weeks, parity, socio-demographic status, etc. Results showed that prenatal V exposure was negatively associated with birth weight (ß = -64.73) in female newborns and body length (ß = -0.10) in male. During the fetal period, maternal V exposure was associated with decreased biparietal diameter (ß = -0.91), head circumference (ß = -2.96), femur length (ß = -0.72) and humerus length (ß = -0.64) in male. Trimester-specific analyses showed that serum V concentration in the second trimester was associated with significant reductions in intrauterine growth parameters. Besides, prenatal V exposure could down-regulate the expression of growth hormone (GH) in both maternal blood (ß = -0.23) and umbilical cord blood (ß = -1.66) in male fetuses, and the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cord blood in females (ß = -0.52). Our results suggest that prenatal V exposure has a gender-specific effect on fetal growth and the second trimester may be a sensitive window. The disruption of grow-related cytokines may potentially be the biological mechanism of these effects.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Vanádio/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(3): 497-502, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391417

RESUMO

Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. A significant portion of patient with perinatal asphyxia is admitted with complications. Cerebral complications are the most devastating and the child may be left with lifelong neurological impairment. Therefore, the high index of suspicion, prompt recognition and thorough understanding of common sonographic abnormalities are necessary to ensure timely intervention, management and counseling. A hospital based case control study was conducted in the neonatal unit of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Study period was six months (June 2012 to December 2012). This study was done to compare the ultra sonogram of brain findings of admitted asphyxiated babies with admitted non-asphyxiated babies. A total of 30 asphyxiated (case) and another 30 non-asphyxiated (control) neonate of this department were enrolled in the study. Necessary information was collected by taking detailed history, clinical examination and also close follow up of the neonates according to pre-designed questionnaire. The main outcome variable was abnormality in cranial ultrasound. Among case group (30 neonates), ultrasonogram of brain findings were abnormal in 9(30.0%) cases. Among them most common was ventricular dilatation 5(16.6%), followed by Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) 1(3.0%), intracranial hemorrhage 1(3.0%), HIE 1(3.0%) and cerebral edema in 1(3.0%) cases. On the contrarary, among asphyxiated control group all 30 cases had normal ultra sonogram of brain. In case group 22 babies had normal birth weight and 08 had low birth weight. Among the 22 normal birth weight neonates in case group total 6(27.2%) cases had abnormal ultra sonogram findings. Among normal birth weight cases 3(13.6%) had ventricular dilatation, 1(4.5%) Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 1(4.5%) HIE, 1(4.5%) cerebral edema. Among 08 low birth weight neonates in case group total 3(37.5%) cases had abnormal ultrasonogram of brain finding. Among low birth weight cases 2(25%) had ventricular dilatation, 1(12.5%) IVH. Ultrasonogram brain findings difference between two groups was statistically significant. Abnormal findings were also common in low birth weight babies than normal birth weight babies. So, early detection of abnormal brain changes can help us for proper management and counseling.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Encéfalo , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Bangladesh , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD002972, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial formula can be manipulated to contain higher amounts of macro-nutrients than maternal breast milk but breast milk confers important immuno-nutritional advantages for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of feeding preterm or LBW infants with formula compared with maternal breast milk on growth and developmental outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 9), and Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Maternity & Infant Care Database, and CINAHL to October 2018. We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula versus maternal breast milk. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors planned independently to assess trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extract data. We planned to analyse treatment effects as described in the individual trials and report risk ratios and risk differences for dichotomous data, and mean differences for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals. We planned to use a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and to explore potential causes of heterogeneity in subgroup analyses. We planned to use the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We did not identify any eligible trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are no trials of formula versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Such trials are unlikely to be conducted because of the difficulty of allocating an alternative form of nutrition to an infant whose mother wishes to feed with her own breast milk. Maternal breast milk remains the default choice of enteral nutrition because observational studies, and meta-analyses of trials comparing feeding with formula versus donor breast milk, suggest that feeding with breast milk has major immuno-nutritional advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(8): 829-834, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378044

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the types of dietary patterns of women during pregnancy in Shaanxi and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional program named "The prevalence and risk factors of birth defects in Shaanxi Province" from July to November in 2013. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to extract 15 980 women of childbearing age who met the inclusion exclusion criteria from Shaanxi Province. The questionnaire obtained information such as the pregnancy outcome and the food intake of the study subjects during pregnancy. The dietary pattern was extracted by factor analysis, and the each dietary pattern of subjects were divided into T(1)-T(3) groups according to the factor score. The effects of each dietary pattern on major adverse pregnancy outcomes were estimated by unconditional logistic regression model. Results: Four dietary patterns were established:vegetarian pattern, balanced pattern, traditional pattern, and processing pattern. The multivariate logistic regression model results showed that compared with the vegetarian pattern T(2) group, the T(1) group had lower risk of low birth weight (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.41-0.83), and the T(3) group had higher risk of low birth weight in offspring (OR=2.32, 95%CI: 1.59-3.89); compared with the traditional pattern T(2) group, the T(3) group had higher risk of premature (OR=2.62, 95%CI: 1.58-5.01); compared with the balanced pattern T(2) group, the T(3) group had a lower risk of spontaneous abortion (OR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.36-0.89); compared with the processing pattern T(2) group, the T(3) group had a higher risk of spontaneous abortion (OR=1.97, 95%CI: 1.36-3.34) and higher risk of stillbirth (OR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.49-6.26), and the T(1) group had a lower risk of stillbirths in offspring (OR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.33-0.83). Conclusion: The women of childbearing age in Shaanxi have different dietary patterns, and there may be a correlation between dietary patterns and adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
13.
Univ. salud ; 21(2): 166-175, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1004855

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: El peso al nacer es un importante indicador de salud del recién nacido, de la madre y de las condiciones de salubridad de una sociedad; además es reconocido como la principal causa de morbimortalidad en la infancia. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre seguridad alimentaria en el hogar durante el último trimestre del embarazo y el bajo peso al nacer. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y controles; se incluyeron 73 recién nacidos a término con bajo peso y 73 neonatos con peso normal. Se analizaron variables demográficas, clínicas y de seguridad alimentaria. Resultados: El bajo peso al nacer se asoció con la inseguridad alimentaria en el hogar (OR: 19,3; IC 95%: 6,5-56,9), ajustando por hipertensión arterial de la madre, vaginosis, antecedente de ruptura prematura de membranas y malnutrición gestacional por exceso. Conclusiones: Se encontró una asociación importante entre la inseguridad alimentaria en el hogar durante el último trimestre de gestación y el bajo peso al nacer de los neonatos atendidos en el hospital San Pedro de Pasto. La fuerza de la asociación podría subestimarse en ausencia de ajuste por variables clínicas y demográficas.


Abstract Introduction: Birth weight is an important indicator of the health of the newborn and of the mother. It can also be used as a parameter to define sanitary conditions of societies. Low birth weight is well known as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Objective: To determine the association between home food security during the last trimester of pregnancy and low birth weight. Materials and methods: A cases and controls study that included 73 full-term newborns with low weight and 73 normal weight neonates. Demographic, clinical and food security variables were analyzed. Results: Low birth weight was associated with home food insecurity (OR: 19.3; CI 95%: 6.5-56.9), when adjusted to mother's arterial hypertension, vaginosis, antecedent of premature rupture of membranes and gestational malnutrition. Conclusions: We found a significant association between home food insecurity during the last gestational trimester and low birth weight of neonates born in San Pedro Hospital, Pasto. The strength of this association could be underestimated in the absence of adjustments to demographic and clinical variables.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Colômbia , Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303954

RESUMO

Introduction: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of child bearing age. Bacterial vaginosis has emerged as a global health issue due to the adverse outcome in pregnancy and in the puerperium. The study determined the prevalence of BV and outcome of delivery among pregnant women. Methods: Socio-demographic data and vaginal swab samples were obtained from 362 consecutive pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge attending antenatal clinic in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. Data were analysed using SPSS statistical software 21 and association between variables was compared using Chi square. Results: The prevalence of BV among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in this study was 16.6%. Age group 25-34yrs, multiparity and higher education were significantly associated with BV, p < 0.05. Symptoms such as vulvar itching, dyspareunia, lower abdominal pains and characteristic of vaginal discharge such as colour and consistency were significantly associated with BV, p < 0.05. Women with bacterial vaginosis significantly had prelabour rupture of fetal membrane and their babies were born prematurely with low birth weight and Apgar score of less than 5 at one minute, p < 0.05. However, there was no difference statistically in rate of admission into special care baby unit among the women, p > 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that there should be screening for BV in pregnant women presenting with abnormal vaginal discharge so that they could be treated accordingly. This will mitigate the complications arising from bacterial vaginosis.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vaginose Bacteriana/complicações , Vaginose Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
15.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 10(4): 464-468, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the outcomes of direct innominate artery cannulation for continuous cerebral perfusion used for repair of interrupted aortic arch (IAA) in a consecutive cohort of neonates regardless of weight. METHODS: Between September 1999 and April 2016, forty-four children with IAA (18 type A and 26 type B) underwent repair using continuous, hypothermic (18°C) low-flow cerebral perfusion via direct innominate artery cannulation. Associated cardiac lesions were truncus arteriosus (TA; 5), ventricular septal defect (VSD; 30), transposition of the great arteries (TGA; 1), unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect (1), double-inlet left ventricle (1), double-outlet right ventricle (3), and aortopulmonary window (APW; 5). Truncus arteriosus, single VSD, TGA, and APW were corrected while the other patients were palliated. RESULTS: Age at the time of surgery was 7 days (4-120 days) and weight 3.1 kg (2.1-5.8 kg). Selective cerebral perfusion was maintained in all patients. During the selective cerebral perfusion, perfusion flow rate was maintained at 30 mL/kg/min. Aortic cross-clamp time, low-flow, and total cardiopulmonary bypass time were 63 (40-116), 28 (17-41), and 108 (80-217) minutes, respectively. There were no deaths nor clinical evidence of neurological injury. Postoperative ventilation time, length of intensive care unit, and hospital stay were 3 (2-14), 5 (3-21), and 13 (6-27) days, respectively. Follow-up, complete at 84 months (24-221), revealed no late clinically evident neurologic sequelae nor innominate artery complications. CONCLUSIONS: Direct innominate arterial cannulation with continuous selective cerebral perfusion can be safely applied for repair of IAA even in low birth weight neonates. It is technically simple and associated with excellent clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/anormalidades , Cateterismo/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Perfusão/métodos , Malformações Vasculares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Angiografia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Malformações Vasculares/fisiopatologia
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD002971, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, alternative forms of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula. Donor breast milk may retain some of the non-nutritive benefits of maternal breast milk for preterm or LBW infants. However, feeding with artificial formula may ensure more consistent delivery of greater amounts of nutrients. Uncertainty exists about the balance of risks and benefits of feeding formula versus donor breast milk for preterm or LBW infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of feeding with formula compared with donor breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the Cochrane Neonatal search strategy, including electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (3 May 2019), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and clinical trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing feeding with formula versus donor breast milk in preterm or LBW infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data independently. We analysed treatment effects as described in the individual trials and reported risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and explored potential causes of heterogeneity in subgroup analyses. We assessed the certainty of evidence for the main comparison at the outcome level using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: Twelve trials with a total of 1879 infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four trials compared standard term formula versus donor breast milk and eight compared nutrient-enriched preterm formula versus donor breast milk. Only the five most recent trials used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. The trials contain various weaknesses in methodological quality, specifically concerns about allocation concealment in four trials and lack of blinding in most of the trials. Most of the included trials were funded by companies that made the study formula.Formula-fed infants had higher in-hospital rates of weight gain (mean difference (MD) 2.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93 to 3.08 g/kg/day), linear growth (MD 1.21, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.65 mm/week) and head growth (MD 0.85, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.23 mm/week). These meta-analyses contained high levels of heterogeneity. We did not find evidence of an effect on long-term growth or neurodevelopment. Formula feeding increased the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (typical risk ratio (RR) 1.87, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.85; risk difference (RD) 0.03, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.05; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 33, 95% CI 20 to 100; 9 studies, 1675 infants).The GRADE certainty of evidence was moderate for rates of weight gain, linear growth, and head growth (downgraded for high levels of heterogeneity) and was moderate for neurodevelopmental disability, all-cause mortality, and necrotising enterocolitis (downgraded for imprecision). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In preterm and LBW infants, moderate-certainty evidence indicates that feeding with formula compared with donor breast milk, either as a supplement to maternal expressed breast milk or as a sole diet, results in higher rates of weight gain, linear growth, and head growth and a higher risk of developing necrotising enterocolitis. The trial data do not show an effect on all-cause mortality, or on long-term growth or neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD004204, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants may accumulate nutrient deficits leading to extrauterine growth restriction. Feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched rather than standard formula might increase nutrient accretion and growth rates and might improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of feeding with nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula on growth and development of preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the Cochrane Neonatal standard search strategy. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 11), MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (until November 2018), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and clinical trials databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched formula (protein and energy plus minerals, vitamins, or other nutrients) versus standard formula. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the Cochrane Neonatal standard methods. Two review authors separately evaluated trial quality and extracted and synthesised data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences, and mean differences (MDs). We assessed certainty of evidence at the outcome level using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. MAIN RESULTS: We identified seven trials in which a total of 590 preterm infants participated. Most participants were clinically stable preterm infants of birth weight less than 1850 g. Few participants were extremely preterm, extremely low birth weight, or growth restricted at birth. Trials were conducted more than 30 years ago, were formula industry funded, and were small with methodological weaknesses (including lack of masking) that might bias effect estimates. Meta-analyses of in-hospital growth parameters were limited by statistical heterogeneity. There is no evidence of an effect on time to regain birth weight (MD -1.48 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -4.73 to 1.77) and low-certainty evidence suggests that feeding with nutrient-enriched formula increases in-hospital rates of weight gain (MD 2.43 g/kg/d, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.26) and head circumference growth (MD 1.04 mm/week, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.89). Meta-analysis did not show an effect on the average rate of length gain (MD 0.22 mm/week, 95% CI -0.70 to 1.13). Fewer data are available for growth and developmental outcomes assessed beyond infancy, and these do not show consistent effects of nutrient-enriched formula feeding. Data from two trials did not show an effect on Bayley Mental Development Index scores at 18 months post term (MD 2.87, 95% CI -1.38 to 7.12; moderate-certainty evidence). Infants who received nutrient-enriched formula had higher Bayley Psychomotor Development Index scores at 18 months post term (MD 6.56. 95% CI 2.87 to 10.26; low-certainty evidence), but no evidence suggested an effect on cerebral palsy (typical RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.07; 2 studies, 377 infants). Available data did not indicate any other benefits or harms and provided low-certainty evidence about the effect of nutrient-enriched formula feeding on the risk of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants (typical RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.25; 3 studies, 489 infants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available trial data show that feeding preterm infants nutrient-enriched (compared with standard) formulas has only modest effects on growth rates during their initial hospital admission. No evidence suggests effects on long-term growth or development. The GRADE assessment indicates that the certainty of this evidence is low, and that these findings should be interpreted and applied with caution. Further randomised trials would be needed to resolve this uncertainty.


Assuntos
Alimentos Formulados , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
18.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(2): 411-419, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013135

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: to analyze factors associated with unfavorable outcomes caused by syphilis infection in pregnancy. Methods: descriptive study carried out from May to August 2014, in public maternity hospitals. A questionnaire was administered to all women with a reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test result and the data were supplemented with information from medical records and prenatal files. The bivariate analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. For the multivariate analysis, was used through the logistic regression model. Results: a total of 137 puerperal women participated in the study, of which 14.3% had an unfavorable outcome, namely: stillbirth (2.9%), preterm birth (8.8%) and low birth weight (2.9%). In the multivariate analysis the odds ratio for the prevalence of an unfavorable outcome was three-fold higher in women who did not undergo a second VDRL test (OR=3,54; IC95% 1,04-15,33) and two-fold higher in women with a VDRL titer >1:8 (OR=2,15; IC95% 1,11-11,2). Conclusions: The unfavorable outcomes occurred in women who did not undergo the second VDRL test and those whose VDRL titer was >1:8 performed in the maternity hospital.


Resumo Objetivos: analisar os fatores associados aos desfechos desfavoráveis provocados pela sífilis na gestação. Métodos: estudo descritivo realizado entre maio a agosto de 2014, em maternidades públicas. Foi aplicado um questionário a todas as mulheres que apresentaram exame de Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) reagente e os dados foram complementados com informações dos prontuários e cartões de pré-natal. Para análise bivariada utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson ou exato de Fisher. Para análise multivariada utilizou-se a regressão logística. Resultados: participaram do estudo 137 puérperas e, destas, 14,3% apresentaram algum desfecho desfavorável, a saber: natimortalidade (2,9%), prematuridade (8,8%) e baixo peso ao nascer (2,9%). Na análise multivariada, a razão de chance de prevalência do desfecho desfavorável foi três vezes maior em mulheres que não realizaram um segundo VDRL (OR=3,54; IC95% 1,04-15,33) e duas vezes maior em mulheres cuja titulação do VDRL foi maior que 1:8 (OR=2,15; IC95% 1,11-11,2). Conclusões: os desfechos desfavoráveis ocorreram em mulheres que não realizaram o segundo VDRL e cuja titulação desse exame realizado na maternidade foi superior a 1:8.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Sífilis Congênita/complicações , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Mortalidade Fetal , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Análise Multivariada
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD004213, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicates the clinical course of preterm infants and increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Indomethacin has been the standard treatment to close a PDA but is associated with renal, gastrointestinal, and cerebral side effects. Ibuprofen has less effect on blood flow velocity to important organs. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectivesTo determine the effectiveness and safety of ibuprofen compared to placebo/no intervention, or other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor drugs in the prevention of PDA in preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 10), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 17 October 2018), Embase (1980 to 17 October 2018), and CINAHL; 1982 to 17 October 2018). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing ibuprofen with placebo/no intervention or other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor drugs to prevent PDA in preterm or low birth weight infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted outcomes data including presence of PDA on day three or four of life (after 72 hours of treatment), need for surgical ligation or rescue treatment with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, mortality, cerebral, renal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal complications. We performed meta-analyses and reported treatment estimates as typical mean difference (MD), risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and, if statistically significant, number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) or to harm (NNTH), along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed between-study heterogeneity by the I-squared test (I²). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated analysis, we included nine trials (N = 1070 infants) comparing prophylactic ibuprofen (IV or oral) with placebo/no intervention or indomethacin. Ibuprofen (IV or oral) probably decreases the risk of PDA on day 3 or 4 (typical RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.48; typical RD -0.26, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.21; NNTB 4, 95% CI 3 to 5; 9 trials; N = 1029) (moderate-quality evidence). In the control group, the spontaneous closure rate was 58% by day 3 to 4 of age. In addition, ibuprofen probably decreases the need for rescue treatment with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (typical RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.26; typical RD -0.27, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.22; NNTB 4; 95% CI 3 to 5),and the need for surgical ductal ligation (typical RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.96; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.00; NNTB 33, 95% CI 20 to infinity; 7 trials; N = 925) (moderate-quality evidence). There was a possible decrease in the risk of grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in infants receiving prophylactic ibuprofen (typical RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.00; I² = 34%; typical RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to- 0.00; I² = 60%; 7 trials; N = 925) (moderate-quality evidence). High quality evidence showed increased risk for oliguria (typical RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.02; typical RD 0.06, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.11; NNTH 17, 95% CI 9 to 100; 4 trials; N = 747). Low quality results from four studies (N = 202) showed that administering oral ibuprofen may decrease the risk of PDA (typical RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.74) and may increase risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (NNTH 7, 95% CI 4 to 25). No evidence of a difference was identified for mortality, any intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), or chronic lung disease. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that prophylactic use of ibuprofen, compared to placebo or no intervention, probably decreases the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, the need for rescue treatment with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, and for surgical ductal closure. Adverse effects associated with ibuprofen (IV or oral) included increased risks for oliguria, increase in serum creatinine levels, and increased risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. There was a reduced risk for intraventricular haemorrhage (grade III - IV) but no evidence of a difference in mortality, chronic lung disease, necrotising enterocolitis, or time to reach full feeds. In the control group, the patent ductus arteriosus had closed spontaneously by day 3 or 4 in 58% of neonates. Prophylactic treatment exposes a large proportion of infants unnecessarily to a drug that has important side effects without conferring any important short-term benefits. Current evidence does not support the use of ibuprofen for prevention of patent ductus arteriosus. Until long-term follow-up results of the trials included in this review have been published, no further trials of prophylactic ibuprofen are recommended.A new approach to patent ductus arteriosus management is an early targeted treatment based on echocardiographic criteria within the first 72 hours of life, that have a high sensitivity for diagnosing a patent ductus arteriosus that is unlikely to close spontaneously. Such trials are currently ongoing in many parts of the world. Results of such trials will be included in updates of our "Ibuprofen for treatment of PDA" review.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial , Ibuprofeno , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Cerebral , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/prevenção & controle , Enterocolite Necrosante , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
20.
Chemosphere ; 233: 452-461, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been widely reported that gestational exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) is associated with a series of adverse birth outcomes. However, the discrepancy between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and personal PM2.5 exposure would significantly affect the estimation of exposure-response relationship. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to predict gestational personal exposure to PM2.5 from the satellite-driven ambient concentrations and analyze the influence of other potential determinants. METHOD: We collected 762 72-h personal exposure samples from a panel of 329 pregnant women in Shanghai, China as well as their time-activity patterns from Feb 2017 to Jun 2018. We established an ambient PM2.5 model based on MAIAC AOD at 1 km resolution, then used its output as a major predictor to develop a personal exposure model. RESULTS: Our ambient PM2.5 model yielded a cross-validation R2 of 0.96. Personal PM2.5 exposure levels were almost identical to the corresponding ambient concentrations. After adjusting for time-activity patterns and meteorological factors, our personal exposure has a CV R2 of 0.76. CONCLUSION: We established a prediction model for gestational personal exposure to PM2.5 from satellite-based ambient concentrations and provided a methodological reference for further epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/análise , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Prognóstico , Imagens de Satélites
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