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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22796, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common neonatal condition in premature infants. Its treatment often requires the use of surfactants. The administration of surfactants has evolved to less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) methods in recent years. Nasal high frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) is also a good new technology for respiratory support. The use of LISA combined with nHFOV for RDS has not been reported. CASE SUMMARY: A 970 g male infant who was born at 29 weeks of gestational age suffered progressive dyspnea immediately after birth. DIAGNOSIS: According to his clinical symptoms, X-ray, and blood gas analysis results, the extremely low birth weight infant was diagnosed with RDS and deep hypercapnic acidosis. INTERVENTIONS: Less invasive surfactant administration combined with nasal high frequency oscillatory ventilation was utilized in the infant. The mean airway pressure (Paw) was set at 7 cm H2O, amplitude (ΔP) was set at grade 5.5 (level set according to the perception of vibration of the chest wall), frequency was set at 8 Hz, inspiratory time (Ti) was set at 33%, and FiO2 was set at 0.30. OUTCOMES: The patient's pCO2 dropped to 90.9 mm Hg in 2 hours and to 57.8 mm Hg in the following 4.5 hours; the patient was weaned from nHFOV after 12 hours. On day 61, the patient was discharged and free of respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSION: We speculate that less invasive surfactant administration combined with nasal high frequency oscillatory ventilation may be useful in the treatment of RDS with deep hypercapnia to avoid intubation.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Hipercapnia/terapia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino
2.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(10): 1073-1078, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the risk factors and treatment outcome of hypothyroidism in very low birth weight/extremely low birth weight (VLBW/ELBW) infants. METHODS: The VLBW/ELBW infants who were diagnosed with hypothyroidism from September 2018 to December 2019 were enrolled as the case group (n=29). The children with normal thyroid function, matched at a ratio of 1 : 3, were enrolled as the control group (n=87). Clinical features were compared between the two groups. The correlation of thyroid function with gestational age and birth weight and the risk factors for hypothyroidism were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 162 VLBW/ELBW infants who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled, with 29 infants in the case group (an incidence rate of hypothyroidism of 17.9%). The lower the birth weight, the higher the incidence rate of hypothyroidism (P<0.05). Triiodothyronine (T3) and free T3 were positively correlated with gestational age (P<0.05). T3 and free thyroxine were positively correlated with birth weight (P<0.05). Small for gestational age, multiple birth, maternal age ≥ 35 years, and use of dopamine were independent risk factors for hypothyroidism (P<0.05). In the case group, 16 infants were treated with levothyroxine (5-10 µg/kg daily), and the thyroid function returned to normal after 2 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high incidence rate of hypothyroidism in VLBW/ELBW infants. Small for gestational age, multiple birth, advanced maternal age, and use of dopamine are risk factors for hypothyroidism. The infants treated with levothyroxine should be followed up regularly to ensure an appropriate dose.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tiroxina
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aetiology of births involving very low birthweight (VLBW) and extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants is heterogeneous and preventive strategies remain elusive. Socioenvironmental measures implemented as Ireland's response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) pandemic represented a national lockdown, and have possibly influenced the health and well-being of pregnant women and unborn infants. METHODS: Regional trends of VLBW and ELBW infants in one designated health area of Ireland over two decades were analysed. Poisson regression and rate ratio analyses with 95% CI were conducted. Regional data covering most of the lockdown period of 2020 were compared with historical regional and national data and forecasted national figures for 2020. RESULTS: Poisson regression analysis found that the regional historical VLBW rate per 1000 live births for January to April, 2001-2019 was 8.18 (95% CI 7.21 to 9.29). During January to April 2020, an unusually low VLBW rate of just 2.17 per 1000 live births was observed, reflecting a rate ratio of 3.77 (95% CI 1.21 to 11.75), p=0.022, representing a 73% reduction of VLBW during the first 4 months of 2020 compared with same period for the preceding two decades. There were no ELBW infants admitted to the regional neonatal intensive care unit. National Irish VLBW rate for 2020 is forecasted to be reduced to approximate 400 per 60 000 births compared with the historical 500-600 range. CONCLUSION: An unprecedented reduction in regional births of VLBW and ELBW infants was observed in Ireland coinciding with the COVID-19 lockdown. Potential determinants of this unique temporal trend possibly reside in the summative socioenvironmental impact of the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings, if mirrored in other regions that have adopted a lockdown, demonstrate the potential to evaluate these implicated behavioural and socioenvironmental modifiers to positively influence VLBW and ELBW rates globally.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gravidez
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the survival and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants at 18 to 26 months with early hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). We also assessed whether African American infants with early HRF had improved outcomes after exposure to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). METHODS: ELBW infants ≤1000 g and gestational age ≤26 weeks with maximal oxygen ≥60% on either day 1 or day 3 were labeled as "early HRF" and born between 2007 and 2015 in the Neonatal Research Network were included. Using a propensity score regression model, we analyzed outcomes and effects of exposure to iNO overall and separately by race. RESULTS: Among 7639 ELBW infants born ≤26 weeks, 22.7% had early HRF. Early HRF was associated with a mortality of 51.3%. The incidence of moderate-severe NDI among survivors was 41.2% at 18 to 26 months. Mortality among infants treated with iNO was 59.4%. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-3.3), birth weight ≥720 g (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and complete course of antenatal steroids (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2) were associated with intact survival. African American infants had a similar incidence of early HRF (21.7% vs 23.3%) but lower exposure to iNO (16.4% vs 21.6%). Among infants with HRF exposed to iNO, intact survival (no death or NDI) was not significantly different between African American and other races (aOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.6-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: Early HRF in infants ≤26 weeks' gestation is associated with high mortality and NDI at 18 to 26 months. Use of iNO did not decrease mortality or NDI. Outcomes following iNO exposure were not different in African American infants.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia/complicações , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Administração por Inalação , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etnologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/administração & dosagem , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etnologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is the primary driver of neonatal mortality worldwide, but it is defined by gestational age (GA) which is challenging to accurately assess in low-resource settings. In a commitment to reducing preterm birth while reinforcing and strengthening facility data sources, the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBi-EA) chose eligibility criteria that combined GA and birth weight. This analysis evaluated the quality of the GA data as recorded in maternity registers in PTBi-EA study facilities and the strength of the PTBi-EA eligibility criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of maternity register data from March-September 2016. GA data from 23 study facilities in Migori, Kenya and the Busoga Region of Uganda were evaluated for completeness (variable present), consistency (recorded versus calculated GA), and plausibility (falling within the 3rd and 97th birth weight percentiles for GA of the INTERGROWTH-21st Newborn Birth Weight Standards). Preterm birth rates were calculated using: 1) recorded GA <37 weeks, 2) recorded GA <37 weeks, excluding implausible GAs, 3) birth weight <2500g, and 4) PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks. RESULTS: In both countries, GA was the least recorded variable in the maternity register (77.6%). Recorded and calculated GA (Kenya only) were consistent in 29.5% of births. Implausible GAs accounted for 11.7% of births. The four preterm birth rates were 1) 14.5%, 2) 10.6%, 3) 9.6%, 4) 13.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Maternity register GA data presented quality concerns in PTBi-EA study sites. The PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks accommodated these concerns by using both birth weight and GA, balancing issues of accuracy and completeness with practical applicability.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/normas , Idade Gestacional , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
JAMA ; 324(6): 560-570, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780138

RESUMO

Importance: Red blood cell transfusions are commonly administered to infants weighing less than 1000 g at birth. Evidence-based transfusion thresholds have not been established. Previous studies have suggested higher rates of cognitive impairment with restrictive transfusion thresholds. Objective: To compare the effect of liberal vs restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies on death or disability. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted in 36 level III/IV neonatal intensive care units in Europe among 1013 infants with birth weights of 400 g to 999 g at less than 72 hours after birth; enrollment took place between July 14, 2011, and November 14, 2014, and follow-up was completed by January 15, 2018. Interventions: Infants were randomly assigned to liberal (n = 492) or restrictive (n = 521) red blood cell transfusion thresholds based on infants' postnatal age and current health state. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome, measured at 24 months of corrected age, was death or disability, defined as any of cognitive deficit, cerebral palsy, or severe visual or hearing impairment. Secondary outcome measures included individual components of the primary outcome, complications of prematurity, and growth. Results: Among 1013 patients randomized (median gestational age at birth, 26.3 [interquartile range {IQR}, 24.9-27.6] weeks; 509 [50.2%] females), 928 (91.6%) completed the trial. Among infants in the liberal vs restrictive transfusion thresholds groups, respectively, incidence of any transfusion was 400/492 (81.3%) vs 315/521 (60.5%); median volume transfused was 40 mL (IQR, 16-73 mL) vs 19 mL (IQR, 0-46 mL); and weekly mean hematocrit was 3 percentage points higher with liberal thresholds. Among infants in the liberal vs restrictive thresholds groups, the primary outcome occurred in 200/450 (44.4%) vs 205/478 (42.9%), respectively, for a difference of 1.6% (95% CI, -4.8% to 7.9%; P = .72). Death by 24 months occurred in 38/460 (8.3%) vs 44/491 (9.0%), for a difference of -0.7% (95% CI, -4.3% to 2.9%; P = .70), cognitive deficit was observed in 154/410 (37.6%) vs 148/430 (34.4%), for a difference of 3.2% (95% CI, -3.3% to 9.6%; P = .47), and cerebral palsy occurred in 18/419 (4.3%) vs 25/443 (5.6%), for a difference of -1.3% (95% CI, -4.2% to 1.5%; P = .37), in the liberal vs the restrictive thresholds groups, respectively. In the liberal vs restrictive thresholds groups, necrotizing enterocolitis requiring surgical intervention occurred in 20/492 (4.1%) vs 28/518 (5.4%); bronchopulmonary dysplasia occurred in 130/458 (28.4%) vs 126/485 (26.0%); and treatment for retinopathy of prematurity was required in 41/472 (8.7%) vs 38/492 (7.7%). Growth at follow-up was also not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among infants with birth weights of less than 1000 g, a strategy of liberal blood transfusions compared with restrictive transfusions did not reduce the likelihood of death or disability at 24 months of corrected age. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01393496.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/cirurgia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/mortalidade , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Transtornos da Audição/etiologia , Hematócrito/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
7.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 653-660, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842386

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Methods: This prospective, multicenter observational cohort study was conducted based on Shandong Neonatal Network (SNN). The clinical data of the VLBWI (n=1 051), who were admitted to 27 neonatal intensive care units from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018, were collected and analyzed. According to the weight at discharge or 36 weeks of postmenstrual age, all the enrolled VLBWI were assigned into EUGR group and non-EUGR group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to detect the risk factors for EUGR in preterm small for gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA infants. Results: A total of 1 051 VLBWI were enrolled, with 51.7% (543/1 051) male. The incidence of EUGR in the whole group was 60.7% (638/1 051), and were 78.3% (90/115) and 46.9% (53/113) in extremely low birth weight infant (ELBWI) and extremely preterm infants (EPI), respectively. The incidence of EUGR in SGA and non-SGA infants were 87.6% (190/217) and 53.7% (448/834), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that, withholding feeds (OR=1.531, 1.237, 95%CI: 1.180-1.987, 1.132-1.353, both P<0.01) and time to achieve full enteral feeding (OR=1.090, 1.023, 95%CI: 1.017-1.167, 1.002-1.045, P=0.014, 0.034) were independent risk factors of EUGR in both SGA and non-SGA infants. For SGA infants, cesarean delivery was an independent risk factor for EUGR (OR=8.147, 95%CI: 2.127-31.212, P=0.002); while for non-SGA infants, hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (OR=2.572, 95%CI: 1.496-4.421, P=0.001) and the duration of invasive ventilation (OR=1.050, 95%CI: 1.009 - 1.092, P=0.016) were independent risk factors of EUGR. Besides, moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR=2.241, 95%CI: 1.173-4.281, P=0.015), necrotizing enterocolitis (OR=5.633, 95%CI: 1.333-23.796, P=0.019) and retinopathy of prematurity (OR=2.219, 95%CI: 1.268-3.885, P=0.005) were associated with EUGR. Conclusions: The incidence of weight-defined EUGR is high in VLBWI, especially in preterm SGA infants. Avoiding delaying feeds after birth and achieving full enteral feeding early may reduce the incidence of EUGR.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(6): 561-566, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of antibiotic use for very and extremely low birth weight (VLBW/ELBW) infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of Hunan Province. METHODS: The use of antibiotics was investigated in multiple level 3 NICUs of Hunan Province for VLBW and ELBW infants born between January, 2017 and December, 2017. RESULTS: The clinical data of 1 442 VLBW/ELBW infants were collected from 24 NICUs in 2017. The median antibiotic use duration was 17 days (range: 0-86 days), accounting for 53.0% of the total length of hospital stay. The highest duration of antibiotic use was up to 91.4% of the total length of hospital stay, with the lowest at 14.6%. In 16 out of 24 NICUs, the antibiotic use duration was accounted for more than 50.0% of the hospitalization days. There were 113 cases with positive bacterial culture grown in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, making the positive rate of overall bacterial culture as 7.84%. The positive rate of bacterial culture in different NICUs was significantly different from 0% to 14.9%. The common isolated bacterial pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae was 29 cases (25.7%); Escherichia coli 12 cases (10.6%); Staphylococcus aureus 3 cases (2.7%). The most commonly used antibiotics were third-generation of cephalosporins, accounting for 41.00% of the total antibiotics, followed by penicillins, accounting for 32.10%, and followed by carbapenems, accounting for 13.15%. The proportion of antibiotic use time was negatively correlated with birth weight Z-score and the change in weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge (rs=-0.095, -0.151 respectively, P<0.01), positively correlated with death/withdrawal of care (rs=0.196, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics used for VLBW/ELBW infants in NICUs of Hunan Province are obviously prolonged in many NICUs. The proportion of routine use of third-generation of cephalosporins and carbapenems antibiotics is high among the NICUs.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Antibacterianos , Peso ao Nascer , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Pediatr ; 225: 80-89.e4, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of screening children born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW) for hepatoblastoma using serial serum alpha-fetoprotein measurements. STUDY DESIGN: We created a decision tree to evaluate the cost effectiveness of screening children born at ELBW between 3 and 48 months of age compared with current standard of care (no screening). Our model used discounted lifetime costs and monetary benefits in 2018 US dollars, based on estimates in the published literature. The effects of uncertainty in model parameters were also assessed using univariate sensitivity analyses, in which we changed the values for one parameter at a time to assess the effect on the estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. RESULTS: For the estimated 55 699 children born at ELBW in the US each year, this screening is associated with 77.7 additional quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at a cost of $8.7 million. This results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of about $112 000/QALY, which is considered cost effective from a US societal perspective. For children diagnosed with hepatoblastoma, our model finds that the screening regimen is associated with a 10.1% increase in survival, a 4.18% increase in expected QALYs, and a $245 184 decrease in expected cost. CONCLUSIONS: Screening ELBW children for hepatoblastoma between 3 and 48 months of age dominates the alternative and is cost effective from a societal perspective.


Assuntos
Hepatoblastoma/diagnóstico , Hepatoblastoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Triagem Neonatal/economia , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hepatoblastoma/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos
11.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(5): 387-391, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392954

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the current situation of human milk (HM) feeding in hospitalized very low and extremely low birth weight infants. Methods: The study retrospectively extracted the data of 601 infants with birth weight <1 500 g, and admitted within 24 hours after birth to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital from January 2016 to December 2018. The infants were grouped into exclusive mother's-own-milk (MOM) group, donor human milk (DHM) group (partial or none MOM), and mixed (HM and formula) feeding group according to the feeding strategy. Qualitative and quantitative variables in the three groups were compared with One-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Kappa and McNemar test were used for consistency testing. Results: Among the 601 infants (309 boys and 292 girls), 6 (1.0%) infants had never been fed with MOM. The gestational age and birth weight were (29.3±1.9) weeks and 1 260(1 115, 1 400) g in 601 infants. A total of 8 (1.3%) infants were grouped into MOM group, 542 (90.2%) were grouped into DHM group, and 51 (8.5%) were grouped into mixed feeding group. The percentage of enteral feedings with MOM in the stage of hospitalization 1-7 d, 8-14 d and 15-28 d were 73.6% (42.9%, 86.7%), 97.5% (78.6%, 100.0%) and 99.3% (93.0%, 100.0%), respectively (H=414.95, P<0.01), and the pairwise comparison suggested that the stage of hospitalization 1-7 d was the lowest (adjusted both P<0.05). The average weight adjusted daily dose of MOM were 9.7 (4.3, 18.2), 59.1 (26.5, 93.5) and 116.0 (60.3, 142.6) ml/(kg·d) in the stage of hospitalization 1-7 d, 8-14 d and 15-28 d, respectively (H=759.75, P<0.01), and the pairwise comparison suggested that the stage of hospitalization 1-7 d was the lowest (adjusted both P<0.05). The weight adjusted daily dose of MOM in exclusive MOM group, DHM and Mixed feeding group were 95.2 (40.0, 117.2), 82.9(53.6, 103.1) and 55.7 (16.6, 97.5) ml/(kg·d), respectively (H=10.78, P=0.005).Additionally, the percentage and weight adjusted daily dose of MOM showed a general consistency of 0.703 (P>0.05, Kappa=0.408). Conclusions: The rate of exclusive MOM feeding is low, especially during the first 7 days of hospitalization. The percentage of total enteral feedings with MOM and the average weight adjusted daily dose of MOM can well evaluate the situation of HM feeding during hospitalization quantitively.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Neoreviews ; 21(4): e249-e263, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238487

RESUMO

The incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is showing an increasing trend in the United States. This may be because of increasing survival rates among extremely preterm infants (<25 weeks' gestation) and targeting higher oxygen saturation. Five randomized clinical trials of low versus high oxygen saturation target ranges found increased mortality in the low oxygen saturation target group and an increased incidence of ROP in the high oxygen saturation target group. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends using an oxygen saturation target range of 90% to 95% in extremely low-birthweight infants. The change of practice to target this higher oxygen saturation range, from admission until discharge, may be contributing to the increasing incidence of ROP in extremely preterm infants. To decrease the incidence of ROP without increasing mortality, 2 new cohort trials suggest gradually increasing oxygen saturation targets as preterm infants mature. There is evidence that human milk, vitamin A, and omega-3 fatty acids can help, in addition to continuous oxygen saturation monitoring, to decrease the risk of ROP. We review this literature and provide a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidence.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Terapia a Laser , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/complicações , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/cirurgia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
13.
Ann Saudi Med ; 40(2): 87-93, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants is critical, especially with advancements in neonatal care and improved survival rates. However, a balance should be found between not missing any ROP requiring treatment and minimizing workload, saving resources, and reducing unnecessary examinations to fragile neonates. OBJECTIVE: Ascertain whether our current inclusion criteria in screening ROP could be modified to ≤1250 g (while keeping the gestational age at ≤30 6/7 weeks) to reduce the number of screened babies without missing any type I ROP requiring treatment. DESIGN: Retrospective, record-based study. SETTING: Referral center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ROP outcome and risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Neonates screened for ROP in the neonatal intensive care unit of our institution between January 2016 and November 2018 were included. Data collected for each neonate included demographics, ROP details and risk factors. We used a revised version of ROP screening guidelines by the American Academy of Pediatrics. SAMPLE SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS: 155 neonates (median birth weight, 1035 g; range, 527-1982 g; and gestational age range, 23-39 weeks). RESULTS: Of 1393 live births, 155 babies met the inclusion criteria. ROP occurred in 60/155 (38.7%) screened babies while sixteen developed threshold ROP. All 16 babies who required treatment had both a birthweight ≤1000 g and a gestational age of ≤30 weeks. Using the screening recommendations of the Canadian Policy, more infants would have been screened without diagnosing a case of ROP of any stage, and no case of ROP requiring treatment would have been missed compared to the AAP recommendations. CONCLUSION: ROP requiring treatment is a rare occurrence in premature infants with a gestational age >30 weeks and body weight >1000 g at our institute. Nonetheless, this is not an attempt to alter national screening guidelines. A multicenter prospective study with an adequate sample size is needed to assess whether guidelines for ROP screening should be altered in this category of neonates. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Seleção de Pacientes , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Carga de Trabalho
14.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(6): 628-633, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phototherapy is used on the majority of preterm infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. The use of fluorescent tube phototherapy is known to induce oxidative DNA damage in infants and has largely been replaced by blue light-emitting diode phototherapy (BLP). To date, it is unknown whether BLP also induces oxidative DNA damage in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether BLP in preterm infants induces oxidative DNA damage as indicated by 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Urine samples (n=481) were collected in a cohort of 40 preterm infants (24-32 weeks' gestational age) during the first week after birth. Urine was analysed for the oxidative marker of DNA damage 8-OHdG and for creatinine, and the 8-OHdG/creatinine ratio was calculated. Durations of phototherapy and levels of irradiance were monitored as well as total serum bilirubin concentrations. RESULTS: BLP did not alter urinary 8-OHdG/creatinine ratios (B=0.2, 95% CI -6.2 to 6.6) at either low (10-30 µW/cm2/nm) or high (>30 µW/cm2/nm) irradiance: (B=2.3, 95% CI -5.7 to 10.2 and B=-3.0, 95% CI -11.7 to 5.6, respectively). Also, the 8-OHdG/creatinine ratios were independent on phototherapy duration (B=-0.1, 95% CI -0.3 to 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: BLP at irradiances up to 35 µW/cm2/nm given to preterm infants ≤32 weeks' gestation does not affect 8-OHdG, an oxidative marker of DNA damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Icterícia Neonatal/terapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fototerapia/efeitos adversos , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Creatinina/urina , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/genética , Icterícia Neonatal/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Fototerapia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183057

RESUMO

A key modifiable factor for improving neurodevelopment in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) babies may be improving growth, especially head growth, by optimising nutrition in the early neonatal period. We aimed to investigate relationships between nutrient intakes in the 4 weeks after birth, and growth from birth to 36 weeks' corrected age (CA) in ELBW babies. We undertook a prospective cohort study of 434 participants enrolled in a randomised controlled trial (ProVIDe) in eight New Zealand and Australian neonatal intensive care units. Macronutrient intakes from birth to 4 weeks and weight, length and head circumference measurements from birth to 36 weeks' CA were collected. From birth to 36 weeks' CA, the median (IQR) z-score changes were: weight -0.48 (-1.09, 0.05); length -1.16 (-1.86, -0.43), and head circumference -0.82 (-1.51, -0.19). Changes in z-score to 4 weeks and 36 weeks' CA were correlated with protein intake. Each 1 g·Kg-1·d-1 total protein intake in week 2 was associated with 0.26 z-score increase in head circumference at 36 weeks' CA. Both nutritional intake and change in z-scores to 36 weeks' CA differed widely amongst sites. Correlations between nutrition and growth, and differences in these amongst sites, indicate there may be potential to improve growth with enhanced nutrition practices.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Austrália , Peso Corporal , Cefalometria , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Nutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Ophthalmology ; 127(4S): S84-S96, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200831

RESUMO

In the Multicenter Trial of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP), 4099 infants weighing less than 1251 g at birth underwent sequential ophthalmic examinations, beginning at age 4 to 6 weeks, to monitor the incidence and course of ROP. Overall, 65.8% of the infants developed ROP to some degree; 81.6% for infants of less than 1000 g birth weight. As expected, ROP incidence and severity were higher in lower birth weight and gestational age categories. Black infants appeared less susceptible to ROP, of all severity categories, than nonblack infants. The timing of retinal vascular events correlated more closely with postconceptional age than with postnatal age, implicating the level of maturity more than postnatal environmental influences in governing the timing of these vascular events. These results include the current incidence of various severity stages of ROP found in the United States and provide new. insight into the development of ROP.


Assuntos
Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/fisiopatologia , Peso ao Nascer , Crioterapia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4674, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170203

RESUMO

Very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates experience various problems, including meconium-related ileus (MRI). This study investigated the risk factors of MRI and surgical MRI in VLBW infants. VLBW neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Seoul National University Children's Hospital from October 2002 to September 2016 were included in the study. The diagnostic criteria for MRI were a decreased frequency of defecation with intolerable feeding, vomiting, and increased gastric residue (>50%); meconium-filled bowel dilatation in an imaging study; and no evidence of necrotizing enteritis or spontaneous intestinal perforation. Medical MRIs and surgical MRIs were managed through conventional treatment and surgical intervention. Of 1543 neonates, 69 and 1474 were in the patient and control groups, respectively. The risk factors for MRI include low birth weight (BW), cesarean section delivery, fetal distress, maternal diabetes, maternal hypertension, and maternal steroid use. Low BW and fetal distress were independent risk factors for MRI. Compared to the medical MRI group (n = 44), the risk factors for surgical MRI (n = 25) included males, younger gestational age, low BW, and meconium located at the small bowel. Male gender and low BW were independent risk factors for surgical MRI. Low BW and fetal distress were independent risk factors for MRI and male gender and low BW were independent risk factors for surgical MRI. In VLBW neonates, careful attention to the risk factors for MRI could minimize or avoid surgical interventions.


Assuntos
Íleus/epidemiologia , Íleus/etiologia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Mecônio , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Enterocolite Necrosante , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Íleus/diagnóstico , Íleus/mortalidade , Masculino , Prognóstico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
Laeknabladid ; 106(2): 71-77, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009624

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children (birth weight ≤1000 g) are at risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of developmental disorders and disabilities among ELBW children born in Iceland during a 25 year period and to assess which clinical factors predict disability among these children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of all ELBW children born in Iceland 1988-2012 and discharged alive. The study group was found in the Children´s Hospital of Iceland NICU registry. Information was gathered from the NICU registry, the children´s and their mothers´ medical records and the State Diagnostic and Counselling Centre database. RESULTS: Of 189 children 45 (24%) had developmental disorders, 13 (7%) had mild disorders and 32 (17%) had major disorders (disability) at 3-6 years. Risk factors for disability were multiple birth (RR 2.21; 95% CI: 1.19-4.09), Apgar < 5 after one minute (RR 2.40; 95% CI: 1.14-5.07), the initiation of enteral feeding more than four days after birth (RR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.11-4.11), full enteral feeding achieved after more then 21 days (RR 2.15; 95% CI: 1.11-4.15), neonatal pneumonia (RR 3.61; 95% CI: 1.98-6.57) and PVL (RR 4.84; 95% CI: 2.81-8.34). CONCLUSION: The majority of ELBW children do not have major developmental disorders. The rate of disability in this study is similar to other studies. The study probably underestimates the rate of mild developmental disorders in the Icelandic population. Risk factors for disability in this study are comparable to previous studies.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Crianças com Deficiência , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Pediatr ; 219: 48-53, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether the composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-22 months corrected age for infants ≤1000 g at birth is decreased by continuous monitoring of heart rate characteristics during neonatal intensive care. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a subset of participants enrolled in a multicenter randomized trial of heart rate characteristics monitoring. Survivors were evaluated at 18-22 months corrected age with a standardized neurologic examination and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III). NDI was defined as Gross Motor Function Classification System of >2 (moderate or severe cerebral palsy), BSID-III language or cognitive scores of <70, severe bilateral hearing impairment, and/or bilateral blindness. RESULTS: The composite outcome, death or NDI, was obtained for 628 of 884 study infants (72%). The prevalence of this outcome was 44.4% (136/306) among controls (infants randomized to heart rate characteristics monitored but not displayed) and 38.9% (125/322) among infants randomized to heart rate characteristics monitoring displayed (relative risk, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73-1.05; P = .17). Mortality was reduced from 32.0% (99/307) among controls to 24.8% (81/326) among monitoring displayed infants (relative risk, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.97; P = .028). The composite outcomes of death or severe CP and death or mildly low Bayley cognitive score occurred less frequently in the displayed group (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: We found no difference in the composite outcome of death or NDI for extremely preterm infants whose heart rate characteristics were and were not displayed during neonatal intensive care. Two outcomes that included mortality or a specific NDI were less frequent in the displayed group.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Frequência Cardíaca , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica , Exame Neurológico , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Cardiol Young ; 30(3): 427-430, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036804

RESUMO

The incidence of paediatric venous thromboembolism has steadily increased in the past decade, by nearly 10% per year. Deep venous thrombosis may remain completely asymptomatic during the acute phase and symptoms may occur later, due to complications. We related the case of a 9-month-old child with increasing cyanosis. A computed tomography (CT) angiography showed a thrombosis of the superior vena cava (SVC) with the development of collateral flow from the systemic to the pulmonary veins. Transcatheter shunt occlusion after SVC recanalization was successfully performed. We discussed the characteristics of these cases and the consequence on our practice in term of treatment (anticoagulation, transcatheter, intervention) and screening.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Circulação Colateral , Veias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Cianose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Veias Pulmonares/anormalidades , Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
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