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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 90-100, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397857

RESUMO

An observational longitudinal study was conducted in the Department of Neonatology and Child Developmental Center, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Bangladesh during the period of September 2016 to February 2018 to find out the neuro-developmental outcome of high risk neonates at the age of 6 months. Five hundred seventy six (576) high risk neonate who were admitted in the neonatology department in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital were selected as study population by Purposive sampling technique. After admission written informed consent from parents or guardians obtained and Data was collected in a pre-designed case record form. At 6th months of age total 400 baby were came to Child Development Centre and their motor, cognition and behavior development were assessed by Bayley Scale of Infant Development and severity of cognitive, motor and behavior impairment were graded. All data were compiled, tabulated and then analyzed by computer software SPSS version 20.00. Mean age was 7.2±3.3 days. Among studied newborns 18.1% were preterm and 81.9% were term. Most of the newborn were male (63.0%). Developmental delay was found in 81.5% and neuro-developmental outcome was found normal in only 18.5% newborns. Significant delayed motor performance was found in 52% newborns where 17% had mild delay. Significantly delayed mental performance was found in 57.0% and 28.52% had mildly delayed mental performance. Non-optimal behavior was found in 57.0% newborns and14% had questionable behavior. Very low birth weight, preterm very low birth weight, home delivery, perinatal asphyxia and neonatal seizure were found to have significant relation with developmental delay. Most of the high risk neonates develop developmental delay.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013542, 2020 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction and advancement of enteral feeds for preterm or low birth weight infants is often delayed because of concerns that early full enteral feeding will not be well tolerated or may increase the risk of necrotising enterocolitis. Early full enteral feeding, however, might increase nutrient intake and growth rates; accelerate intestinal physiological, metabolic, and microbiomic postnatal transition; and reduce the risk of complications associated with intravascular devices for fluid administration.  OBJECTIVES: To determine how early full enteral feeding, compared with delayed or progressive introduction of enteral feeds, affects growth and adverse events such as necrotising enterocolitis, in preterm or low birth weight infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, Maternity & Infant Care Database Ovid, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials to October 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials that compared early full enteral feeding with delayed or progressive introduction of enteral feeds in preterm or low birth weight infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal. Two review authors separately assessed trial eligibility, evaluated trial quality, extracted data, and synthesised effect estimates using risk ratios (RR), risk differences, and mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included six trials. All were undertaken in the 2010s in neonatal care facilities in India. In total, 526 infants participated. Most were very preterm infants of birth weight between 1000 g and 1500 g. Trials were of good methodological quality, but a potential source of bias was that parents, clinicians, and investigators were not masked. The trials compared early full feeding (60 mL/kg to 80 mL/kg on day one after birth) with minimal enteral feeding (typically 20 mL/kg on day one) supplemented with intravenous fluids. Feed volumes were advanced daily as tolerated by 20 mL/kg to 30 mL/kg body weight to a target steady-state volume of 150 mL/kg to 180 mL/kg/day. All participating infants were fed preferentially with maternal expressed breast milk, with two trials supplementing insufficient volumes with donor breast milk and four supplementing with preterm formula.  Few data were available to assess growth parameters. One trial (64 participants) reported a slower rate of weight gain (median difference -3.0 g/kg/day), and another (180 participants) reported a faster rate of weight gain in the early full enteral feeding group (MD 1.2 g/kg/day). We did not meta-analyse these data (very low-certainty evidence). None of the trials reported rate of head circumference growth. One trial reported that the mean z-score for weight at hospital discharge was higher in the early full enteral feeding group (MD 0.24, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.42; low-certainty evidence). Meta-analyses showed no evidence of an effect on necrotising enterocolitis (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.38 to 2.54; 6 trials, 522 participants; I² = 51%; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Trials provided insufficient data to determine with any certainty how early full enteral feeding, compared with delayed or progressive introduction of enteral feeds, affects growth in preterm or low birth weight infants. We are uncertain whether early full enteral feeding affects the risk of necrotising enterocolitis because of the risk of bias in the trials (due to lack of masking), inconsistency, and imprecision.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Hidratação , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aetiology of births involving very low birthweight (VLBW) and extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants is heterogeneous and preventive strategies remain elusive. Socioenvironmental measures implemented as Ireland's response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) pandemic represented a national lockdown, and have possibly influenced the health and well-being of pregnant women and unborn infants. METHODS: Regional trends of VLBW and ELBW infants in one designated health area of Ireland over two decades were analysed. Poisson regression and rate ratio analyses with 95% CI were conducted. Regional data covering most of the lockdown period of 2020 were compared with historical regional and national data and forecasted national figures for 2020. RESULTS: Poisson regression analysis found that the regional historical VLBW rate per 1000 live births for January to April, 2001-2019 was 8.18 (95% CI 7.21 to 9.29). During January to April 2020, an unusually low VLBW rate of just 2.17 per 1000 live births was observed, reflecting a rate ratio of 3.77 (95% CI 1.21 to 11.75), p=0.022, representing a 73% reduction of VLBW during the first 4 months of 2020 compared with same period for the preceding two decades. There were no ELBW infants admitted to the regional neonatal intensive care unit. National Irish VLBW rate for 2020 is forecasted to be reduced to approximate 400 per 60 000 births compared with the historical 500-600 range. CONCLUSION: An unprecedented reduction in regional births of VLBW and ELBW infants was observed in Ireland coinciding with the COVID-19 lockdown. Potential determinants of this unique temporal trend possibly reside in the summative socioenvironmental impact of the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings, if mirrored in other regions that have adopted a lockdown, demonstrate the potential to evaluate these implicated behavioural and socioenvironmental modifiers to positively influence VLBW and ELBW rates globally.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gravidez
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD005496, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal dysbiosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in very preterm or very low birth weight infants. Dietary supplementation with probiotics to modulate the intestinal microbiome has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the risk of NEC and associated mortality and morbidity.  OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of supplemental probiotics on the risk of NEC and mortality and morbidity in very preterm or very low birth weight infants. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 Feb 2020), Embase Ovid (1974 to 17 Feb 2020), Maternity & Infant Care Database Ovid (1971 to 17 Feb 2020), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1982 to 18 Feb 2020). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs and quasi-RCTs comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no probiotics in very preterm or very low birth weight infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal. Two review authors separately evaluated trial quality, extracted data, and synthesised effect estimates using risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), and mean difference. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence for effects on NEC, all-cause mortality, late-onset infection, and severe neurodevelopmental impairment. MAIN RESULTS: We included 56 trials in which 10,812 infants participated. Most trials were small (median sample size 149). Lack of clarity on methods to conceal allocation and mask caregivers or investigators were the main potential sources of bias in about half of the trials. Trials varied by the formulation of the probiotics. The most commonly used preparations contained Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Saccharomyces spp., and Streptococcus spp. alone or in combinations. Meta-analysis showed that probiotics may reduce the risk of NEC: RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.65 (54 trials, 10,604 infants; I² = 17%); RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.04 to -0.02; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 33, 95% CI 25 to 50. Evidence was assessed as low certainty because of the limitations in trials design, and the presence of funnel plot asymmetry consistent with publication bias. Sensitivity meta-analysis of trials at low risk of bias showed a reduced risk of NEC: RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.89 (16 trials, 4597 infants; I² = 25%); RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to -0.01; NNTB 50, 95% CI 33 to 100. Meta-analyses showed that probiotics probably reduce mortality (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.89; (51 trials, 10,170 infants; I² = 0%); RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.02 to -0.01; NNTB 50, 95% CI 50 to 100), and late-onset invasive infection (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97; (47 trials, 9762 infants; I² = 19%); RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to -0.01; NNTB 50, 95% CI 33 to 100). Evidence was assessed as moderate certainty for both these outcomes because of the limitations in trials design. Sensitivity meta-analyses of 16 trials (4597 infants) at low risk of bias did not show an effect on mortality or infection. Meta-analysis showed that probiotics may have little or no effect on severe neurodevelopmental impairment (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.26 (five trials, 1518 infants; I² = 0%). The certainty on this evidence is low because of limitations in trials design and serious imprecision of effect estimate. Few data (from seven of the trials) were available for extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight infants. Meta-analyses did not show effects on NEC, death, or infection (low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Given the low to moderate level of certainty about the effects of probiotic supplements on the risk of NEC and associated morbidity and mortality for very preterm or very low birth weight infants, and particularly for extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight infants, further, large, high-quality trials are needed to provide evidence of sufficient quality and applicability to inform policy and practice.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Enterocolite Necrosante/mortalidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infusões Parenterais/métodos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22321, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019408

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Congenital syphilis (CS) can manifest as a variety of clinical presentations according to the severity in symptomatic infants during neonatal period. Preterm neonates with CS may have more clinical evidences of infection and be more severely affected by CS compared with term ones. With increasing survival of markedly premature infants for recent decades, CS may be a challenging problem in those with severe manifestations associated with combined pathophysiologies of CS and prematurity. PATIENT CONCERNS: A very low birth weight infant at 32 weeks gestation presented with an unusual CS presentation consisting of prematurity-associated severe neonatal morbidities including meconium obstruction, prolonged cholestatic jaundice with elevated liver enzymes, and disseminated intravascular coagulation with a bleeding diathesis, in addition to common or typical manifestations of CS. DIAGNOSES: Congenital syphilis. INTERVENTIONS: Therapy consisting of a complete course of parenteral penicillin, blood component therapy, proximal ileotomy with inspissated meconium evacuation and distal loop ileostomy, and other conservative treatments. OUTCOMES: Resolution with normal gastrointestinal function and improved liver function was observed. LESSONS: This case suggests that in premature infants CS may manifest as unusual severe neonatal morbidities that may result from combination of syphilitic pathologies and contributors or conditions associated with prematurity including multisystem immaturity.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Sífilis Congênita/fisiopatologia , Sífilis Congênita/terapia , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Íleo Meconial/cirurgia , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico
6.
Harefuah ; 159(10): 717-720, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to a recent publication in the Lancet, infants who are born today will live to be up to 100 years of age. Neonatology is a medical specialty with great and grave responsibility. The way we administer the treatment of infants today and their subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome will affect not only their own lives but the lives of their families as well, in addition to impacting society, for many decades. Challenges encountered in neonatology subspecialties are enormous. We treat various systems in the human body that are not yet fully developed, taking upon ourselves the onus of directing the most optimal development. We are committed to address the physical challenges and the complex emotional burdens of the whole family unit. Indeed, the new parents and the baby-parents dyad are in our hands alone. We recognize that these infants deserve the best head start that we can provide. We treat a variety of conditions, including term newborns who are born with congenital malformations as well as those who sustain major injury through delivery complications, and provide 24-hour care during the long-term hospitalizations of very preterm infants. In this journal, we will share the very broad spectrum of challenges that will be described in case studies and original reports, and highlight the various approaches that reflect the versatility of our profession, from the baby's first breath to diagnosis, to choosing the therapeutic management most suitable for the infant and the family.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Pais
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): 306-312, oct 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122006

RESUMO

Antecedentes. Los prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer suelen generar estrés en sus madres, que puede persistir más de seis meses luego del nacimiento. Este trastorno se denomina estrés postraumático crónico (EPTC).Objetivo. Detectar frecuencia y síntomas del EPTC en madres de prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer menores de 32 semanas de gestación.Métodos. Estudio transversal, mediante una encuesta voluntaria autoadministrada a madres con embarazo único. Se empleó la Escala de trauma de Davidson.Resultados. Se realizaron 172 encuestas; se eliminaron 26 incompletas. De 146 madres incorporadas, 64 (el 44 %) presentaron estrés. Las madres con EPTC tuvieron un 46,8 % de prematuros nacidos < 28 semanas vs. un 31,7 % en madres sin EPTC (p: 0,032). Los prematuros con peso < 1000 g fueron más frecuentes en madres con EPTC, el 53 % vs. el 34 %en madres sin estrés(p: 0,011). No hubo diferencias entre grupos de madres en morbilidad neonatal (p: 0,072). La morbilidad grave fue más frecuente en madres con EPTC, el 44 %. vs. el 28 % (p: < 0,004). Las madres con menor escolaridad tuvieron EPTC significativamente mayor (p: 0,013). No hubo diferencias en la edad materna (p: 0,313), edad de los niños (p: 0,405) y días de hospitalización en la Unidad (p: 0,316).Conclusión. El 44 % de las madres de prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer tuvieron EPTC, significativamente más frecuente en prematuros ≤ 28 semanas, con peso < 1000 g, morbilidad grave y menor escolaridad materna


Background. The birth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants causes stress in mothers, which may continue for over 6 months. This is called chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD).Objective. To detect CPTSD frequency and symptoms among mothers of VLBW preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestation.Methods. Cross-sectional cohort study in mothers using a survey based on the Davidson Trauma Scale.Results. A total of 172 surveys were administered but 146 were included; 82 (56 %) did not have stress symptoms, while 64 (44 %) had CPTSD. Mothers with CPTSD accounted for 46.8 % of preterm infants born at ≤ 28 weeks versus 31.7 % in those without CPTSD (p = 0.032). Preterm infants with a birth weight < 1000 g were significantly more frequent among mothers with CPTSD, 53 % versus 34 % among those without stress (p = 0.011). No differences were observed in neonatal morbidity (p = 0.072). Severe morbidity in preterm infants was significantly more common among those with CPTSD, 43.8 % versus 28 % (p ≤ 0.004).Mothers who had a lower education accounted significantly for more cases of CPTSD (p = 0.013). No significant differences were seen in maternal age (p = 0.313), children's age (p = 0.405), and length of stay (p = 0.316).Conclusion. Among the mothers of VLBW preterm infants, 44 % had CPTSD, and this was significantly more common among those who had preterm infants born at ≤28 weeks, a birth weight <1000 g, severe morbidity, and a lower level of education.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estresse Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idade Materna , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Mães/psicologia
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 638-645, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844806

RESUMO

Optimal enteral nutrition is essential for growth restricted preterm infants because if nutrition remains suboptimal during early days of life, physical and neuro-developmental outcome might be in danger. However, chronic hypoxia during antenatal period makes them susceptible for feeding intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis during post natal period. So this randomized clinical trial was conducted in the department of Neonatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2018 to June 2019; to evaluate the effect of early versus delayed enteral feeding on preterm growth-restricted infants. During the study period, out of 127 infants with small for gestational age, 50 babies were enrolled and randomly assigned to either early feeding group (n=25) or late feeding group (n=25). Clinical characteristics at trial entry were well balanced between groups. Newborn enrolled in early feeding group reached full feed significantly faster than late feeding group (p=0.001; Hazard ratio 1.24). Early feeding group regained birth weight faster; experienced lesser incidence of neonatal sepsis, experienced less number of feed intolerance, had shorter mean duration of hospital stay and achieved higher weight on post natal age 16th days. All values were statistically significant. Early enteral feeding found to be safe and beneficial in reducing the time to reach full enteral feeding and better weight gain in growth restricted preterm infants.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Parenteral , Gravidez
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785282

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the neonatal diagnosis-related group scheme in patients affected by respiratory distress syndrome. The variable costs of individual patients in the same group are examined. This study uses the data of infants (N = 243) hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Gaslini Children's Hospital in Italy in 2016. The care unit's operating and management costs are employed to estimate the average cost per patient. Operating costs include those related to personnel, drugs, medical supplies, treatment tools, examinations, radiology, and laboratory services. Management costs relate to administration, maintenance, and depreciation cost of medical equipment. Cluster analysis and Tobit regression are employed, allowing for the assessment of the total cost per patient per day taking into account the main cost determinants: birth weight, gestational age, and discharge status. The findings highlight great variability in the costs for patients in the same diagnosis-related group, ranging from a minimum of €267 to a maximum of €265,669. This suggests the inefficiency of the diagnosis-related group system. Patients with very low birth weight incurred costs approximately twice the reimbursement set by the policy; a loss of €36,420 is estimated for every surviving baby with a birth weight lower than 1,170 grams. On the contrary, at term, newborns cost about €20,000 less than the diagnosis-related group reimbursement. The actual system benefits hospitals that mainly treat term infants with respiratory distress syndrome and penalizes hospitals taking care of very low birth weight patients. As a result, strategic behavior and "up-coding" might occur. We conduct a cluster analysis that suggests a birth weight adjustment to determine new fees that would be fairer than the current costs.


Assuntos
Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/economia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 653-660, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842386

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Methods: This prospective, multicenter observational cohort study was conducted based on Shandong Neonatal Network (SNN). The clinical data of the VLBWI (n=1 051), who were admitted to 27 neonatal intensive care units from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018, were collected and analyzed. According to the weight at discharge or 36 weeks of postmenstrual age, all the enrolled VLBWI were assigned into EUGR group and non-EUGR group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to detect the risk factors for EUGR in preterm small for gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA infants. Results: A total of 1 051 VLBWI were enrolled, with 51.7% (543/1 051) male. The incidence of EUGR in the whole group was 60.7% (638/1 051), and were 78.3% (90/115) and 46.9% (53/113) in extremely low birth weight infant (ELBWI) and extremely preterm infants (EPI), respectively. The incidence of EUGR in SGA and non-SGA infants were 87.6% (190/217) and 53.7% (448/834), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that, withholding feeds (OR=1.531, 1.237, 95%CI: 1.180-1.987, 1.132-1.353, both P<0.01) and time to achieve full enteral feeding (OR=1.090, 1.023, 95%CI: 1.017-1.167, 1.002-1.045, P=0.014, 0.034) were independent risk factors of EUGR in both SGA and non-SGA infants. For SGA infants, cesarean delivery was an independent risk factor for EUGR (OR=8.147, 95%CI: 2.127-31.212, P=0.002); while for non-SGA infants, hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (OR=2.572, 95%CI: 1.496-4.421, P=0.001) and the duration of invasive ventilation (OR=1.050, 95%CI: 1.009 - 1.092, P=0.016) were independent risk factors of EUGR. Besides, moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR=2.241, 95%CI: 1.173-4.281, P=0.015), necrotizing enterocolitis (OR=5.633, 95%CI: 1.333-23.796, P=0.019) and retinopathy of prematurity (OR=2.219, 95%CI: 1.268-3.885, P=0.005) were associated with EUGR. Conclusions: The incidence of weight-defined EUGR is high in VLBWI, especially in preterm SGA infants. Avoiding delaying feeds after birth and achieving full enteral feeding early may reduce the incidence of EUGR.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236639, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a significant morbidity in preterm babies. Multiple risk factors for severe ROP have been extensively studied, however, only a few studies have included maternal diabetes mellitus (MDM) in their assessment. ROP and diabetic retinopathy are both retinal vascular diseases in which there is leakage and/or neovascularization from damaged retinal vessels. Diabetes may affect ROP development; however, there are conflicting results on the association between MDM and ROP. OBJECTIVE: To determine if MDM is an independent risk factor for clinically significant ROP (ROP > Stage II) in neonates weighing less than 1500g. DESIGN/METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of neonates weighing <1500g who were delivered or transferred into our institution from 2007 through 2017. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between severe ROP and MDM. The risks for the different stages of ROP from MDM were compared using chi-square linear trend test. RESULTS: We extracted 883 paired maternal-neonatal data. The mean (standard deviation) gestational age and birthweight were 28.5 (2.9) weeks and 1052.7 (300.9) grams, respectively. Of the 883 mothers, 72 (8.2%) had DM. The incidence of ROP and severe ROP was 42.4% (374/883) and 6.5% (57/883) respectively. The odds ratio comparing MDM and severe ROP was 3.47 [95% CI: 1.51-7.96]; p<0.01). Compared to Stage I, the risk of MDM in infants with ROP increased from 1.49 in Stage II ROP to 2.59 in Stages III&IV. Severe ROP was associated with infant steroid use (OR: 5.92 [95% CI: 2.83-12.38]; p <0.01), sepsis (OR: 2.13 [95% CI: 1.09-4.14]; p = 0.03) chorioamnionitis (OR: 1.90 [95% CI: 1.03-3.50]; p = 0.04), and maternal steroid use (OR: 0.51 [95% CI: 0.32-0.79]; p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Maternal diabetes is associated with ROP and the strength of association increased with increasing severity of ROP.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235901, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for BPD severity by gestational age (GA) and identify a way to reduce the incidence of moderate-to-severe BPD. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of very-low-birth-weight-infants (VLBWIs) delivered at 24 to 28 weeks GA from Korean Neonatal Network registry between 2013 and 2016. BPD was defined using the National Institutes of Health criteria. Study populations were divided by GA and subdivided into no/mild BPD and moderate/severe BPD. The initial statuses of all infants, including those who died before BPD diagnosis and the maternal and neonatal factors of the live infants were compared. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics, comparative tests, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 3,976 infants, 3,717 were included (24weeks, n = 456; 25 weeks, n = 650, 26 weeks, n = 742; 27 weeks, n = 836; 28 weeks, n = 1,033). The overall mortality rate was 18% and the rates by GA were 43%, 29%, 11%, and 6% in the 24-, 25-, 26-, 27-, 28-GA groups, respectively. Small for GA (SGA), treated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), hypotension, and late-onset sepsis were significant risk factors for developing moderate/severe BPD in the 25 to 28-week GA groups in the multivariate analyses. However, for infants born at 24 weeks GA, there were no significant risk factors apart from initial resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: Effective initial resuscitation was the most important factor for infants delivered at 24 weeks GA determining the severity of BPD. For infants delivered between 25 and 28 weeks, judicious care of SGA infants, aggressive treatment for PDA and hypotension, and intense efforts to decrease the sepsis rate are needed to reduce the development of moderate-to-severe BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/patologia , Idade Gestacional , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/complicações , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
J Pediatr ; 223: 42-50.e2, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neonatal hyperglycemia is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), visual outcomes, and ocular growth at 7 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: Children born preterm (<30 weeks of gestational age) at a tertiary hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, who developed neonatal hyperglycemia (2 blood glucose concentrations ≥153 mg/dL [8.5 mmol/L] 4 hours apart) were matched with children who were not hyperglycemic (matching criteria: sex, gestational age, birth weight, age, socioeconomic status, and multiple birth) and assessed at 7 years of corrected age. The primary outcome, favorable overall visual outcome (visual acuity ≤0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, no strabismus, stereoacuity ≤240 arcsec, not requiring spectacles) was compared between groups using generalized matching criteria-adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS: Assessments were performed on 57 children with neonatal hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia group) and 54 matched children without hyperglycemia (control group). There were no differences in overall favorable visual outcome (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.42-2.13, P = .90) or severe ROP incidence (OR 2.20, 95% CI 0.63-7.63, P = .21) between groups. Children with hyperglycemia had poorer binocular distance visual acuity (mean difference 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.14 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, P < .01), more strabismus (OR 6.22, 95% CI 1.31-29.45, P = .02), and thicker crystalline lens (mean difference 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.24 mm, P < .01). Maximum blood glucose concentration was greater in the ROP-treated group compared with the ROP-not treated and no ROP groups after adjusting for sex, gestational age, and birth weight z score (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal hyperglycemia was not associated with overall visual outcomes at 7 years of age. However, there were between-group differences for specific outcome measures relating to interocular lens growth and binocular vision. Further follow-up is required to determine implications on long-term visual outcome.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Glicemia/metabolismo , Causalidade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/sangue , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013392, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about the optimal point at which multi-component fortifier should be added to human milk for promoting growth in preterm infants. The most common practice is to start fortification when the infant's daily enteral feed volume reaches 100 mL/kg body weight. Another approach is to commence fortification earlier, in some cases as early as the first enteral feed. Early fortification of human milk could increase nutrient intake and growth rates but may increase the risk of feed intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). OBJECTIVES: To assess effects on growth and safety of early fortification of human milk versus late fortification in preterm infants To assess whether effects vary based upon gestational age (≤ 27 weeks; 28 to 31 weeks; ≥ 32 weeks), birth weight (< 1000 g; 1000 to 1499 g; ≥ 1500 g), small or appropriate for gestational age, or type of fortifier (bovine milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF); human milk-based HMF; formula powder) SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 8); OVID MEDLINE (R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions (R) (1946 to 15 August 2019); MEDLINE via PubMed (1 August 2018 to 15 August 2019) for the previous year; and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literatue (CINAHL) (1981 to 15 August 2019). We searched clinical trials databases and reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared early versus late fortification of human milk in preterm infants. We defined early fortification as fortification started at < 100 mL/kg/d enteral feed volume or < 7 days postnatal age, and late fortification as fortification started at ≥ 100 mL/kg/d feeds or ≥ 7 days postnatal age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and independently extracted data. We analysed treatment effects in individual trials, and we reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included two trials with a total of 237 infants. All participants were very low birth weight infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Early fortification was started at 20 mL/kg/d enteral feeds in one study and 40 mL/kg/d in the other study. Late fortification was started at 100 mL/kg/d feeds in both studies. One study used bovine milk-based fortifier, and the other used human milk-based fortifier. Meta-analysis showed that early fortification may have little or no effect on growth outcomes including time to regain birth weight (MD -0.06 days, 95% CI -1.32 to 1.20 days), linear growth (MD 0.10 cm/week, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.22 cm/week), or head growth (MD -0.01 cm/week, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.06 cm/week) during the initial hospitalisation period. Early fortification may have little or no effect on the risk of NEC (MD -0.01, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.06). The certainty of evidence was low for these outcomes due to risk of bias (lack of blinding) and imprecision (small sample size). Early fortification may have little or no effect on incidence of surgical NEC, time to reach full enteral feeds, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, proportion of infants with feed interruption episodes, duration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), duration of central venous line usage, or incidence of invasive infection, all-cause mortality, and duration of hospital stay. The certainty of evidence was low for these outcomes due to risk of bias (lack of blinding) and imprecision (small sample size). We did not have data for other outcomes such as subsequent weight gain after birth weight is regained, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, postdischarge growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence is insufficient to support or refute early fortification of human milk in preterm infants. Further large trials would be needed to provide data of sufficient quality and precision to inform policy and practice.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Peso ao Nascer , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235794, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Predictive models for preterm infant mortality have been developed internationally, albeit not valid for all populations. This study aimed to develop and validate different mortality predictive models, using Spanish data, to be applicable to centers with similar morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Infants born alive, admitted to NICU (BW<1500 g or GA<30 w), and registered in the SEN1500 database, were included. There were two time periods; development of the predictive models (2009-2012) and validation (2013-2015). Three models were produced; prenatal (1), first 24 hours of life (2), and whilst admitted (3). For the statistical analysis, hospital mortality was the dependent variable. Significant variables were used in multivariable regression models. Specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC), for all models, were calculated. RESULTS: Out of 14953 included newborns, 2015 died; 373 (18.5%) in their first 24 hours, 1315 (65.3%) during the first month, and 327 (16.2%) thereafter, before discharge. In the development stage, mortality prediction AUC was 0.834 (95% CI: 0.822-0.846) (p<0.001) in model 1 and 0.872 (95% CI: 0.860-0.884) (p<0.001) in model 2. Model 3's AUC was 0.989 (95% CI: 0.983-0.996) (p<0.001) and 0.942 (95% CI: 0.929-0.956) (p<0.001) during the 0-30 and >30 days of life, respectively. During validation, models 1 and 2 showed moderate concordance, whilst that of model 3 was good. CONCLUSION: Using dynamic models to predict individual mortality can improve outcome estimations. Development of models in the prenatal period, first 24 hours, and during hospital admission, cover key stages of mortality prediction in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Regressão , Espanha
17.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704351

RESUMO

In the current era, the survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants has increased considerably because of new advances in technology; however, these infants often develop chronic dysfunction of the lung, which is called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD remains an important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity despite newer and gentler modes of ventilation. BPD results from the exposure of immature lungs to various antenatal and postnatal factors that lead to an impairment in lung development and aberrant growth of lung parenchyma and vasculature. However, we still struggle with a uniform definition for BPD that can help predict various short- and long-term pulmonary outcomes. With new research, our understanding of the pathobiology of this disease has evolved, and many new mechanisms of lung injury and repair are now known. By utilizing the novel 'omic' approaches in BPD, we have now identified various factors in the disease process that may act as novel therapeutic targets in the future. New investigational agents being explored for the management and prevention of BPD include mesenchymal stem cell therapy and insulin-like growth factor 1. Despite this, many questions remain unanswered and require further research to improve the outcomes of premature infants with BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Gravidez
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 980-987, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620729

RESUMO

Background: Perinatal and neonatal care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have changed significantly during the past two decades. However, it is unclear how these changes have affected neonatal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the advanced neonatal care on short-term outcomes of VLBW infants. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to compare the mortality and morbidity of VLBW infants between period I (2007-2011) and period II (2012-2016) in our unit. Results: A total of 188 infants in period I and 214 infants in period II were evaluated. The overall in-hospital mortality for VLBW infants dropped from 26.1% in period I to 13.1% in period II. The incidence of birth asphyxia decreased significantly during period II (10.1% [period I] vs 3.7% [period II]). The rate of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) use (69.8% vs 87.1%) and the duration of NCPAP therapy (median: 3 days [period I] vs 5 days [period II]) increased significantly, while the proportion of infants treated with mechanical ventilation and the duration of mechanical ventilation significantly decreased. There was a significant increase in the proportion of survivors without major neonatal morbidity, mainly due to a significant increase in the incidence of survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (72.7% vs 82.8%). In contrast, the incidence of late-onset sepsis increased significantly during period II (7.9% vs 19.4%). Conclusions: Active perinatal care is associated with improvements in survival and survival free of BPD for VLBW infants. However, late-onset sepsis is still a major concern.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Sepse/complicações , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Masculino , Morbidade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(2): 127-132, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1104392

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar os critérios clínicos e insumos utilizados para a administração do primeiro banho em recém-nascido prematuro de muito baixo peso internado em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal.Métodos: estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa. Com base no Método Canguru/Ministério da saúde, realizado em cinco unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal; população composta por 82 profissionais da equipe de enfermagem. Resultados: os critérios clínicos não apontados na avaliação foram 19,5% para a saturação de oxigênio, 23,2% frequência cardíaca e 29,3% frequência respiratória. Os insumos utilizados na realização do primeiro banho: água de torneira aquecida 56,1%, com controle bacteriológico 52,4%, sabão líquido 89,0%, com pH neutro em 76,8%. Conclusão: a não observância dos sinais clínicos e os insumos inadequados para a realização do banho do recém-nascido prematuro de muito baixo peso pode colocar em risco a segurança do paciente; emergindo adequações para fortalecimento da prática clínica da enfermagem. (AU)


Objective: To identify the clinical criteria and inputs used for the administration of the first bath in a very low birth weight premature newborns in neonatal intensive care units. Methods: descriptive study, with a quantitative approach based on the Kangaroo/Ministry of Health Method, carried out in five neonatal intensive care units; population composed of 82 professionals from the nursing team. Results: The clinical criteria not mentioned in the evaluation were 19.5% for oxygen saturation, 23.2% heart rate and 29.3% respiratory rate. The inputs used in the first bath: heated tap water (56.1%), with bacteriological control (52.4%), liquid soap (89.0%), with neutral pH (76.8%). Conclusion: Failure to observe clinical signs and inadequate supplies for bathing the very low birth weight premature newborn can put patient safety at risk; emerging adaptations to strengthen clinical nursing practice. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar los criterios clínicos y los insumos utilizados para la administración del primer baño en recién nacidos prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer en unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, con enfoque cuantitativo, basado en el Método Canguro/Ministerio de Salud, realizado en cinco unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales; población compuesta por 82 profesionales del equipo de enfermería. Resultados: Los criterios clínicos no mencionados en la evaluación fueron 19.5% para la saturación de oxígeno, 23.2% de frecuencia cardíaca y 29.3% de frecuencia respiratoria. Los insumos utilizados en el primer baño: agua caliente del grifo (56.1%), con control bacteriológico (52.4%), jabón líquido (89.0%), con pH neutro (76.8%). Conclusión: El incumplimiento de los signos clínicos y los suministros inadecuados para bañar al recién nacido prematuro de muy bajo peso pueden poner en riesgo la seguridad del paciente; adaptaciones emergentes para fortalecer la práctica clínica de enfermería. (AU)


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Banhos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Enfermagem Neonatal
20.
Environ Res ; 188: 109733, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574850

RESUMO

Concentrated human milk (HM-concentrate) can be obtained from the simple and inexpensive method of donated breast milk direct lyophilization. A previous study reported that HM-concentrate contains the adequate amount of main macro- and micronutrients for use as a nutritional resource for preterm infants with very low birth weight admitted to neonatal intensive care units. However, further details need to be elucidated about HM-concentrate composition, particularly its content of essential and potentially toxic trace elements. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the concentration of essential and toxic elements in human milk considered baseline (HM-baseline) and HM-concentrate, as well as to quantify changes in concentration of these elements after the HM concentration process. The concentration of Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Iron, Mercury, Manganese, Nickel, Lead, Selenium, Tin, and Thallium was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Moreover, Bayesian linear mixed effect models were applied to estimate the mean difference between HM-baseline and HM-concentrate samples. After comparison (HM-concentrate versus HM-baseline), a significant increase in concentration was observed only for Manganese (0.80 µg/L; 95% CrI [0.16; 1.43]) and Selenium (6.74 µg/L; 95% CrI [4.66; 8.86]), while Lead concentration (-6.13 µg/L; 95% CrI [-8.63; -3.61]) decreased. This study provides latest and reliable information about HM composition. After milk concentration by lyophilization, there was a significant increase only in the essential elements Manganese and Selenium. The essential micronutrient content in HM-concentrate was similar or higher than that in preterm mothers' milk, which suggests it is viable for nutritional support of preterm infants. In addition, the low concentrations of potentially toxic elements in HM-concentrate indicates that it is safe for consumption by premature newborns.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Oligoelementos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leite Humano/química , Oligoelementos/análise
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