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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(9): 1023-8, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of interleukin (IL) -23/IL-17 axis and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the infarcted tissue in rats with myocardial infarction (MI), and to explore the mechanism of EA on alleviating MI injury. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a sham-operation plus EA group, a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each group. The MI models were established by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in the model group and EA group, while only threading was performed in the sham-operation group and sham-operation plus EA group. The rats in the sham-operation plus EA group and EA group were treated with EA at "Neiguan" (PC 6), disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz, 2 mA, once a day, 20 min each time, for 3 days. After the intervention, the ejection fraction (EF) was measured by echocardiography to evaluate the cardiac function; the infarct area was measured by TTC staining; the HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of myocardial tissue; the levels of IL-23 and IL-17 in infarcted tissue were detected by ELISA; the protein expression of TLR4 in infarcted tissue was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the sham-operation group, the EF was decreased (P<0.01), the infarct area was increased (P<0.01), the myocardial fiber injury was obvious, accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration, and the contents of IL-23, IL-17 and the expression of TLR4 in infarcted tissue were increased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the EF was increased (P<0.05), the infarct area was reduced (P<0.05), the myocardial fiber injury was significantly improved, the inflammatory cell infiltration was reduced, and the contents of IL-23, IL-17 and TLR4 expression in infarcted tissue were decreased in the EA group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA may alleviate the excessive inflammatory response after MI by inhibiting the expression of IL-23/IL-17 axis in MI rats, and TLR4 may be involved during the process.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Infarto do Miocárdio , Animais , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-23/genética , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9313-9325, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370469

RESUMO

PSPP-1 was obtained from purple sweet potato, and the effects of PSPP-1 on the immune modulation on macrophage cells were investigated for the first time. PSPP-1 promoted RAW264.7 proliferation and increased the total cell percentage in DNA synthesis and mitosis phases, and the cell morphology changed in volume and appearance. Additionally, the RAW264.7 immune functions of phagocytic activity and nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and cytokine production were improved by PSPP-1. The western blot experiment showed that PSPP-1 could activate toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4-mediated pathways, and the expressions of proteins in MyD88-dependent, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling, NF-κB-signaling, AP-1 signaling, and TRIF-dependent pathways were improved markedly. Molecular docking and Biolayer Interferometry study further indicated that PSPP-1 could recognize and bind TLR2 and TLR4 by targeting the binding sites with a strong affinity. It suggested that PSPP-1 could enhance immunity via TLR2- and TLR4-mediated pathways, and it could be explored as an immunomodulatory agent.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Animais , Glucanos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/genética , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 7385160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457118

RESUMO

Obesity is considered as a risk factor of osteoarthritis (OA), but the precise relationship is still poorly understood. Leptin, one of the most relevant factors secreted by adipose tissues, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. Our aim was to investigate the regulation and molecular mechanism of the leptin signaling pathway in obesity-related OA. SD rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5, 15, and 27 weeks. The levels of leptin in serum increased from W5, while in the synovial fluid increased from W15. The histological evaluation showed that the pathological changes of OA occurred at 27 weeks rather than 5 or 15 weeks. We also found that leptin induced CD14/TLR4 activation by the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway to promote OA. Moreover, silencing SOCS3 enhanced leptin-induced JAK2-STAT3-CD14/TLR4 activation in rat primary chondrocytes. Our findings indicated that leptin may be one of the initiating factors of obesity-related OA. TLR4 is at least partially regulated by leptin through the JAK2-STAT3-CD14 pathway. Meanwhile, SOCS3 acting as a negative feedback inhibitor of leptin signaling presented a potential therapeutic prospect for obesity-related OA. Our study provided new evidence suggesting the key role of leptin in mediating obesity-related OA process and its underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Osteoartrite/patologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Masculino , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
4.
Microb Pathog ; 159: 105149, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416273

RESUMO

Genetic polymorphism in pathogen recognition receptors tends to influence infection, disease susceptibility, and progression. We analyzed the association of TLR4 and TLR9 gene polymorphisms with multiple hrHPV infections and HPV16 copy number in cervicitis and cervical cancer. A total of 440 cervical cancer, cervicitis, and healthy individuals were studied using PCR-based assays. Student t-test, chi-square test, Welch's t-test, and Fisher's Exact test were utilized to evaluate the association of HPV infection with polymorphisms. Haploview and FAMHAP were used to analyze haplotype association with HPV infection and viral load. Study results revealed HPV45 infection as the most common one in cervical cancer after HPV16, and one-fourth HPV positive cervical cancer patients possessed multiple HPV infections. Mean HPV16 copy number of 264.4 ± 58.7 and 2.1 ± 3.3 copies/cell was detected in cervical cancer and cervicitis, respectively. TLR4 rs10759931 was protective against multiple hrHPV infections. TLR4 haplotype ACAC was associated with an increased risk of multiple hrHPV infections. TLR9 SNPs rs187084, rs352140, and rs352139 were associated with decreased risk of high HPV16 copy number. Augmentation of efforts for the multivalent HPV vaccination in India is suggested. The analyzed polymorphisms were shown to modulate hrHPV co-infections and HPV16 viral load that warrants further analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Cervicite Uterina , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Haplótipos , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Humanos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética
5.
Microb Pathog ; 159: 105158, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanin is an important virulence factor for Sporothrix globosa, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis that occurs worldwide. Although previous research suggests that melanin is involved in the pathogenesis of sporotrichosis, little is known about its influence on the macrophages that represent the frontline components of innate immunity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of melanin on phagocytic activity and the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 during S. globosa infection of macrophages in vitro. METHODS: To compare phagocytic activity and survival rates, THP-1 macrophages and primary mouse peritoneal macrophages were co-cultured with a wild-type S. globosa strain (Mel+), an albino mutant strain (Mel-), a tricyclazole-treated Mel + strain (TCZ-Mel+), or melanin ghosts extracted from S. globosa conidia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) generation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were assayed in THP-1 cells infected with S. globosa conidia. Quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to observe the effect of melanin on TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Knockdown of TLR2/4 expression with small interfering RNA was performed to further verify the role of these receptors during infection. RESULTS: Macrophages infected with Mel + conidia showed a lower phagocytosis index and a higher survival rate than TCZ-Mel+ and Mel- in vitro. After incubation with S. globosa, the release of ROS, NO, TNF-α and IL-6 by THP-1 were decreased in the presence of melanin. Increased mRNA and protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 occurred upon S. globosa infection in THP-1, whereas the presence of melanin suppressed TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover, TLR2 or TLR4 knockdown showed a trend toward reducing the pernicious effect of S. globosa conidia on THP-1 cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicated that melanin inhibits the phagocytosis of S. globosa and guards against macrophage attack by providing protection from oxygen- and nitrogen-derived radicals, as well as suppressing the host pro-inflammatory cytokine response (TNF-α and IL-6). Melanin was also involved in modulating TLR2 and TLR4 receptor expression, weakening the killing efficiency of S. globosa.


Assuntos
Sporothrix , Animais , Macrófagos , Melaninas , Camundongos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
6.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(4): 206-215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is widespread, affecting about 50% of the global population. Polymorphisms in host genes such as the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) might affect the susceptibility and severity of infection and treatment success. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the susceptibility and severity of H pylori infection with host TLR4 (rs11536889, rs4986790, rs200109652, rs10759932), TLR5 (rs5744174, rs2072493, rs746250566), TLR10 (rs559182335, rs10004195) polymorphisms. DESIGN: Analytical, cross-sectional. SETTING: Endoscopy clinic at tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues collected from H pylori-infected patients and healthy individuals. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the targeted TLR genes were genotyped to assess the genetic association of various SNPs with disease severity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effect of genotype distribution on H pylori infection. SAMPLE SIZE: 250 peptic ulcer patients and 217 controls. RESULTS: The TLR10 genotype showed no significant association with H pylori infection except for rs10004195 (T>A) (P=.002). The genotype frequency of Rs5744174 in TLR5 had a significant association with the presence of H pylori infection (P=.046, OR=0.52). Except for gender (P=.022), there were no significant associations between clinical and demographic variables and SNPs relating to the severity of the H pylori infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with differences in severity of H pylori infection due to TLR SNPs in different ethnic groups. Understanding differences in genetic susceptibility could help in classifying patients and matching patients with various treatment options on a genetic basis. LIMITATIONS: Lack of H pylori pathogenicity features assessment. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Úlcera Péptica , Estudos Transversais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Humanos , Jordânia , Úlcera Péptica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor 10 Toll-Like , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 5 Toll-Like
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112566, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340153

RESUMO

Artemisia ordosica is one of the main shrubby perennials belonging to Artemisia species of Asteraceae and could be used in folk Chinese/Mongolian medicine to treat symptoms of various inflammatory ailments. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary Artemisia ordosica polysaccharide (AOP) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress in broilers via Nrf2/Keap1 and TLR4/NF-κB pathway. A total of 192 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to four treatments with 6 replicates (n = 8): (1) CON group, non-challenged broilers fed basal diet; (2) LPS group, LPS-challenged broilers fed basal diet; (3) AOP group, non-challenged broilers fed basal diet supplemented with 750 mg/kg AOP; (4) LPS+AOP group, LPS-challenged broilers fed basal diet supplemented with 750 mg/kg AOP. The trial included starter phase (d 1-14), stress period Ⅰ (d 15-21), convalescence Ⅰ (d 22-28), stress period Ⅱ (d 29-35) and convalescence Ⅱ (d 36-42). During stress period Ⅰ (on d 15, 17, 19 and 21) and stress period Ⅱ (on d 29, 31, 33 and 35), broilers were injected intra-abdominally either with LPS solution or with an equal amount of sterile saline. The results showed that dietary AOP supplementation alleviated LPS-induced reduction in antioxidant enzyme activity and excessive production of ROS, 8-OHdG and PC in serum of broilers challenged with LPS. Moreover, dietary AOP supplementation alleviated the decrease of T-AOC and activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in liver of broilers challenged with LPS by increasing expression of Nrf2, and inhibiting over-expression of Keap1 both at gene and protein level. Additionally, dietary AOP supplementation decreased the over-production of IL-1ß and IL-6 in liver of broilers challenged by LPS through decreasing mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB P65, IL-1ß and IL-6, and alleviating the increase of protein expression of TLR4, IKKß, NF-κB P65, IL-1ß, IL-6, and the decrease of protein expression of IkBα. In conclusion, dietary AOP supplementation could alleviate LPS-induced oxidative stress through Nrf2/Keap1 and TLR4/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Artemisia/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Polissacarídeos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(31): 8747-8757, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337939

RESUMO

High-purity Fab fragment and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) were prepared to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Raw 264.7 macrophage system. Compared with IgY, the Fab fragment possessed a greater potency in inhibiting the inflammation by nitric oxide (NO)/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways. The Fab fragment attenuated the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) to 38.07 ± 1.86-48.39 ± 11.33 pg/mL (63.1-71.0% inhibition), 31.59 ± 3.91-38.08 ± 4.44 pg/mL (72.4-77.1% inhibition), and 20.62 ± 0.46-21.91 ± 0.65 pg/mL (50-53% inhibition), respectively. Additionally, the Fab fragment significantly inhibited the translocation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins, including ERK1/2 (41.5/33.2%), JNK1/2 (44.2/39.6%), and p38 (42.2%). The Fab fragment could be internalized into cells, and the pretreatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with the Fab fragment reduced the mRNA expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR4, 32.7-44.4% inhibition) and αVß3 integrin (76.1% inhibition). In conclusion, Fab fragments regulated the TLR4 and αVß3 integrin-mediated inflammatory processes by blocking the NF-κB and MAPKs pathways in the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage system.


Assuntos
Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , NF-kappa B , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas , Integrina alfa5 , Integrinas , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
9.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(7): 580-5, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) on the depressive behavior in depression rats, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of depression. METHODS: A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal, depression model, taVNS, tnVNS (transcutaneous auricular none-vagus nerve stimulaton) groups (n=6 in each group). The depression model was established by chronic unpredictable mild stimulation combined with solitary raising for 35 consecutive days. After 14 days modeling, transcutaneous electrostimulation (2 mA, 2 Hz/15 Hz) was applied to auricular concha or auricular margin, respectively. Each intervention was conducted for 30 minutes, once daily for 21 days. The depression-like behavior was evaluated by forced swimming immobility time and body weight. The expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) protein in the prefrontal cortex were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Following modeling, the increase amount of body weight was decreased, the forced swimming immobility time and expression TLR4, MyD88 and IL-18 protein in the prefrontal cortex were increased in the model group than those in the normal group (P<0.01). Following the treatment and compared with the model group, the increase amount of body weight in the taVNS group was obviously increased (P<0.05), the swimming immobility time and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-18 protein in the taVNS and tnVNS groups were significantly decreased (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: TaVNS is able to improve depression in depression rats, which is probably related to its effect in inhibiting inflammatory response of TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway in prefrontal cortex.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Animais , Depressão/genética , Depressão/terapia , Interleucina-18/genética , Masculino , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Nervo Vago
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281186

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative motor disorder characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the midbrain, depletion of dopamine (DA), and impaired nigrostriatal pathway. The pathological hallmark of PD includes the aggregation and accumulation α-synuclein (α-SYN). Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PD are still unknown, the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), mainly TLR4 and subsequent neuroinflammatory immune response, seem to play a significant role. Mounting evidence suggests that viral infection can concur with the precipitation of PD or parkinsonism. The recently identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), responsible for 160 million cases that led to the death of more than three million individuals worldwide. Studies have reported that many patients with COVID-19 display several neurological manifestations, including acute cerebrovascular diseases, conscious disturbance, and typical motor and non-motor symptoms accompanying PD. In this review, the neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of PD are discussed. Specifically, the involvement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in mediating the virus entry, as well as the massive immune and inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients is explored. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein to TLR4 and the possible interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and α-SYN as contributing factors to neuronal death are also considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia
11.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(3): 921-931, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212684

RESUMO

Abnormal osteoclast formation plays a significant part in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As potent therapeutic biomarkers, microRNAs (miRNAs) have obtained increasing attention. Recently, treatment regimens regarding miRNAs have been implicated in skeletal diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the expression and function of miR-20a during osteoclast proliferation and differentiation and its correlation with bone erosion in RA mice. The expression of miR-20a was observed to be diminished in the ankle tissues of RA mice relative to that in normal controls evaluated by RT-qPCR. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, Safranin O-fast green staining, and tartrateresistant acid phosphatase staining were used to evaluate the effects of miR-20a on RA symptoms. The proliferation and differentiation of osteoclasts, and bone erosion were repressed by agomiR-20a injection. 3'UTR luciferase reporter assays were conducted to validate the putative binding between miR-20a and receptor activation of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). The protein expression and phosphorylation level of toll-like receptor4 (TLR4)/p38 pathway-related factors were detected by Western blot. miR-20a inhibited proliferation and differentiation potentials to osteoclasts partly through the TLR4/p38 pathway. The current work provides evidence that miR-20a hinders proliferation and differentiation of osteoclasts by targeting RANKL through the TLR4/p38 pathway.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , MicroRNAs , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Ligantes , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B , Osteoclastos , Osteogênese , Ligante RANK/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299224

RESUMO

Inflammation is important for the initiation and progression of breast cancer. We have previously reported that in monocytes, estrogen regulates TLR4/NFκB-mediated inflammation via the interaction of the Erα isoform ERα36 with GPER1. We therefore investigated whether a similar mechanism is present in breast cancer epithelial cells, and the effect of ERα36 expression on the classic 66 kD ERα isoform (ERα66) functions. We report that estrogen inhibits LPS-induced NFκB activity and the expression of downstream molecules TNFα and IL-6. In the absence of ERα66, ERα36 and GPER1 are both indispensable for this effect. In the presence of ERα66, ERα36 or GPER1 knock-down partially inhibits NFκB-mediated inflammation. In both cases, ERα36 overexpression enhances the inhibitory effect of estrogen on inflammation. We also verify that ERα36 and GPER1 physically interact, especially after LPS treatment, and that GPER1 interacts directly with NFκB. When both ERα66 and ERα36 are expressed, the latter acts as an inhibitor of ERα66 via its binding to estrogen response elements. We also report that the activation of ERα36 leads to the inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation. Our data support that ERα36 is an inhibitory estrogen receptor that, in collaboration with GPER1, inhibits NFκB-mediated inflammation and ERα66 actions in breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/fisiologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206009

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays a critical role in the induction and progression of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. Deciphering antigen recognition by antibodies provides insights and defines the mechanism of action into the progression of immune responses. Multiple strategies, including phage display and hybridoma technologies, have been used to enhance the affinity of antibodies for their respective epitopes. Here, we investigate the TLR4 antibody-binding epitope by computational-driven approach. We demonstrate that three important residues, i.e., Y328, N329, and K349 of TLR4 antibody binding epitope identified upon in silico mutagenesis, affect not only the interaction and binding affinity of antibody but also influence the structural integrity of TLR4. Furthermore, we predict a novel epitope at the TLR4-MD2 interface which can be targeted and explored for therapeutic antibodies and small molecules. This technique provides an in-depth insight into antibody-antigen interactions at the resolution and will be beneficial for the development of new monoclonal antibodies. Computational techniques, if coupled with experimental methods, will shorten the duration of rational design and development of antibody therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular , Encefalite/genética , Encefalite/patologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Epitopos/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/genética , Doença de Hashimoto/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Ligação Proteica/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2857-2864, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296586

RESUMO

The liver and kidney fibrosis model was established by thioacetamide(TAA) and unilateral ureteral obstruction(UUO) in SD rats. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: model group, low and high-dose groups of C21 steroidal glycosides of Cynanchum auriculatum. Another blank control group was set. Four weeks later, serum was taken to detect the biochemical indexes of liver and kidney function. Urine protein and urine creatinine were detected by kits. Liver and kidney tissue samples were stained with HE and Masson staining, and hydroxyproline content was detected. Western blot was used to detect expressions of fibrotic proteins, inflammatory factors and TLR4 signaling pathways, so as to observe the preventive and therapeutic effects of C21 steroidal glycosides from C. auriculatum on hepatic and renal fibrosis and explore its molecular mechanism. Four weeks later, serum biochemical results showed that liver and kidney functions were seriously damaged, and pathological sections showed that inflammatory cell infiltration, decrease of parenchymal cells, and increase of interstitial fibrosis in liver and kidney tissues. The results showed that low and high doses(150, 300 mg·kg~(-1)) of C21 steroidal glycosides could significantly reduce the collagen deposition and the pathological changes of liver and kidney fibrosis compared with the model group. At the same time, we found that the expression levels of TLR4 and MyD88 signaling pathway proteins were significantly increased in the liver and kidney tissues of the model group, and a large number of NF-κB signaling pathway proteins migrated into the nucleus. On the contrary, the expression levels of TLR4, MyD88 signaling pathway proteins and the nuclear migration of NF-κB were significantly inhibited in the low and high dose groups of C21 steroidal glycosides from C. auriculatum. Therefore, it was speculated that the mechanism of C21 steroidal glycoside for preventive and therapeutic effect on hepatic and renal fibrosis was related to inhibit TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, thus preventing hepatic and renal fibrosis.


Assuntos
Cynanchum , Animais , Fibrose , Glicosídeos , Rim/patologia , Fígado , NF-kappa B/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 371, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226490

RESUMO

This study explores potential associations between the methylation of promoter-associated CpG sites of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-family, plasma levels of pro-inflammatory proteins and depressive symptoms in young female psychiatric patients. Ratings of depressive symptoms and blood samples were obtained from 92 young women seeking psychiatric care. Methylation of 32 promoter-associated CpG sites in TLR1 to TLR10 was analysed using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip. Expression levels of 91 inflammatory proteins were determined by proximity extension assay. Statistical correlations between depressive state, TLR1-10 methylation and inflammatory proteins were investigated. Four additional cohorts were studied to evaluate the generalizability of the findings. In the discovery cohort, methylation grade of cg05429895 (TLR4) in blood was inversely correlated with depressive symptoms score in young adults. After correction for multiple testing, plasma levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß (MIP-1ß/CCL4) were associated with both TLR4 methylation and depressive symptom severity. A similar inverse association between TLR4 methylation in blood and affective symptoms score was also found in a cohort of 148 both males and females (<40 years of age) from the Danish Twin Registry. These findings were not, however, replicated in three other external cohorts; which differed from the first two cohorts by a higher age and mixed ethnicities, thus limiting the generalizability of our findings. However, TLR4 methylation inversely correlated with TLR4 mRNA expression in the Danish Twin Study indicating a functional significance of methylation at this particular CpG. Higher depression scores in young Scandinavian adults was associated with decreased methylation of TLR4 in blood.


Assuntos
Depressão , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 40(3): 207-219, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100377

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development. However, the function and mechanism of circRNA pituitary tumor-transforming 1 interacting protein (circ- PTTG1IP) in RA are unknown. The expression of circ-PTTG1IP in synovial tissues of RA patients and fibroblast-like synoviocytes from RA patients (RA-FLSs) were detected by RT-qPCR. The results uncovered that circ-PTTG1IP was overexpressed in RA patients and RA-FLSs, and circ-PTTG1IP knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and inflammatory response in RA-FLSs. Besides, we found that circ-PTTG1IP could directly bind to miR-671-5p, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was a target of miR-671-5p, which was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. miR-671-5p inhibitor attenuated the effects of circ-PTTG1IP knockdown on RA-FLSs, while the effects of miR-671-5p mimic on RA-FLSs were partly reversed by TLR4 overexpression. Furthermore, circ-PTTG1IP could upregulate TLR4 expression by miR-671-5p. Thus, circ-PTTG1IP knockdown repressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and inflammatory response in RA-FLSs by regulating the miR-671-5p/TLR4 axis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , MicroRNAs , Sinoviócitos , Apoptose , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , MicroRNAs/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068193

RESUMO

In this study, we investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a novel antimicrobial peptide, YD1, isolated from Kimchi, in both in vitro and in vivo models. We establish that YD1 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via up-regulation of the Nrf2 pathway, resulting in the production of HO-1, which suppresses activation of the NF-κB pathway, including the subsequent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. We also found that YD1 robustly suppresses nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by down-regulating the expression of the upstream genes, iNOS and COX-2, acting as a strong antioxidant. Collectively, YD1 exhibits vigorous anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, presenting it as an interesting potential therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/patologia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063554

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Anilidas/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tiadiazóis/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068701

RESUMO

In addition to its canonical functions, vitamin D has been proposed to be an important mediator of the immune system. Despite ample sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent (>80%) in the Middle East, resulting in a high rate of supplementation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the specific regimen prescribed and the potential factors affecting an individual's response to vitamin D supplementation are not well characterized. Our objective is to describe the changes in the blood transcriptome and explore the potential mechanisms associated with vitamin D3 supplementation in one hundred vitamin D-deficient women who were given a weekly oral dose (50,000 IU) of vitamin D3 for three months. A high-throughput targeted PCR, composed of 264 genes representing the important blood transcriptomic fingerprints of health and disease states, was performed on pre and post-supplementation blood samples to profile the molecular response to vitamin D3. We identified 54 differentially expressed genes that were strongly modulated by vitamin D3 supplementation. Network analyses showed significant changes in the immune-related pathways such as TLR4/CD14 and IFN receptors, and catabolic processes related to NF-kB, which were subsequently confirmed by gene ontology enrichment analyses. We proposed a model for vitamin D3 response based on the expression changes of molecules involved in the receptor-mediated intra-cellular signaling pathways and the ensuing predicted effects on cytokine production. Overall, vitamin D3 has a strong effect on the immune system, G-coupled protein receptor signaling, and the ubiquitin system. We highlighted the major molecular changes and biological processes induced by vitamin D3, which will help to further investigate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation among individuals in the Middle East as well as other regions.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/genética , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Vitamina D/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Nutricional , Vitamina D/imunologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072916

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation, which is promoted by the production and secretion of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in activated macrophages, is responsible for the development of many diseases. Auranofin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved gold-based compound for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and evidence suggests that auranofin could be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammation. In this study, to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of auranofin on chronic inflammation, a saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (PA), and a low concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to activate RAW264.7 macrophages. The results show that PA amplified LPS signals to produce nitric oxide (NO) and various cytokines. However, auranofin significantly inhibited the levels of NO, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6, which had been increased by co-treatment with PA and LPS. Moreover, the expression of inducible NO synthase, IL-1ß, and IL-6 mRNA and protein levels increased by PA and LPS were reduced by auranofin. In particular, the upregulation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 4 and the translocation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) induced by PA and LPS were suppressed by auranofin. The binding between the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and auranofin was also predicted, and the release of NO and cytokines was reduced more by simultaneous treatment with auranofin and TLR4 inhibitor than by auranofin alone. In conclusion, all these findings suggested that auranofin had anti-inflammatory effects in PA and LPS-induced macrophages by interacting with TLR4 and downregulating the NOX4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Auranofina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Ácido Palmítico/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7
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