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1.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 45(9): 1347-1353, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047204

RESUMO

Abacavir (ABC)-induced hypersensitivity (AHS) is strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57 : 01 expression. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of applying the HLA-transgenic mouse model in this context. ABC-induced adverse reactions were observed in HLA-B*57 : 01 transgenic (B*57 : 01-Tg) mice. Moreover, regulating immune tolerance could result in severe AHS that mimics symptoms observed in the clinical setting, which were modeled in CD4+ T cell-depleted programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) knockout B*57 : 01-Tg (B*57 : 01-Tg/PD-1-/-) mice. Here, we aimed to examine whether thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17 level can be used as a biomarker for AHS. Serum TARC levels increased in HLA-B*57 : 01-transgenic mice following oral administration of ABC; this increase was associated with the severity of skin toxicity. In ABC-fed CD4+ T cell-depleted B*57 : 01-Tg/PD-1-/- mice, TARC was detected in the epidermal keratinocytes of the ear. Skin toxicity was characterized by the infiltration of CD8+ T cells partially expressing C-C chemokine receptor type 4, which is the primary receptor for TARC. In vivo TARC neutralization effectively alleviated the symptoms of ear skin redness and blood vessel dilatation. Moreover, TARC neutralization suppressed the infiltration of CD8+ T cells to the ear skin but did not affect the ABC-induced adaptive immune response. Therefore, TARC was involved in ABC-induced skin toxicity and contributed to the recruitment of CD8+ T cells to skin. This evidence suggests that serum TARC level may be a functional biomarker for AHS.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimiocina CCL17 , Dermatite Atópica , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL17/genética , Quimiocinas , Ciclopropanos/efeitos adversos , Didesoxiadenosina/efeitos adversos , Didesoxiadenosina/análogos & derivados , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(26): 3164-3176, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by an abnormal immune response. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an immunostimulatory molecule, which interacts with PD ligand (PD-L1) playing a prime important role among autoimmune diseases. Bifidobacterium infantis (B. infantis) can promote the differentiation of CD (cluster of differentiation) 4+ T cells into regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs participate in the development of IBD and may be related to disease activity. B. infantis amplify the expression level of PD-1, PD-L1 and Tregs' nuclear transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3). But the mechanism of B. infantis on PD-1/PD-L1 signaling remains unclear. AIM: To explore the mechanism of B. infantis regulating the immune response in IBD. METHODS: Forty-eight-week-old BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: The control group, dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model group, DSS + B. infantis group, DSS + B. infantis + anti-PD-L1 group, and DSS + anti-PD-L1 group. The control group mice were given drinking water freely, the other four groups were given drinking water containing 5% DSS freely. The control group, DSS model group, and DSS + anti-PD-L1 group were given normal saline (NS) 400 µL daily by gastric lavage, and the DSS + B. infantis group and DSS + B. infantis + anti-PD-L1 group were given NS and 1 × 109 colony-forming unit of B. infantis daily by gastric lavage. The DSS + B. infantis + anti-PD-L1 group and DSS + anti-PD-L1 group were given 200 µg of PD-L1 blocker intraperitoneally at days 0, 3, 5, and 7; the control group, DSS + anti-PD-L1 group, and DSS + B. infantis group were given an intraperitoneal injection of an equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Changes in PD-L1, PD-1, Foxp3, interleukin (IL)-10, and transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) 1 protein and gene expression were observed. Flow cytometry was used to observe changes in CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+ cell numbers in the blood and spleen. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the expression of PD-1, Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-ß1 was significantly decreased in the intestinal tract of the DSS mice (P < 0.05). Compared to the control group, the proportion of CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+ cells in spleen and blood of DSS group was visibly katabatic (P < 0.05). B. infantis upgraded the express of PD-L1, PD-1, Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-ß1 (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+ cells both in spleen and blood (P < 0.05). After blocking PD-L1, the increase in Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-ß1 protein and gene by B. infantis was inhibited (P < 0.05), and the proliferation of CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+ cells in the spleen and blood was also inhibited (P < 0.05). After blocking PD-L1, the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression of PD-1 were invariant. CONCLUSION: It is potential that B. infantis boost the proliferation of CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+ T cells in both spleen and blood, as well as the expression of Foxp3 in the intestinal tract by activating the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Animais , Apoptose , Bifidobacterium , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Imunidade , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273076, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095023

RESUMO

The use of humanized mouse models for oncology is rapidly expanding. Autologous patient-derived systems are particularly attractive as they can model the human cancer's heterogeneity and immune microenvironment. In this study, we developed an autologous humanized mouse cancer model by engrafting NSG mice with patient-derived xenografts and infused matched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We first defined the time course of xenogeneic graft-versus-host-disease (xGVHD) and determined that only minimal xGVHD was observed for up to 8 weeks. Next, colorectal and pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenograft bearing NSG mice were infused with 5x106 human PBMCS for development of the humanized cancer models (iPDX). Early after infusion of human PBMCs, iPDX mice demonstrated engraftment of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the blood of both colorectal and pancreatic cancer patient-derived models that persisted for up to 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, iPDX xenografts maintained the features of the primary human tumor including tumor grade and cell type. The iPDX tumors demonstrated infiltration of human CD3+ cells with high PD-1 expression although we observed significant intra and inter- model variability. In summary, the iPDX models reproduced key features of the corresponding human tumor. The observed variability and high PD-1 expression are important considerations that need to be addressed in order to develop a reproducible model system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Cancer Cell ; 40(9): 1027-1043.e9, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099881

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-blockade immunotherapies have limited efficacy in the treatment of bladder cancer. Here, we show that NKG2A associates with improved survival and responsiveness to PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy in bladder tumors that have high abundance of CD8+ T cells. In bladder tumors, NKG2A is acquired on CD8+ T cells later than PD-1 as well as other well-established immune checkpoints. NKG2A+ PD-1+ CD8+ T cells diverge from classically defined exhausted T cells through their ability to react to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-deficient tumors using T cell receptor (TCR)-independent innate-like mechanisms. HLA-ABC expression by bladder tumors is progressively diminished as disease progresses, framing the importance of targeting TCR-independent anti-tumor functions. Notably, NKG2A+ CD8+ T cells are inhibited when HLA-E is expressed by tumors and partly restored upon NKG2A blockade in an HLA-E-dependent manner. Overall, our study provides a framework for subsequent clinical trials combining NKG2A blockade with other T cell-targeted immunotherapies, where tumors express higher levels of HLA-E.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Humanos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(9)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A vaccine containing 6 melanoma-associated peptides to stimulate helper T cells (6MHP) is safe, immunogenic, and clinically active. A phase I/II trial was designed to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of 6MHP vaccines plus programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Participants with advanced melanoma received 6MHP vaccines in an incomplete Freund's adjuvant (6 vaccines over 12 weeks). Pembrolizumab was administered intravenously every 3 weeks. Tumor biopsies at baseline and day 22 were analyzed by multiplex immunohistochemistry. Primary end points were safety (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V.4.03) and immunogenicity (ex vivo interferon-γ ELISpot assay). Additional end points included changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-two eligible participants were treated: 6 naïve to PD-1 antibody (Ab) and 16 PD-1 Ab-experienced. Median follow-up was 24.4 months. Most common treatment-related adverse events (any grade) included injection site reactions, fatigue, anemia, lymphopenia, fever, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, pruritus, and rash. Treatment-related dose-limiting toxicities were observed in 3 (14%) participants, which did not cross the study safety bound. A high durable T cell response (Rsp) to 6MHP was detected in only one participant, but twofold T cell Rsps to 6MHP were detected in 7/22 (32%; 90% CI (16% to 52%)) by week 13. Objective clinical responses were observed in 23% (1 complete response, 4 partial responses), including 4/6 PD-1 Ab-naïve (67%) and 1/16 PD-1 Ab-experienced (6%). Overall survival (OS) was longer for PD-1 Ab-naïve than Ab-experienced participants (HR 6.3 (90% CI (2.1 to 28.7)). In landmark analyses at 13 weeks, OS was also longer for those with T cell Rsps (HR 6.5 (90% CI (2.1 to 29.2)) and for those with objective clinical responses. TME evaluation revealed increased densities of CD8+ T cells, CD20+ B cells, and Tbet+ cells by day 22. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with the 6MHP vaccine plus pembrolizumab was safe, increased intratumoral lymphocytes, and induced T cell Rsps associated with prolonged OS. The low T cell Rsp rate in PD-1 Ab-experienced participants corroborates prior murine studies that caution against delaying cancer vaccines until after PD-1 blockade. The promising objective response rate and OS in PD-1 Ab-naïve participants support consideration of a larger study in that setting.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Melanoma , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Microambiente Tumoral , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 947708, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111294

RESUMO

Background: This research aimed to build an m6A-associated lncRNA prognostic model of esophageal cancer that can be used to predict outcome in esophageal cancer patients. Methods: RNA sequencing transcriptome data and clinical information about patients with esophageal cancer were obtained according to TCGA. Twenty-four m6A-associated genes were selected based on previous studies. m6A-associated lncRNAs were determined through Pearson correlation analysis. Three m6A-associated lncRNA prognostic signatures were built through analysis of the training set using univariate, LASSO, and multivariate Cox regression. To validate the stabilization of the risk signature, Kaplan-Meier and ROC curve analyses were performed on the testing and complete sets. The prognoses of EC patients were predicted quantitatively by building a nomogram. GSEA was conducted to analyze the underlying signaling pathways and biological processes. To identify the underlying mechanisms through which the lncRNAs act, we constructed a PPI network and a ceRNA network and conducted GO and KEGG pathway analyses. EC samples were evaluated using the ESTIMATE algorithm to compute stromal, immune, and estimate scores. The ssGSEA algorithm was used to quantitatively infer immune cell infiltration and immune functions. The TIDE algorithm was performed to simulate immune evasion and predict the response to immunotherapy. Results: We identified and validated an m6A-associated lncRNA risk model in EC that could correctly and reliably predict the OS of EC patients. The ceRNA network, PPI network, and GO and KEGG pathway analyses confirmed and the underlying mechanisms and functions provided enlightenment regarding therapeutic strategies for EC. Immunotherapy responses were better in the low-risk subgroup, and PD-1 and CTLA4 checkpoint immunotherapy benefited the patients in the low-risk subgroup. Conclusions: We constructed a new m6A-related lncRNA prognostic risk model of EC, based on three m6A-related lncRNAs: LINC01612, AC025166.1 and AC016876.2, that can predict the prognoses of EC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , RNA Longo não Codificante , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Doenças Raras/genética
10.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(9): 2655-2663, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073782

RESUMO

Development of small molecules targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 interface is advancing both in industry and academia, but only a few have reached early-stage clinical trials. Here, we take a closer look at the general druggability of PD-L1 using in silico hot spot mapping and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based characterization. We found that the conformational elasticity of the PD-L1 surface strongly influences the formation of hot spots. We deconstructed several generations of known inhibitors into fragments and examined their binding properties using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and protein-based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These biophysical analyses showed that not all fragments bind to the PD-L1 ectodomain despite having the biphenyl scaffold. Although most of the binding fragments induced PD-L1 oligomerization, two compounds, TAH35 and TAH36, retain the monomeric state of proteins upon binding. Additionally, the presence of the entire ectodomain did not affect the binding of the hit compounds and dimerization of PD-L1. The data demonstrated here provide important information on the PD-L1 druggability and the structure-activity relationship of the biphenyl core moiety and therefore may aid in the design of novel inhibitors and focused fragment libraries for PD-L1.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
11.
Cancer Res ; 82(18): 3198-3200, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111402

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) has revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma, reliable predictive biomarkers are still lacking. In this issue of Cancer Research, Antoranz and colleagues used RNA sequencing and multiplexed IHC to study the spatial immune landscape of pretreatment melanoma specimens from patients who either responded or did not respond to antiprogrammed death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy. The authors identified the spatial interaction between cytotoxic T cells and M1-like macrophages expressing PD-L1 at the tumor boundary as predictive of responses to immune checkpoint inhibition. These studies pave the way for the development of new spatial biomarkers to identify patients most likely to benefit from ICI therapy. See related article by Antoranz et al., p. 3275.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Antígeno B7-H1 , Comunicação Celular , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
12.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 42, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has decreased the mortality associated with HIV infection, complete immune reconstitution is not achieved despite viral suppression. Alterations of CD8+ T cells and some of their subpopulations, such as interleukin (IL)-17-producing cells, are evidenced in treated individuals and are associated with systemic inflammation and adverse disease outcomes. We sought to evaluate if different CD8+ T cell subsets are differentially normalized during a clinical follow-up of people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving suppressive cART. METHODS: We explored the changes in the frequencies, activation/exhaustion phenotypes (HLA-DR, CD38, PD-1, and TIM-3), and function (total and HIV-specific cells expressing CD107a, perforin, granzyme B, interferon [IFN]-γ and IL-17) of CD8+ T cells from early-treated PLWH receiving cART in a 1-year follow-up, using a multidimensional flow cytometry approach. RESULTS: Despite continuous cART-induced viral suppression and recovery of CD4+ T cells, after a 1-year follow-up, the CD8+ T cell counts, CD4:CD8 ratio, PD-1 expression, and IL-17 production by CD8+ T cells exhibited incomplete normalization compared with seronegative controls. However, the proportion of CD8+ T cells with an exhausted phenotype (co-expressing PD-1 andTIM-3), and cells co-expressing cytotoxic molecules (Perforin and Granzyme B), reached normalization. CONCLUSIONS: Although suppressive cART achieves normalization of CD4+ T cell counts, only particular subsets of CD8+ T cells are more rapidly normalized in PLWH receiving cART, which could be routinely used as biomarkers for therapy efficiency in these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Granzimas/metabolismo , Granzimas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/uso terapêutico , Perforina/metabolismo , Perforina/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T
13.
Diagn Pathol ; 17(1): 70, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoints including programmed death-ligand 1/programmed death-1/ (PD-L1/PD-1), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and indolaimine-2, 3-deoxygenase (IDO) have recently emerged as effective candidates for treatment against a range of human malignancies. We have investigated their expression in the uterine mesenchymal tumors. METHODS: Sixty-eight mesenchymal tumors were categorized into 6 diagnostic groups. We assessed PD-L1, PD-1, CTLA-4, and IDO expression on paraffin embedded tissue blocks of the uterine tumors using the respective antibodies. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains were classified as positive when the reactions were present in at least 1% of the cell membranes for PD-L1/PD-1 or in cytoplasm for CTLA-4 and IDO, regardless of intensity. Student's t-test and McNemar's chi-square tests were carried out to analyze the results. RESULTS: The mesenchymal neoplasms had expressed the immune checkpoints in the tumor and/or the lymphoid cells at the rate of 49% and 54% respectively. The tumor cells were positive in 10 (18%, PD-L1), 0 (0%, PD-1), 18 (32%, CTLA-4), and 13 (23%, IDO) cases while the infiltrating lymphoid cells were positive in 10 (18%, PD-L1), 23 (40%, PD-1), 18 (32%, CTLA-4), and 13 (23%, IDO) cases. Overall, comparison of paired tumor vs lymphoid cells resulted in p-values of ≤ 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 50% of the uterine tumors express at least one of the immune checkpoints in tumor and/or the infiltrating lymphoid cells. However, expression of the proteins in the two cellular components are mutually exclusive. Namely, when tumor cells express an immune checkpoint, the infiltrating lymphoid cells do not, and vice versa. Since the leiomyosarcomas are reportedly resistant to the immunotherapy when PD-L1 is expressed in the tumor cells, it can be posited that presence of the IHC positive lymphoid cells may be a better indicator of response to the treatment.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Uterinas , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
14.
Cytokine ; 159: 156017, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small-for-size syndrome following liver surgery is characterized by compromised liver regeneration. Liver macrophages play key roles in initiating liver regeneration, and modulation of the immune microenvironment through macrophages may accelerate liver regeneration. In our current study, we aimed to explore the involvement of innate immunity after extended hepatectomy in rats and humans, and to test the effect of immunity modulation on small-for-size liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Serum programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) was measured after major hepatectomy and minor hepatectomy in humans and rats. Liver regeneration in rats was assessed using liver-to-body weight ratio and kinetic growth rate, antigen Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and macrophage polarization was assessed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cluster of differentiation protein 163 (CD163) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iNOS/CD163 ratio. Rat hepatocyte BRL or human hepatocyte LO2 were co-cultured with rat bone marrow-derived macrophages or human macrophages THP-1. BMS-1 or Nivolumab were used to block programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: PD-L1 expressions were significantly higher following major hepatectomy compared to minor resection in both humans and rats; compromised liver regeneration after extended hepatectomy in rats was associated with PD-L1 upregulation and M2 macrophage polarization. M1 macrophages increased proliferation of hepatocytes through interleukin-6 (IL-6), and M2 macrophages decreased hepatocyte proliferation; blocking PD-1/PD-L1 reversed the effect of M2 macrophages on the survival of hepatocytes in vitro and promoted liver growth in rats through M1 macrophage polarization. CONCLUSION: Compromised hepatic regeneration following extended hepatectomy is characterized by M2 macrophage polarization and upregulated PD-L1 expression. Blocking PD-1/PD-L1 may enhance small-for-size liver regeneration by inducing M1 macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia , Hepatopatias , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Ligantes , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Nivolumabe/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos
15.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 4853481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118947

RESUMO

In order to explore the function of inhibiting the immune effect, the relationship between programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) carrelizumab in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma-induced scleritis and T cell activation is investigated. A total of 120 patients with primary liver cancer treated in the department of oncology of our hospital from July 2020 to January 2022 are selected and treated with carrelizumab. According to the occurrence of PD-1 carrelizumab treatment, the patients are divided into the scleritis group and nonscleritis group. The levels of T cells, PD-1, PD-L1 proteins, and serum inflammatory factors at different time points are compared. The experimental results show that the occurrence of scleritis after liver cancer treatment with PD-1 carrelizumab is closely associated with Treg cells, the percentage of Th17 cells, the expression of PD-1, PD-L1 proteins, and inflammatory factors. It is clearly evident that PD-1 carrelizumab can increase the risk of scleritis by affecting T cell activation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Esclerite , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptores de Morte Celular , Esclerite/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 969633, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119115

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in maintaining self-tolerance and in containing allo-immune responses in the context of transplantation. Recent advances yielded the approval of the first pharmaceutical costimulation blockers (abatacept and belatacept), with more of them in the pipeline. These costimulation blockers inhibit effector cells with high clinical efficacy to control disease activity, but might inadvertently also affect Tregs. Treg homeostasis is controlled by a complex network of costimulatory and coinhibitory signals, including CD28, the main target of abatacept/belatacept, and CTLA4, PD-1 and ICOS. This review shall give an overview on what effects the therapeutic manipulation of costimulation has on Treg function in transplantation.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28 , Transplante de Órgãos , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119046

RESUMO

Head and neck cancer has high heterogeneity with poor prognosis, and emerging researches have been focusing on the prognostic markers of head and neck cancer. PD-L1 expression is an important basis for strategies of immunosuppressive treatment, but whether it has prognostic value is still controversial. Although meta-analysis on PD-L1 expression versus head and neck cancer prognosis has been performed, the conclusions are controversial. Since PD-L1 and PD-L2 are two receptors for PD-1, here we summarize and analyze the different prognostic values of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in head and neck cancer in the context of different cell types, tissue localization and protein forms. We propose that for head and neck cancer, the risk warning value of PD-1/PD-L1 expression in precancerous lesions is worthy of attention, and the prognostic value of PD-L1 expression at different subcellular levels as well as the judgment convenience of prognostic value of PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2 should be fully considered. The PD-L1 evaluation systems established based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are not fully suitable for the evaluation of PD-L1 prognosis in head and neck cancer. It is necessary to establish a new PD-L1 evaluation system based on the prognosis for further explorations. The prognostic value of PD-L1, PD-L2 expression in head and neck cancer may be different for early-stage and late-stage samples, and further stratification is required.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Atenção , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 992611, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119072

RESUMO

Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has shown significant benefits in the treatment of a variety of malignancies. However, not all cancer patients can benefit from this strategy due to drug resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need for methods that can effectively improve the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Combining anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy with regorafenib has been demonstrated as an effective method to enhance its therapeutic effect in several clinical studies. In this review, we describe common mechanisms of resistance to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, including lack of tumor immunogenicity, T cell dysfunction, and abnormal expression of PD-L1. Then, we illustrate the role of regorafenib in modifying the tumor microenvironment (TME) from multiple aspects, which is different from other tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Regorafenib not only has immunomodulatory effects on various immune cells, but can also regulate PD-L1 and MHC-I on tumor cells and promote normalization of abnormal blood vessels. Therefore, studies on the synergetic mechanism of the combination therapy may usher in a new era for cancer treatment and help us identify the most appropriate individuals for more precise treatment.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 331, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123348

RESUMO

Cancers are highly complex diseases that are characterized by not only the overgrowth of malignant cells but also an altered immune response. The inhibition and reprogramming of the immune system play critical roles in tumor initiation and progression. Immunotherapy aims to reactivate antitumor immune cells and overcome the immune escape mechanisms of tumors. Represented by immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer, tumor immunotherapy has seen tremendous success in the clinic, with the capability to induce long-term regression of some tumors that are refractory to all other treatments. Among them, immune checkpoint blocking therapy, represented by PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors (nivolumab) and CTLA-4 inhibitors (ipilimumab), has shown encouraging therapeutic effects in the treatment of various malignant tumors, such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma. In addition, with the advent of CAR-T, CAR-M and other novel immunotherapy methods, immunotherapy has entered a new era. At present, evidence indicates that the combination of multiple immunotherapy methods may be one way to improve the therapeutic effect. However, the overall clinical response rate of tumor immunotherapy still needs improvement, which warrants the development of novel therapeutic designs as well as the discovery of biomarkers that can guide the prescription of these agents. Learning from the past success and failure of both clinical and basic research is critical for the rational design of studies in the future. In this article, we describe the efforts to manipulate the immune system against cancer and discuss different targets and cell types that can be exploited to promote the antitumor immune response.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Antígeno CTLA-4/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 41(1): 279, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are approved for treatment of recurrent or metastatic oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the first- and second-line settings. However, only 15-20% of patients benefit from this treatment, a feature increasingly ascribed to the peculiar characteristics of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). METHODS: Immune-related gene expression profiling (GEP) and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) including spatial proximity analysis, were used to characterize the TIME of 39 treatment-naïve oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and the corresponding lymph node metastases. GEP and mIF results were correlated with disease-free survival (DFS). HPV-positive tumors disclosed a stronger activation of several immune signalling pathways, as well as a higher expression of genes related to total tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, CD8 T cells, cytotoxic cells and exhausted CD8 cells, than HPV-negative patients. Accordingly, mIF revealed that HPV-positive lesions were heavily infiltrated as compared to HPV-negative counterparts, with a higher density of T cells and checkpoint molecules. CD8+ T cells appeared in closer proximity to tumor cells, CD163+ macrophages and FoxP3+ cells in HPV-positive primary tumors, and related metastases. In HPV-positive lesions, PD-L1 expression was increased as compared to HPV-negative samples, and PD-L1+ tumor cells and macrophages were closer to PD-1+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Considering the whole cohort, a positive correlation was observed between DFS and higher levels of activating immune signatures and T cell responses, higher density of PD-1+ T cells and their closer proximity to tumor cells or PD-L1+ macrophages. HPV-positive patients with higher infiltration of T cells and macrophages had a longer DFS, while CD163+ macrophages had a negative role in prognosis of HPV-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that checkpoint expression may reflect an ongoing antitumor immune response. Thus, these observations provide the rationale for the incorporation of ICI in the loco-regional therapy strategies for patients with heavily infiltrated treatment-naïve OPSCC, and for the combination of ICI with tumor-specific T cell response inducers or TAM modulators for the "cold" OPSCC counterparts.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Análise Espacial , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
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