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1.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199417

RESUMO

Blockade of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) interaction is currently the focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy, and so far, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have achieved encouraging outcomes in cancer treatment. Despite this achievement, mAbs-based therapies are struggling with limitations including poor tissue and tumor penetration, long half-life time, poor oral bioavailability, and expensive production costs, which prompted a shift towards the development of the small-molecule inhibitors of PD-1/PD-L1 pathways. Even though many small-molecule inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction have been reported, their development lags behind the corresponding mAb, partly due to the challenges of developing drug-like small molecules. Herein, we report the discovery of a series of novel inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction via structural simplification strategy by using BMS-1058 as a starting point. Among them, compound A9 stands out as the most promising candidate with excellent PD-L1 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.93 nM, LE = 0.43) and high binding affinity to hPD-L1 (KD = 3.64 nM, LE = 0.40). Furthermore, A9 can significantly promote the production of IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner by rescuing PD-L1 mediated T-cell inhibition in Hep3B/OS-8/hPD-L1 and CD3-positive T cells co-culture assay. Taken together, these results suggest that A9 is a promising inhibitor of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and is worthy for further study.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Antígeno B7-H1/química , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/química , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) is a nonsurgical tumor ablation approach used to treat early-stage prostate cancer and may also be effective for upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) based on preclinical data. Toward increasing response rates to VTP, we evaluated its efficacy in combination with concurrent PD-1 inhibitor/OX40 agonist immunotherapy in a urothelial tumor-bearing model. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In mice allografted with MB-49 UTUC cells, we compared the effects of combined VTP with PD-1 inhibitor/OX40 agonist with those of the component treatments on tumor growth, survival, lung metastasis, and antitumor immune responses. RESULTS: The combination of VTP with both PD-1 inhibitor and OX40 agonist inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival to a greater degree than VTP with either immunotherapeutic individually. These effects result from increased tumor infiltration and intratumoral proliferation of cytotoxic and helper T cells, depletion of Treg cells, and suppression of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that VTP synergizes with PD-1 blockade and OX40 agonist to promote strong antitumor immune responses, yielding therapeutic efficacy in an animal model of urothelial cancer.


Assuntos
Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/agonistas , Receptores OX40/agonistas , Neoplasias Urológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Urológicas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3414, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099731

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients have a 5-year survival rate of only 8% largely due to late diagnosis and insufficient therapeutic options. Neutrophils are among the most abundant immune cell type within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME), and are associated with a poor clinical prognosis. However, despite recent advances in understanding neutrophil biology in cancer, therapies targeting tumor-associated neutrophils are lacking. Here, we demonstrate, using pre-clinical mouse models of PDAC, that lorlatinib attenuates PDAC progression by suppressing neutrophil development and mobilization, and by modulating tumor-promoting neutrophil functions within the TME. When combined, lorlatinib also improves the response to anti-PD-1 blockade resulting in more activated CD8 + T cells in PDAC tumors. In summary, this study identifies an effect of lorlatinib in modulating tumor-associated neutrophils, and demonstrates the potential of lorlatinib to treat PDAC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Hematol Oncol ; 39 Suppl 1: 39-45, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105815

RESUMO

The treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma in young patients is one of the success stories of modern medicine. The use of risk- and response-adapted approaches to guide treatment decisions has led to impressive cure rates while reducing the long-term toxicity associated with more intensive therapies. Tissue biomarkers have not yet proven more effective than clinical characteristics for risk stratification of patients at presentation, but functional imaging features such as metabolic tumor volume may be used to predict response, if early observations can be validated. The success of treatment in younger patients has unfortunately not been mirrored in those over 60, where complex decision-making is often required, with a paucity of data from clinical trials. The use of PD1 blocking antibodies and brentuximab vedotin in this cohort, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, may provide attractive options. The incorporation of frailty assessment, quality-of-life outcomes, and specialist geriatric input is also important to ensure the best outcomes for this diverse group.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Brentuximab Vedotin/uso terapêutico , Doença de Hodgkin , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Medicina de Precisão , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/metabolismo , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063096

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a receptor on T cells, and its ligand, PD-L1, have been a topic of much interest in cancer research. Both tumour and virus-infected cells can upregulate PD-L1 to suppress cytotoxic T-cell killing. Research on the PD-1/PD-L1 axis has led to the development of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) as promising cancer therapies. Although effective in some cancer patients, for many, this form of treatment is ineffective due to a lack of immunogenicity in the tumour microenvironment (TME). Despite the development of therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, the mechanisms and pathways through which these proteins are regulated are not completely understood. In this review, we discuss the latest research on molecules of inflammation and innate immunity that regulate PD-L1 expression, how its expression is regulated during viral infection, and how it is modulated by different cancer therapies. We also highlight existing research on the development of different combination therapies with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. This information can be used to develop better cancer immunotherapies that take into consideration the pathways involved in the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, so these molecules do not reduce their efficacy, which is currently seen with some cancer therapies. This review will also assist in understanding how the TME changes during treatment, which will provide further rationale for combination therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Animais , Autoimunidade , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073458

RESUMO

Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4 CTL) are terminally differentiated T helper cells that contribute to autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. We developed a novel triple co-culture transwell assay to study mutual interactions between CD4 CTL, conventional TH cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) simultaneously. We show that, while CD4 CTL are resistant to suppression by Tregs in vitro, the conditioned medium of CD4 CTL accentuates the suppressive phenotype of Tregs by upregulating IL-10, Granzyme B, CTLA-4, and PD-1. We demonstrate that CD4 CTL conditioned medium skews memory TH cells to a TH17 phenotype, suggesting that the CD4 CTL induce bystander polarization. In our triple co-culture assay, the CD4 CTL secretome promotes the proliferation of TH cells, even in the presence of Tregs. However, when cell-cell contact is established between CD4 CTL and TH cells, the proliferation of TH cells is no longer increased and Treg-mediated suppression is restored. Taken together, our results suggest that when TH cells acquire cytotoxic properties, these Treg-resistant CD4 CTL affect the proliferation and phenotype of conventional TH cells in their vicinity. By creating such a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, CD4 CTL may favor their own persistence and expansion, and that of other potentially pathogenic TH cells, thereby contributing to pathogenic responses in autoimmune disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Feminino , Granzimas/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26367, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors are a group of immune checkpoint inhibitors immunotherapy for cancer treatment. These immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming first-line treatments for several types of cancer. Radiotherapy for cancer is a traditional treatment and the therapeutic effect is not satisfactory due to the side effect of chemotherapeutic drugs. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PD1/PD-L1 inhibitor immunotherapy combined chemotherapy for inoperable advanced lung cancer. METHODS: We will utilize PubMed, PubMed Central, EMbase, Medline, CNKI, WAN FANG Database, and Web of Science to screen eligible studies published from January 1, 2015 to December 30, 2020. Two reviewers will extract data and evaluate the risk of bias independently. The quality of the included studies will be evaluated using the RevMan 5.3 software for data analysis. RESULTS: This review will summarize high-quality evidence of trials to evaluate the precise medicine efficacy and safety of PD1/PD-L1 inhibitor combined radiotherapy for inoperable advanced lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the systematic review will provide scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of PD1/PD-L1 inhibitor combined radiotherapy for inoperable advanced lung cancer to guide the clinician's drug use. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Not applicable. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202140123.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Metanálise como Assunto , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26471, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160456

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a deadly disease in part due to decades of limited therapeutic options. With recent advances in our understanding of the tumor biology, several promising treatment strategies involving targeted and immunotherapies have emerged. However, enhancing their modest efficacy in HCC and other gastrointestinal malignancies is essential to improving survival. PATIENT CONCERNS: A man in his late 50s with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and morbid obesity initially presented with progressive abdominal pain and anorexia prompting an abdominal computed tomography scan that revealed a large solitary liver mass with extensive local involvement. DIAGNOSES: Although there were features consistent with a primary gastric tumor on subsequent endoscopic evaluation leading to early diagnostic uncertainty, his clinical picture, including a dominant liver mass, immunohistochemical staining profile, and significantly elevated alpha fetoprotein ultimately favored HCC. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received palliative systemic therapy with infusional fluorouracil for a presumed gastric primary, however restaging scans after 3 cycles demonstrated disease progression. The consensus from a multidisciplinary discussion was that his pathology was more consistent with primary HCC. He was subsequently started on nivolumab with a partial response, although after 5 months, he progressed prompting initiation of second-line atezolizumab and bevacizumab with a favorable response. OUTCOMES: The addition of atezolizumab and bevacizumab led to a sustained biochemical and radiographic response that appeared to overcome the resistance to nivolumab monotherapy. Aside from several mild immune-related adverse effects, his quality of life has greatly improved and he has tolerated treatment well to date. LESSONS: Our findings suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition can overcome resistance to checkpoint inhibition in advanced HCC by resulting in a unique synergy that has never before been described in patients. The biological rationale for this response is likely attributable to the immunomodulatory effects of antiangiogenic agents, promoting an immunostimulatory microenvironment that can be exploited by immune checkpoint inhibitors for more effective antitumor activity. Given the considerable benefit patients may derive following progression on first-line treatment, it is important to consider this strategic combination of therapies which can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181666

RESUMO

Immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade (ICB) with antibodies such as anti-PD-1 has revolutionised the treatment of many cancers. Despite its use to treat COVID-19 patients and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on cancer immunotherapy has not been examined. In this study, remarkably, we find that HCQ alone, or in combination with azithromycin (AZ), at doses used to treat patients, decreased the therapeutic benefit of anti-PD-1 in cancer immunotherapy. No deleterious effect was seen on untreated tumors. Mechanistically, HCQ and HCQ/AZ inhibited PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, while specifically targeting the anti-PD-1 induced increase in progenitor CD8+CD44+PD-1+TCF1+ tumor infiltrating T cells (TILs) and the generation of CD8+CD44+PD-1+ effectors. Surprisingly, it also impaired the appearance of a subset of terminally exhausted CD8+ TILs. No effect was seen on the presence of CD4+ T cells, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), thymic subsets, B cells, antibody production, myeloid cells, or the vasculature of mice. This study indicates for the first time that HCQ and HCQ/AZ negatively impact the ability of anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade to promote tumor rejection.


Assuntos
Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunoterapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Animais , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Antagonismo de Drogas , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285198

RESUMO

Immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade (ICB) with antibodies such as anti-PD-1 has revolutionised the treatment of many cancers. Despite its use to treat COVID-19 patients and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on cancer immunotherapy has not been examined. In this study, remarkably, we find that HCQ alone, or in combination with azithromycin (AZ), at doses used to treat patients, decreased the therapeutic benefit of anti-PD-1 in cancer immunotherapy. No deleterious effect was seen on untreated tumors. Mechanistically, HCQ and HCQ/AZ inhibited PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, while specifically targeting the anti-PD-1 induced increase in progenitor CD8+CD44+PD-1+TCF1+ tumor infiltrating T cells (TILs) and the generation of CD8+CD44+PD-1+ effectors. Surprisingly, it also impaired the appearance of a subset of terminally exhausted CD8+ TILs. No effect was seen on the presence of CD4+ T cells, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), thymic subsets, B cells, antibody production, myeloid cells, or the vasculature of mice. This study indicates for the first time that HCQ and HCQ/AZ negatively impact the ability of anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade to promote tumor rejection.


Assuntos
Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunoterapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Animais , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Antagonismo de Drogas , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
11.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 368, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The activation of T cells and imbalanced redox metabolism enhances the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hPMSCs) can improve GVHD through regulating T cell responses. However, whether hPMSCs balance the redox metabolism of CD4+IL-10+ T cells and liver tissue and alleviate GVHD remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hPMSC-mediated treatment of GVHD associated with CD4+IL-10+ T cell generation via control of redox metabolism and PD-1 expression and whether the Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways were both involved in the process. METHODS: A GVHD mouse model was induced using 6-8-week-old C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice, which were treated with hPMSCs. In order to observe whether hPMSCs affect the generation of CD4+IL-10+ T cells via control of redox metabolism and PD-1 expression, a CD4+IL-10+ T cell culture system was induced using human naive CD4+ T cells. The percentage of CD4+IL-10+ T cells and their PD-1 expression levels were determined in vivo and in vitro using flow cytometry, and Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, GCLC, GCLM, and NF-κB levels were determined by western blotting, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff staining methods were employed to analyze the changes in hepatic tissue. RESULTS: A decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a proportion of CD4+IL-10+ T cells with increased PD-1 expression were observed in GVHD patients and the mouse model. Treatment with hPMSCs increased SOD activity and GCL and GSH levels in the GVHD mouse model. The percentage of CD4+IL-10+ T cells with decreased PD-1 expression, as well as Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, GCLC, and GCLM levels, both in the GVHD mouse model and in the process of CD4+IL-10+ T cell generation, were also increased, but NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation were inhibited after treatment with hPMSCs, which was accompanied by improvement of hepatic histopathological changes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that hPMSC-mediated redox metabolism balance and decreased PD-1 expression in CD4+IL-10+ T cells were achieved by controlling the crosstalk between Nrf2 and NF-κB, which further provided evidence for the application of hPMSC-mediated treatment of GVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Placenta , Gravidez , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T
12.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(5): 838-845, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082870

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma has a poor prognosis because of its strong ability to invade tissues and metastasize. Immune checkpoint blockades significantly improve the clinical response in the development of melanoma. However, there are some obstacles to overcome, such as cost and limited application. Therefore, prospective approaches remain to be exploited. We designed cellular nanovesicles (NVs) expressing PD-1 to reactivate T cells by disrupting the PD-1/PD-L1 immunoinhibitory pathway. Furthermore, siNF90 was wrapped into PD-1 NVs to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. Such a dual target effect is helpful for the treatment of melanoma. In addition, our results showed that treatment with PD-1 @siNF90 NVs inhibited the growth of melanoma tumors and extended the survival time of mice, exhibiting a better effect than PD-1 NVs alone. The data also verified that the percentage of CD8+ T cells in tumors was highest after PD-1 @siNF90 NVs treatment. To sum up, PD-1 @siNF90 NVs could serve as safe and effective blockers in the treatment of melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Membrana Celular , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066087

RESUMO

Immune evasion is a key strategy adopted by tumor cells to escape the immune system while promoting their survival and metastatic spreading. Indeed, several mechanisms have been developed by tumors to inhibit immune responses. PD-1 is a cell surface inhibitory receptor, which plays a major physiological role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. In pathological conditions, activation of the PD-1/PD-Ls signaling pathway may block immune cell activation, a mechanism exploited by tumor cells to evade the antitumor immune control. Targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis has represented a major breakthrough in cancer treatment. Indeed, the success of PD-1 blockade immunotherapies represents an unprecedented success in the treatment of different cancer types. To improve the therapeutic efficacy, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms regulating PD-1 expression and signaling in the tumor context is required. We provide an overview of the current knowledge of PD-1 expression on both tumor-infiltrating T and NK cells, summarizing the recent evidence on the stimuli regulating its expression. We also highlight perspectives and limitations of the role of PD-L1 expression as a predictive marker, discuss well-established and novel potential approaches to improve patient selection and clinical outcome and summarize current indications for anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067485

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 (PDCD1)/PD-L1 (CD274) is increasingly used for multiple cancers. However, efficacy and adverse-related events vary significantly. This bioinformatic study interrogated molecular differences pertaining to PDCD1/CD274 and their correlated genes on a pan-cancer basis to identify differences between cancer types. Patient RNA-seq data from fifteen cancer types were accessed on cBioPortal to determine the role of PDCD1/CD274 in patient survival and to identify positively and negatively correlated genes, which were also assessed for clinical relevance. Genes correlating with PDCD1/CD274 across multiple cancers were taken forward for drug repurposing via DRUGSURV and microRNA analysis using miRDB and miRabel. MicroRNAs were also screened for clinical relevance using OncomiR. Forty genes were consistently correlated with PDCD1/CD274 across multiple cancers, with the cancers themselves exhibiting a differential role for the correlated genes in terms of patient survival. Esophageal and renal cancers in particular stood out in this regard as having a unique survival profile. Forty-nine putative microRNAs were identified as being linked to the PDCD1/CD274 network, which were taken forward and further assessed for clinical relevance using OncomiR and previously published literature. One hundred and thirty significant survival associations for 46 microRNAs across fourteen groups of cancers were identified. Finally, a total of 23 putative repurposed drugs targeting multiple components of the PDCD1/CD274 network were identified, which may represent immunotherapeutic adjuvants. Taken together, these results shed light on the varying PDCD1/CD274 networks between individual cancers and signpost a need for more cancer-specific investigations and treatments.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070750

RESUMO

The immune system is a fine modulator of the tumor biology supporting or inhibiting its progression, growth, invasion and conveys the pharmacological treatment effect. Tumors, on their side, have developed escaping mechanisms from the immune system action ranging from the direct secretion of biochemical signals to an indirect reaction, in which the cellular actors of the tumor microenvironment (TME) collaborate to mechanically condition the extracellular matrix (ECM) making it inhospitable to immune cells. TME is composed of several cell lines besides cancer cells, including tumor-associated macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblasts, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, and innate immunity cells. These populations interface with each other to prepare a conservative response, capable of evading the defense mechanisms implemented by the host's immune system. The presence or absence, in particular, of cytotoxic CD8+ cells in the vicinity of the main tumor mass, is able to predict, respectively, the success or failure of drug therapy. Among various mechanisms of immunescaping, in this study, we characterized the modulation of the phenotypic profile of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in resting and activated states, in response to the mechanical pressure exerted by a three-dimensional in vitro system, able to recapitulate the rheological and stiffness properties of the tumor ECM.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/genética , 5'-Nucleotidase/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Módulo de Elasticidade , Matriz Extracelular/química , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mecanotransdução Celular , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fenótipo , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Reologia , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071938

RESUMO

Hormone receptor expression patterns often correlate with infiltration of specific lymphocytes in tumors. Specifically, the presence of specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with particular hormone receptor expression is reportedly associated with breast cancer, however, this has not been revealed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Therefore, we investigated the association between hormone receptor expression and TILs in EOC. Here we found that ERα, AR, and GR expression increased in EOC, while PR was significantly reduced and ERß expression showed a reduced trend compared to normal epithelium. Cluster analysis indicated poor disease-free survival (DFS) in AR+/GR+/PR+ subgroup (triple dominant group); while the Cox proportional-hazards model highlighted the triple dominant group as an independent prognostic factor for DFS. In addition, significant upregulation of FoxP3+ TILs, PD-1, and PD-L1 was observed in the triple dominant group compared to other groups. NanoString analyses further suggested that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and/or NF-κB signaling pathways were activated with significant upregulation of RELA, MAP3K5, TNFAIP3, BCL2L1, RIPK1, TRAF2, PARP1, and AKT1 in the triple dominant EOC group. The triple dominant subgroup correlates with poor prognosis in EOC. Moreover, the TNF and/or NF-κB signaling pathways may be responsible for hormone-mediated inhibition of the immune microenvironment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etiologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
18.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 270, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The favourable safety profile and the increasing confidence with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) might have boosted their prescription in frail patients with short life expectancies, who usually are not treated with standard chemotherapy. METHODS: The present analysis aims to describe clinicians' attitudes towards ICIs administration during late stages of life within a multicenter cohort of advanced cancer patients treated with single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in Italy. RESULTS: Overall, 1149 patients with advanced cancer who received single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors were screened. The final study population consisted of 567 deceased patients. 166 patients (29.3%) had received ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (28.3% vs 11.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (69.3% vs 59.4%, p = 0.0266). In total, 35 patients (6.2%) started ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (45.7% vs 14.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (82.9% vs 60.9%, p = 0.0266). Primary tumors were significantly different across subgroups (p = 0.0172), with a higher prevalence of NSCLC patients (80% vs 60.9%) among those who started ICIs within 30 days of death. Lastly, 123 patients (21.7%) started ICIs within 3 months of death. Similarly, within this subgroup there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (29.3% vs 12.8%, p < 0.0001), with a higher burden of disease (74.0% vs 59.0%, p = 0.0025) and with NSCLC (74.0% vs 58.8%, p = 0.0236). CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a trend toward an increasing ICIs prescription in frail patients, during the late stages of life. Caution should be exercised when evaluating an ICI treatment for patients with a poor PS and a high burden of disease.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
19.
Science ; 372(6547)2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112666

RESUMO

Next-generation tissue-based biomarkers for immunotherapy will likely include the simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types and their spatial interactions, as well as distinct expression patterns of immunoregulatory molecules. Here, we introduce a comprehensive platform for multispectral imaging and mapping of multiple parameters in tumor tissue sections with high-fidelity single-cell resolution. Image analysis and data handling components were drawn from the field of astronomy. Using this "AstroPath" whole-slide platform and only six markers, we identified key features in pretreatment melanoma specimens that predicted response to anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)-based therapy, including CD163+PD-L1- myeloid cells and CD8+FoxP3+PD-1low/mid T cells. These features were combined to stratify long-term survival after anti-PD-1 blockade. This signature was validated in an independent cohort of patients with melanoma from a different institution.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Imunofluorescência , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/análise , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Antígenos CD8/análise , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Humanos , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/análise , Macrófagos/química , Masculino , Melanoma/química , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/análise , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptores de Superfície Celular/análise , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/análise , Análise de Célula Única , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/química , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3530, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112755

RESUMO

Targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is a promising strategy to modify the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and improve cancer immunotherapy. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an enzyme best known for its function in the brain; small molecule MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) are clinically used for treating neurological disorders. Here we observe MAO-A induction in mouse and human TAMs. MAO-A-deficient mice exhibit decreased TAM immunosuppressive functions corresponding with enhanced antitumor immunity. MAOI treatment induces TAM reprogramming and suppresses tumor growth in preclinical mouse syngeneic and human xenograft tumor models. Combining MAOI and anti-PD-1 treatments results in synergistic tumor suppression. Clinical data correlation studies associate high intratumoral MAOA expression with poor patient survival in a broad range of cancers. We further demonstrate that MAO-A promotes TAM immunosuppressive polarization via upregulating oxidative stress. Together, these data identify MAO-A as a critical regulator of TAMs and support repurposing MAOIs for TAM reprogramming to improve cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma/genética , Linfoma/metabolismo , Linfoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/mortalidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monoaminoxidase/deficiência , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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