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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 973673, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36479132

RESUMO

Asthmatics are more susceptible to viral infections than healthy individuals and are known to have impaired innate anti-viral defences. Influenza A virus causes significant morbidity and mortality in this population. Immuno-modulatory regulators (IMRs) such as PD-1 are activated on T cells following viral infection as part of normal T cell activation responses, and then subside, but remain elevated in cases of chronic exposure to virus, indicative of T cell exhaustion rather than activation. There is evidence that checkpoint inhibition can enhance anti-viral responses during acute exposure to virus through enhancement of CD8+T cell function. Although elevated PD-1 expression has been described in pulmonary tissues in other chronic lung diseases, the role of IMRs in asthma has been relatively unexplored as the basis for immune dysfunction. We first assessed IMR expression in the peripheral circulation and then quantified changes in IMR expression in lung tissue in response to ex-vivo influenza infection. We found that the PD-1 family members are not significantly altered in the peripheral circulation in individuals with severe asthma but are elevated in pulmonary tissues following ex-vivo influenza infection. We then applied PD-1 Mab inhibitor treatment to bronchial biopsy tissues infected with influenza virus and found that PD-1 inhibition was ineffective in asthmatics, but actually increased infection rates in healthy controls. This study, therefore, suggests that PD-1 therapy would not produce harmful side-effects when applied in people with severe asthma, but could have important, as yet undescribed, negative effects on anti-viral responses in healthy individuals that warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Asma , Influenza Humana , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos
2.
Nature ; 611(7935): 358-364, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323784

RESUMO

The accumulation of senescent cells is a major cause of age-related inflammation and predisposes to a variety of age-related diseases1. However, little is known about the molecular basis underlying this accumulation and its potential as a target to ameliorate the ageing process. Here we show that senescent cells heterogeneously express the immune checkpoint protein programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and that PD-L1+ senescent cells accumulate with age in vivo. PD-L1- cells are sensitive to T cell surveillance, whereas PD-L1+ cells are resistant, even in the presence of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASP). Single-cell analysis of p16+ cells in vivo revealed that PD-L1 expression correlated with higher levels of SASP. Consistent with this, administration of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibody to naturally ageing mice or a mouse model with normal livers or induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis reduces the total number of p16+ cells in vivo as well as the PD-L1+ population in an activated CD8+ T cell-dependent manner, ameliorating various ageing-related phenotypes. These results suggest that the heterogeneous expression of PD-L1 has an important role in the accumulation of senescent cells and inflammation associated with ageing, and the elimination of PD-L1+ senescent cells by immune checkpoint blockade may be a promising strategy for anti-ageing therapy.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Antígeno B7-H1 , Fenótipo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Animais , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Fígado , Rejuvenescimento
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362027

RESUMO

PD-L1/PD-1 blockade immunotherapy has changed the therapeutic approaches for the treatment of many cancers. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying its efficacy or treatment failure are still unclear. Proficient systemic immunity seems to be a prerequisite for efficacy, as recently shown in patients and in mouse models. It is widely accepted that expansion of anti-tumor CD8 T cell populations is principally responsible for anti-tumor responses. In contrast, the role of CD4 T cells has been less studied. Here we review and discuss the evidence supporting the contribution of CD4 T cells to anti-tumor immunity, especially recent advances linking CD4 T cell subsets to efficacious PD-L1/PD-1 blockade immunotherapy. We also discuss the role of CD4 T cell memory subsets present in peripheral blood before the start of immunotherapies, and their utility as predictors of response.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias , Animais , Camundongos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e30561, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma treatment has drastically changed during the past decade with the advent of immunotherapy. We conducted a meta-analysis, to assess PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors in combination vs. alone for the treatment of advanced melanoma. METHODS: The EMBASE, Medline via PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central, and Web of Science databases were searched. The records retrieved were screened for eligibility. Odds ratio (OR) was applied to compare dichotomous variables. All the results were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mantel-Haenszel method was used to estimate pooled OR and 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous data. RESULTS: We retrieved 3092 citations of which we included 3 randomized controlled trials and 2 retrospective, cohort studies. The pooled OR was 2.144 (95% CI: 1.650-2.786, I2 = 80.38% P = .000) for overall response and 2.117 (95% CI: 1.578-2.841, I2 = 70.17% P = .000) for the complete response (CR). Subgroup analysis in nivolumab category showed that the pooled OR was 1.766 (95% CI: 1.324-2.355, I2 = 0.0% P = .000) for the overall response and was 1.284 (95% CI: 0.889-1.855, I2 = 0.0% P = .182) for the CR and in the ipilimumab category the pooled OR was 5.440 (95% CI: 2.896-10.220, I2 = 70.89% P = .001) for the overall response and was 5.169 (95% CI: 3.163-8.446, I2 = 0.0% P = .000) for the CR. The incidence of any treatment-related adverse events was significantly higher in the combination group than that of the nivolumab monotherapy 4.044 (95% CI: 1.740-9.403, I2 = 91.64% P = .001) or the ipilimumab monotherapy 2.465 (95% CI: 0.839-7.236, I2 = 93.02 % P = .101). CONCLUSION: Combination therapy with ipilimumab plus nivolumab is a promising strategy in the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma with superior overall and complete responses over either monotherapies.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Ipilimumab , Melanoma , Nivolumabe , Humanos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/patologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Oncoimmunology ; 11(1): 2135819, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36268179

RESUMO

First-line PD-1 blockade plus chemotherapy significantly improves the survival benefits in late-stage gastric cancer (GC) patients. However, the pathological response rate and effects on the immune microenvironment of neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade plus chemotherapy in patients with cTNM-stage III GC remain to be elucidated. Patients with cTNM-stage III GC who underwent neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade plus chemotherapy and surgery were enrolled. Four in vivo models bearing GC were jointly established to investigate the specific roles of chemotherapy and PD-1 blockade for GC treatment. The tumor immune microenvironment was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and IHC staining, multicolor flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. A total of 75 patients with cTNM-stage III (cT2-4N1-3M0) gastric cancer who received neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade plus chemotherapy (SOX/XELOX) were included in this study. After treatment, 21 (28.0%) and 57 (76.0%) patients achieved pathological complete response (pCR) and post-therapy pathological downstaging. Subgroup analyses revealed that patients with CPS >1 (32.6% vs 8.3%) and dMMR (35.7% vs 25.4%) subtype had better efficacy. Additionally, the resected specimens showed more anti-tumor immune infiltration indicating a response to neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade plus chemotherapy. Multicolor immunofluorescence and in vivo experiments on mouse models revealed that elevated M1/M2 ratio of macrophages, CD8 + T cells and plasma cells indicated effective response to treatment. Furthermore, neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade plus chemotherapy neither delayed surgery nor increased postoperative complication rate. The analyses indicate neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade plus chemotherapy is a promising therapeutic strategy in patients with cTNM-stage III GC with an encouraging pCR rate.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Neoplasias Gástricas , Animais , Camundongos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 21: 15330338221133640, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36259214

RESUMO

Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib and programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors versus transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib or sorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Consecutive patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who received transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib and PD-1 inhibitors, lenvatinib, or sorafenib were retrospectively identified in our institution between January 2018 and August 2020. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Results: A total of 84 patients were included in this analysis. The median overall survival was significantly improved in the transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib and PD-1 inhibitor group compared with the transarterial chemoembolization plus sorafenib group (26.7 months [95% confidence interval 25.2-31.6] vs 14.4 months [95% confidence interval 9.5-18.9]; hazard ratio 0.39 [95% confidence interval 0.17-0.72]; P = .007) or the transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib group (26.7 months [95% confidence interval 25.2-31.6] vs 17.9 [95% confidence interval 13.4-22.2] months; hazard ratio 0.45 [95% confidence interval 0.17-0.87]; P = .031). Transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib and PD-1 inhibitor also significantly prolonged median progression-free survival compared with transarterial chemoembolization plus sorafenib group (8.2 months [95% confidence interval 3.3-13.0] vs 6.0 months [95% confidence interval 4.2-7.8]; hazard ratio 0.47 [95% confidence interval 0.24-0.74]; P = .005) or the transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib group (8.2 months [95% confidence interval 3.3-13.0] vs 6.6 [95% confidence interval 4.3-7.9] months; hazard ratio 0.58 [95% confidence interval 0.31-0.96]; P = .047). No significant difference was seen between groups in the incidence of an adverse event or grade 3 or higher adverse event. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib, and PD-1 inhibitor was associated with better survival benefits and acceptable toxicities, which may provide an additional therapeutic option for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(9)2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) often responds to PD-1 pathway blockade, regardless of tumor-viral status (~80% of cases driven by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)). Prior studies have characterized tumor-specific T cell responses to MCPyV, which have typically been CD8, but little is known about the T cell response to UV-induced neoantigens. METHODS: A patient in her mid-50s with virus-negative (VN) MCC developed large liver metastases after a brief initial response to chemotherapy. She received anti-PD-L1 (avelumab) and had a partial response within 4 weeks. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed to determine potential neoantigen peptides. Characterization of peripheral blood neoantigen T cell responses was evaluated via interferon-gamma (IFNγ) ELISpot, flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing. Tumor-resident T cells were characterized by multiplexed immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: WES identified 1027 tumor-specific somatic mutations, similar to the published average of 1121 for VN-MCCs. Peptide prediction with a binding cut-off of ≤100 nM resulted in 77 peptides that were synthesized for T cell assays. Although peptides were predicted based on class I HLAs, we identified circulating CD4 T cells targeting 5 of 77 neoantigens. In contrast, no neoantigen-specific CD8 T cell responses were detected. Neoantigen-specific CD4 T cells were undetectable in blood before anti-PD-L1 therapy but became readily detectible shortly after starting therapy. T cells produced robust IFNγ when stimulated by neoantigen (mutant) peptides but not by the normal (wild-type) peptides. Single cell RNAseq showed neoantigen-reactive T cells expressed the Th1-associated transcription factor (T-bet) and associated cytokines. These CD4 T cells did not significantly exhibit cytotoxicity or non-Th1 markers. Within the pretreatment tumor, resident CD4 T cells were also Th1-skewed and expressed T-bet. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized tumor-specific Th1-skewed CD4 T cells targeting multiple neoantigens in a patient who experienced a profound and durable partial response to anti-PD-L1 therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neoantigen-specific T cell responses in MCC. Although CD4 and CD8 T cells recognizing viral tumor antigens are often detectible in virus-positive MCC, only CD4 T cells recognizing neoantigens were detected in this patient. These findings suggest that CD4 T cells can play an important role in the response to anti-PD-(L)1 therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Feminino , Humanos , Antígenos Virais de Tumores , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Interferon gama , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição
8.
Melanoma Res ; 32(6): 393-404, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223314

RESUMO

Nearly half of advanced melanoma patients do not achieve a clinical response with anti-programmed cell death 1 protein (PD1) therapy (i.e. primary resistance) or initially achieve a clinical response but eventually progress during or following further treatment (i.e. secondary resistance). A consensus definition for tumor resistance to anti-PD1 monotherapy was published by Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Immunotherapy Resistance Taskforce (SITC) in 2020. A systematic literature review (SLR) of clinical trials and observational studies was conducted to characterize the proportions of advanced melanoma patients who have progressed on anti-PD1 therapies. The SLR included 55 unique studies and the SITC definition of primary resistance was applied to 37 studies that specified disease progression by best overall response. Median and range of patients with primary resistance in studies that specified first-line and second-line or higher anti-PD1 monotherapy was 35.50% (21.19-39.13%; n = 4 studies) and 41.54% (30.00-56.41%, n = 3 studies); median and range of patients with primary resistance in studies that specified first-line and second-line or higher combination therapy was 30.23% (15.79-33.33%; n = 6 studies), and 70.00% (61.10-73.33%; n = 3 studies). Primary resistance to anti-PD1 monotherapies and when in combination with ipilimumab are higher in patients receiving second-line or higher therapies, in patients with acral, mucosal, and uveal melanoma, and in patients with active brain metastases. The percentage of patients with primary resistance was generally consistent across clinical trials, with variability in resistance noted for observational studies. Limitations include applying the SITC definitions to combination therapies, where consensus definitions are not yet available. Future studies should highly consider utilizing the SITC definitions to harmonize how resistance is classified and facilitate meaningful context for clinical activity.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(9)2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personalized neoantigen vaccine could induce a robust antitumor immune response in multiple cancers, whose efficacy could be further enhanced by combining with programmed cell death 1 blockade (α-PD-1). However, the corresponding immune response and synergistic mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we aimed to develop clinically available combinational therapeutic strategy and further explore its potential antitumor mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Neoantigen peptide vaccine (NeoVAC) for murine HCC cell line Hepa1-6 was developed and optimized by neoantigen screening and adjuvant optimization. Then the synergistic efficacy and related molecular mechanisms of NeoVAC combined with α-PD-1 in HCC were evaluated by orthotopic HCC mouse model, single-cell RNA sequencing, tetramer flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, etc. The tumor-killing capacity of CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (CD8+ TRMs) was assessed by orthotopic HCC mouse model, and autologous patient-derived cells. RESULTS: NeoVAC, which consisted of seven high immunogenic neoantigen peptides and clinical-grade Poly(I:C), could generate a strong antitumor immune response in HCC mouse models. Significantly, its efficacy could be further improved by combining with α-PD-1, with 80% of durable tumor regression and long-term immune memory in orthotopic HCC models. Moreover, in-depth analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment showed that the percentage of CD8+ TRMs was remarkedly increased in NeoVAC plus α-PD-1 treatment group, and positively associated with the antitumor efficacy. In vitro and in vivo T-cell cytotoxicity assay further confirmed the strong tumor-killing capacity of CD8+ TRMs sorting from orthotopic mouse HCC or patient's HCC tissue. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that NeoVAC plus α-PD-1 could induce a strong antitumor response and long-term tumor-specific immune memory in HCC by increasing CD8+ TRMs infiltration, which might serve as a potential immune-therapeutic target for HCC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Vacinas Anticâncer , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Células T de Memória , Camundongos , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Microambiente Tumoral , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico
10.
Nature ; 610(7930): 161-172, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171284

RESUMO

Expansion and differentiation of antigen-experienced PD-1+TCF-1+ stem-like CD8+ T cells into effector cells is critical for the success of immunotherapies based on PD-1 blockade1-4. Hashimoto et al. have shown that, in chronic infections, administration of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-2 triggers an alternative differentiation path of stem-like T cells towards a distinct population of 'better effector' CD8+ T cells similar to those generated in an acute infection5. IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) was essential in triggering this alternative differentiation path and expanding better effectors with distinct transcriptional and epigenetic profiles. However, constitutive expression of CD25 on regulatory T cells and some endothelial cells also contributes to unwanted systemic effects from IL-2 therapy. Therefore, engineered IL-2 receptor ß- and γ-chain (IL-2Rßγ)-biased agonists are currently being developed6-10. Here we show that IL-2Rßγ-biased agonists are unable to preferentially expand better effector T cells in cancer models and describe PD1-IL2v, a new immunocytokine that overcomes the need for CD25 binding by docking in cis to PD-1. Cis binding of PD1-IL2v to PD-1 and IL-2Rßγ on the same cell recovers the ability to differentiate stem-like CD8+ T cells into better effectors in the absence of CD25 binding in both chronic infection and cancer models and provides superior efficacy. By contrast, PD-1- or PD-L1-blocking antibodies alone, or their combination with clinically relevant doses of non-PD-1-targeted IL2v, cannot expand this unique subset of better effector T cells and instead lead to the accumulation of terminally differentiated, exhausted T cells. These findings provide the basis for the development of a new generation of PD-1 cis-targeted IL-2R agonists with enhanced therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer and chronic infections.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Receptores de Interleucina-2 , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/agonistas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Interleucina-2/agonistas
11.
Nature ; 610(7930): 173-181, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171288

RESUMO

Combination therapy with PD-1 blockade and IL-2 is highly effective during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection1. Here we examine the underlying basis for this synergy. We show that PD-1 + IL-2 combination therapy, in contrast to PD-1 monotherapy, substantially changes the differentiation program of the PD-1+TCF1+ stem-like CD8+ T cells and results in the generation of transcriptionally and epigenetically distinct effector CD8+ T cells that resemble highly functional effector CD8+ T cells seen after an acute viral infection. The generation of these qualitatively superior CD8+ T cells that mediate viral control underlies the synergy between PD-1 and IL-2. Our results show that the PD-1+TCF1+ stem-like CD8+ T cells, also referred to as precursors of exhausted CD8+ T cells, are not fate-locked into the exhaustion program and their differentiation trajectory can be changed by IL-2 signals. These virus-specific effector CD8+ T cells emerging from the stem-like CD8+ T cells after combination therapy expressed increased levels of the high-affinity IL-2 trimeric (CD25-CD122-CD132) receptor. This was not seen after PD-1 blockade alone. Finally, we show that CD25 engagement with IL-2 has an important role in the observed synergy between IL-2 cytokine and PD-1 blockade. Either blocking CD25 with an antibody or using a mutated version of IL-2 that does not bind to CD25 but still binds to CD122 and CD132 almost completely abrogated the synergistic effects observed after PD-1 + IL-2 combination therapy. There is considerable interest in PD-1 + IL-2 combination therapy for patients with cancer2,3, and our fundamental studies defining the underlying mechanisms of how IL-2 synergizes with PD-1 blockade should inform these human translational studies.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Interleucina-2 , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2 , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-2 , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2202148119, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939675

RESUMO

Programmed death-1 (PD-1) blockade during chronic Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection results in restoration of CD8 T-cell function and enhances viral control. Here, we tested the therapeutic benefits of PD-1 blockade administered soon after anti-retrovial therapy (ART) interruption (ATI) by treating SIV-infected and ART-suppressed macaques with either an anti-PD-1 antibody (n = 7) or saline (n = 4) at 4 wk after ATI. Following ATI, the plasma viremia increased rapidly in all animals, and the frequency of SIV-specific CD8 T cells also increased in some animals. PD-1 blockade post ATI resulted in higher proliferation of total memory CD8 and CD4 T cells and natural killer cells. PD-1 blockade also resulted in higher proliferation of SIV-specific CD8 T cells and promoted their differentiation toward better functional quality. Importantly, four out of the seven anti-PD-1 antibody-treated animals showed a rapid decline in plasma viremia by 100- to 2300-fold and this was observed only in animals that showed measurable SIV-specific CD8 T cells post PD-1 blockade. These results demonstrate that PD-1 blockade following ATI can significantly improve the function of anti-viral CD8 T cells and enhance viral control and strongly suggests its potential synergy with other immunotherapies that induce functional CD8 T-cell response under ART. These results have important implications for HIV cure research.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Memória Imunológica , Macaca mulatta , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(31): 2428-2434, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000371

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of the combination therapy with chemotherapy, programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor and anlotinib in the treatment of advanced dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS). Methods: The clinical data of patients with dedifferentiated liposarcoma who received chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor and anlotinib in the Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University from January 1, 2020 to November 30, 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 24 patients were included in this study, including 12 males and 12 females, with a median age of onset of 56 years (range, 31-69 years). Efficacy and safety in those patients were assessed. Results: All patients had unresectable or metastatic dedifferentiated liposarcoma with G2 (moderate differentiation) or G3 (differential differentiation) in a concise three-grade grading scheme of tumor pathology. Twelve patients received the regimen as the first-line treatment, while the other 7 taken the regimen as second-line treatment and 5 as third-line or above. The median follow-up time for overall survival (OS) was 7.7 months. The overall response rate (ORR) was 20.8% (5/24) and disease control rate (DCR) was 83.3% (20/24) with 5 partial response (PR), 15 stable disease (SD) and 4 progressive disease (PD). Overall, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.9 months (95%CI: 3.4-16.2 months). The ORR of anthracycline-based, eribulin-based or gemcitabine-based regimens was 1/12, 2/6 and 2/6, respectively; and the median PFS was 7.7, 7.3 and 4.4 months, respectively. Waterfall plots showed notable tumor shrinkage of any degree in eribulin and gemcitabine-based regimens(3/6 and 2/6, respectively), while there were more patients presented with SD in anthracycline-based group(9/12). Common adverse reactions included myelosuppression, fatigue, anorexia, rash, pruritus, palpitate, hypothyroidism and hypertension. Conclusions: The combination regimen with chemotherapy, PD-1 inhibitor and anlotinib in the treatment of advanced DDLPS is effective and well tolerable. There are more responders in eribulin or gemcitabine-based regimens.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Lipossarcoma , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis , Lipossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinolinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 946861, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967452

RESUMO

Background: Currently, no second-line systemic treatment regimen has been recommended in advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). Cumulative clinical evidence showed that systemic treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in combination with immunotherapy may shed light on the dim clinical outcome in advanced BTC. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anticancer efficacy of lenvatinib plus programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibody in patients with BTC who progressed after first-line cisplatin/gemcitabine (CisGem) chemotherapy. Methods: Patients with advanced BTCs who progressed after CisGem were recruited. A combination regimen of lenvatinib (8/12 mg daily) plus PD-1 antibody (200/240 mg injection every 3 weeks) was prescribed. Clinicopathological information and therapeutic outcome, including tumor subtypes, biomarkers, treatment duration, adverse events (AE), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS), were recorded and estimated. Results: A total of 351 patients with BTCs were reviewed and 74 were recruited eventually: 35 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (47.3%), 4 had extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (5.4%), and 35 had gallbladder cancer (47.3%). The median administered cycles of PD-1 antibody were 6.43 (95% CI: 5.83-7.04) cycles, and the median duration of lenvatinib medication was 21.0 weeks (95% CI: 18.04-23.93). Twenty-eight patients (37.83%) experienced detectable objective response per RECIST1.1 within a median follow-up duration of 15.0 months. The objective response rate (ORR) was 20.27% (95% CI: 10.89%-29.65%), and the disease control rate (DCR) was 71.62% (95% CI: 61.11%-82.14%). The median PFS and OS were 4.0 months (95% CI: 3.5-5.0) and 9.50 months (95% CI: 9.0-11.0), respectively. Seventy-three patients (98.64%) reported AEs and 39 (52.70%) experienced ≥grade 3 AEs. In subgroup analyses, tumoral PD-L1 expression ≥50% and tumor mutation burden (TMB) ≥2.5 Muts/Mb were associated with prolonged PFS. Conclusion: Lenvatinib plus PD-1 antibody treatment shows an active trend towards improving survival in patients with advanced BTCs after failure with CisGem chemotherapy. The treatment-related AEs are worthy of attention and are manageable.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia , Compostos de Fenilureia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(7): 2225-2231, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Blockade of immune checkpoint receptors in the treatment of cancers has been mentioned in several studies. Here, we investigated the efficacy of combined blockade of two inhibitory receptors, PD-1 and TIGIT, in restoring functional features of CD8+ T-cells in CLL. METHODS: CD8+ T-cells were separated from the peripheral blood of 11 CLL patients and targeted with malignant B-cells isolated from the same patients. Cells were then stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 and PMA/ionomycin to assess their proliferative response and cytotoxic activity using MTT and CD107a degranulation assays, respectively. Cytokine production of isolated CD8+ T-cells was also determined using ELISA. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in proliferation and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T-cells co-blocked with anti-PD-1/TIGIT compared to those single blocked with anti-PD-1, anti-TIGIT, or the control antibody. There was no significant difference in cytokine production of mentioned groups, either. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, combined blockade of PD-1 and TIGIT failed to restore the proliferation and function of CD8+ T-cells isolated from CLL patients.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Citocinas , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Receptores Imunológicos
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(29): e2205378119, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858347

RESUMO

Clinical success of immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) cancer immunotherapy is compromised by increased risk of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). However, mechanistic action(s) of immune responses underlying development of irAE remain not fully explored. Here, we found that in tumor-bearing aged, but not young, mice, antiprogrammed death receptor (PD)-1 therapy elicited irAE-like multiorgan dysfunctions with ectopic accumulation of T and B cells in damaged organs. In this preclinical model, the organ toxicities were mediated by immunoglobulin G (IgG) deposition because administration of IG from ICB-treated aged mice induced the pathogenicity specifically in naïve aged hosts. Mechanistically, CD4 T-cell-derived interleukin (IL)-21 upregulated B-cell-homing chemokine, CXCL13, preferentially in irAE organs from aged mice treated with anti-PD-1 therapy. The ICB-induced pathogenicity was alleviated by B-cell depletion or by blockade of IL-21 or CXCL13 activity. These results suggest that age-associated immune regulatory milieu contributes to the formation of tertiary lymphoid structure-like lymphocytic aggregates in irAE organs and irAE-related toxicity employing IL-21-CXCL13-auto-antibody axis. Supporting this, a systemic increase in CXCL13 and Il21 expression in CD4 T cells correlated with irAE incidence in ICB-treated patients. These findings provide rationale for therapeutic usefulness of CXCL13 in irAE management.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Quimiocina CXCL13 , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL13/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/etiologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Br J Haematol ; 198(5): 866-874, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799423

RESUMO

Nucleophosmin1 (NPM1) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in AML and is often associated with a favourable prognosis. Immune responses play an increasing role in AML treatment decisions; however, the role of immune checkpoint inhibition is still not clear. To address this, we investigated specific immune responses against NPM1, and three other leukaemia-associated antigens (LAA), PRAME, Wilms' tumour 1 and RHAMM in AML patients. We investigated T cell responses against leukaemic progenitor/stem cells (LPC/LSC) using colony-forming immunoassays and flow cytometry. We examined whether immune checkpoint inhibition with the anti-programmed death 1 antibody increases the immune response against stem cell-like cells, comparing cells from NPM1 mutated and NPM1 wild-type AML patients. We found that the anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, increases LAA stimulated cytotoxic T lymphocytes and the cytotoxic effect against LPC/LSC. The effect was strongest against NPM1mut cells when the immunogenic epitope was derived from the mutated region of NPM1 and these effects were enhanced through the addition of anti-PD-1. The data suggest that patients with NPM1 mutated AML could be treated with the immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD-1 and that this treatment combined with NPM1-mutation specific directed immunotherapy could be even more effective for this unique group of patients.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Nucleofosmina , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Nucleofosmina/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(7)2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell therapy has shown promise in the treatment of certain solid tumors, but its efficacy may be limited by inhibition of therapeutic T cells by the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) receptor. Clinical trials are testing cell therapy in combination with PDCD1 disruption or PD-1-axis blockade. However, preclinical data to support these approaches and to guide the treatment design are lacking. METHODS: Mechanisms of tumor regression and interaction between cell therapy and PD-1 blockade were investigated in congenic murine tumor models based on targeting established, solid tumors with T-cell receptor T cells directed against tumor-restricted, non-self antigens (ie, tumor neoantigens). RESULTS: In solid tumor models of cell therapy, PD-1 blockade mediated a reproducible but non-synergistic increase in tumor regression following adoptive T-cell transfer. Tumor regression was associated with increased tumor infiltration by endogenous T cells but not by transferred T cells. The effect was independent of PD-1 receptor expression by transferred T cells and was dependent on the endogenous T-cell repertoire and on tumor antigenicity. PD-1 blockade primarily induced cell state changes in endogenous tumor-antigen-specific T cells rather than transferred T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings support the concept that PD-1 blockade acts primarily through endogenous rather than transferred T cells to mediate a non-synergistic antitumor effect in solid tumor cell therapy. These findings have important implications for strategies to leverage PD-1 receptor disruption or blockade to enhance the efficacy of cell therapy.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Neoplasias , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(7)2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands have improved clinical outcomes for advanced melanoma. However, many tumors exhibit primary resistance or acquire secondary resistance after an initial positive response. The mechanisms of resistance are not well understood, and no validated predictive biomarkers are available. This exploratory study aimed to characterize baseline differences and molecular changes arising during treatment in acral and mucosal melanomas that exhibited primary or secondary resistance to anti-PD-1 monotherapy. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study of 124 patients who had been treated for metastatic acral or mucosal melanoma with anti-PD-1 monotherapy. Tumor samples were collected at baseline (all patients) and post-treatment (resistant tumors only) and were assayed by immunohistochemistry, whole-exome sequencing, and RNA sequencing. RESULTS: At baseline, more non-progressor than resistant tumors exhibited expression of PD-L1, immune cell infiltration, and high tumor mutational burden (TMB); baseline PD-L1 expression was also more common in secondary-resistant than in primary-resistant tumors as well as in late versus early secondary-resistant tumors. Non-progressor tumors also had higher median baseline expression of an 18-gene T cell-inflamed gene expression profile (TcellinfGEP). Among resistant tumors, the proportion of PD-L1-positive melanomas and the expression of the TcellinfGEP mRNA signature increased during treatment, while the expression of mRNA signatures related to WNT and INFA1 signaling decreased. There was evidence for greater changes from baseline in secondary-resistant versus primary-resistant tumors for some markers, including expression of RAS-related and WNT-related mRNA signatures and density of CD11c+ and FOXP3+ T cells. Greater changes in CD11c+ cell density were observed in early compared with late secondary-resistant tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that TcellinfGEP and PD-L1 expression, TMB, immune cell infiltration, and RAS and WNT signaling warrant further investigation as potential mechanisms and/or biomarkers of anti-PD-1 therapy resistance in acral and mucosal melanomas. Confirmation of these findings in larger populations is needed.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 738, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) only works well for a certain subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, biomarkers for patient stratification are desired, which can suggest the most beneficial treatment. METHODS: In this study, three datasets (GSE126044, GSE135222, and GSE136961) of immunotherapy from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were analyzed, and seven intersected candidates were extracted as potential biomarkers for ICB followed by validation with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and the in-house cohort data. RESULTS: Among these candidates, we found that human leukocyte antigen-DR alpha (HLA-DRA) was downregulated in NSCLC tissues and both tumor and immune cells expressed HLA-DRA. In addition, HLA-DRA was associated with an inflamed tumor microenvironment (TME) and could predict the response to ICB in NSCLC. Moreover, we validated the predictive value of HLA-DRA in immunotherapy using an in-house cohort. Furthermore, HLA-DRA was related to the features of inflamed TME in not only NSCLC but also in most cancer types. CONCLUSION: Overall, HLA-DRA could be a promising biomarker for guiding ICB in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DR , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral
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