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1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105586, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882451

RESUMO

Estrogenic effects triggered by androgens have been previously shown in a few studies. Aromatization and direct binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) are the most proposed mechanisms. For example, previously, a modulation of vitellogenin A (VtgA) by testosterone (T), an aromatizable androgen, was reported in brown trout primary hepatocytes. The effect was reversed by an ER antagonist. In this study, using the same model the disruption caused by T and by the non-aromatizable androgen - dihydrotestosterone (DHT), was assessed in selected estrogenic targets. Hepatocytes were exposed (96 h) to six concentrations of each androgen. The estrogenic targets were VtgA, ERα, ERß1 and two zona pellucida genes, ZP2.5 and ZP3a.2. The aromatase CYP19a1 gene and the androgen receptor (AR) were also included. Modulation of estrogenic targets was studied by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, using an HScore system. VtgA and ERα were up-regulated by DHT (1, 10, 100 µM) and T (10, 100 µM). In contrast, ERß1 was down-regulated by DHT (10, 100 µM), and T (100 µM). ZP2.5 mRNA levels were increased by DHT and T (1, 10, 100 µM), while ZP3a.2 was up-regulated by DHT (100 µM) and T (10, 100 µM). Positive correlations were found between VtgA and ERα mRNA levels and ZPs and ERα, after exposure to both androgens. The mRNA levels of CYP19a1 were not changed, while AR expression tended to increase after micromolar DHT exposures. HScores for Vtg and ZPs corroborated the molecular findings. Both androgens triggered estrogen signaling through direct binding to ERs, most probably ERα.


Assuntos
Androgênios/toxicidade , Di-Hidrotestosterona/toxicidade , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/toxicidade , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4153, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814769

RESUMO

The histone methyltransferase DOT1L methylates lysine 79 (K79) on histone H3 and is involved in Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) fusion leukemogenesis; however, its role in prostate cancer (PCa) is undefined. Here we show that DOT1L is overexpressed in PCa and is associated with poor outcome. Genetic and chemical inhibition of DOT1L selectively impaired the viability of androgen receptor (AR)-positive PCa cells and organoids, including castration-resistant and enzalutamide-resistant cells. The sensitivity of AR-positive cells is due to a distal K79 methylation-marked enhancer in the MYC gene bound by AR and DOT1L not present in AR-negative cells. DOT1L inhibition leads to reduced MYC expression and upregulation of MYC-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligases HECTD4 and MYCBP2, which promote AR and MYC degradation. This leads to further repression of MYC in a negative feed forward manner. Thus DOT1L selectively regulates the tumorigenicity of AR-positive prostate cancer cells and is a promising therapeutic target for PCa.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Terapêutica com RNAi/métodos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668346

RESUMO

Fish are exposed to steroids of different classes in contaminated waters, but their effects are not sufficiently understood. Here we employed an anti-sense technique using morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs, GRα and GRß) and androgen receptor (AR) to investigate their role in physiological and transcriptional responses. To this end, zebrafish embryos were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CLO), androstenedione (A4) and mixtures containing different classes of steroids. CLO caused a decrease of spontaneous muscle contraction and increase of heart rate, as well as transcriptional induction of pepck1, fkbp5, sult2st3 and vitellogenin (vtg1) at 24 and/or 48 h post fertilization (hpf). Knockdown of GRs eliminated these effects, while knockdown of AR decreased the ar transcript but caused no expressional changes, except induction of sult2st3 after exposure to A4 at 24 hpf. Exposure to a mixture of 6 steroids comprising progesterone (P4) and three progestins, cyproterone acetate, dienogest, drospirenone, 17ß-estradiol (E2) and CLO caused a significant induction of pepck1, sult2st3, vtg1 and per1a. Knockdown of GRs eliminated the physiological effects and the up-regulation of vtg1, sult2st3, pepck1, fkbp5 and per1a. Thus, as with CLO, responses in mixtures were regulated by GRs independently from the presence of other steroids. Exposure to a mixture comprising A4, CLO, E2 and P4 caused induction of vtg1, cyp19b, sult2st3 and fkbp5. Knockdown of AR had no effect, indicating that regulation of these genes occurred by the GRs and estrogen receptor (ER). Our findings show that in early embryos GRs cause vtg1 and sult2st3 induction in addition to known glucocorticoid target genes. Each steroid receptor regulated its own target genes in steroid mixtures independently from other steroids. However, enhanced expressional induction occurred for vtg1 and fkbp5 in steroid mixtures, indicating an interaction/cross-talk between GRs and ER. These findings have importance for the understanding of molecular effects of steroid mixtures.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Esteroides/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Prostate ; 80(12): 950-961, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is characterized by aberrant lipid metabolism, including elevated fatty acid oxidation. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of fatty acid oxidation. This study aimed to determine if CPT1B has a critical role in prostate cancer progression and to identify its regulatory mechanism. METHODS: CPT1B expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases was compared with patient survival data. A tissue microarray was constructed with 60 samples of prostate cancer and immunohistochemically stained for CPT1B. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines 22RV1 and C4-2 in which CPT1B expression had been stably knocked down were established; and cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and invasion were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays, flow cytometry, and Transwell assays, respectively. To examine the impact of androgen receptor (AR) inhibition on CPT1B expression, JASPAR CORE was searched to identify AR-binding sites in CPT1B. Dual luciferase and ChIP assays were performed to confirm CPT1B activity and AR binding, respectively. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in prostate cancer underwent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Enzalutamide-resistant C4-2 cells were generated and the mechanism of enzalutamide resistance and downstream signaling pathway changes of CPT1B to C4-2 was explored through CCK-8 test. RESULTS: CPT1B expression was upregulated in human prostate cancer compared with normal prostate tissue and was associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival. Silencing of CPT1B resulted in downregulated cell proliferation, reduced S-phase distribution, and lower invasive ability, whereas the opposite was observed in CRPC cells overexpressing CPTB1. DEGS in prostate cancer were correlated with G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, molecular transducer activity, and calcium ion binding. AR may regulate CPT1B expression and activity via specific binding sites, as confirmed by dual luciferase and ChIP assays. The CCK-8 experiment demonstrated that CPT1B overexpression in C4-2 cells did not significantly increase the ability of enzalutamide resistance. However, overexpression of CPT1B in C4-2R cells significantly increased the enzalutamide resistance. Upregulation of CPT1B expression increased AKT expression and phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: CPT1B is upregulated in prostate cancer and is correlated with poor prognosis, indicating its potential as a biomarker. AR inhibits the transcription of CPT1B. In the CRPC cell line, overexpression of CPT1B alone cannot promote enzalutamide resistance, but in the drug-resistant line C4-2R, overexpression of CPT1B can promote the resistance of C4-2R to enzalutamide.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Prostate ; 80(12): 1012-1023, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas of the prostate classically lose androgen receptor (AR) expression, may harbor loss of the RB1, TP53, and PTEN tumor suppressor genes, and are associated with a poor prognosis. However usual-type adenocarcinomas may also contain areas of NE differentiation, and in this context the molecular features and biological significance are less certain. METHODS: We examined the molecular phenotype and oncologic outcomes of primary prostate adenocarcinomas with ≥5% NE differentiation (≥5% chromogranin A-positive NE cells in any given tumor spot on tissue microarray) using three independent study sets: a set of tumors with paneth cell-like NE differentiation (n = 26), a retrospective case-cohort of intermediate- and high-risk patients enriched for adverse outcomes (n = 267), and primary tumors from a retrospective series of men with eventual castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (n = 55). RESULTS: Benign NE cells expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels compared with paired benign luminal cells (P < .001). Similarly, paneth-like NE carcinoma cells or carcinoma cells expressing chromogranin A expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels than paired non-NE carcinoma cells (P < .001). Quantified ERG protein expression, was also lower in chromogranin A-labeled adenocarcinoma cells compared with unlabeled cells (P < .001) and tumors with NE differentiation showed lower gene expression scores for AR activity compared with those without. Despite evidence of lower AR signaling, adenocarcinomas with NE differentiation did not differ by prevalence of TP53 missense mutations, or PTEN or RB1 loss, compared with those without NE differentiation. Finally, NE differentiation was not associated with time to metastasis in intermediate- and high-risk patients (P = .6 on multivariate analysis), nor with progression-free survival in patients with CRPC treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (P = .9). CONCLUSION: NE differentiation in usual-type primary prostate adenocarcinoma is a molecularly and clinically distinct form of lineage plasticity from that occurring in small cell NE carcinoma.


Assuntos
Células Neuroendócrinas/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neuroendócrinas/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109188, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679048

RESUMO

We have reported that gestational exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI) represses androgen receptor (Ar) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) in Sertoli cells (SCs) of adult rats, while the mechanism underlying remains obscure. We tested the hypothesis "transient gestational exposure to CrVI during the critical embryonic windows of testicular differentiation and growth may have adverse impact on transcription factors controlling the expression of Ar and Fshr in SCs of the F1 progeny". CrVI (K2Cr2O7) was given through drinking water (50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm), to pregnant rats from gestational day 9-14 (testicular differentiation) and 15 to 21 (prenatal differentiation and proliferation of SC); male progenies were sacrificed on postnatal day 30 (Completion of postnatal SC maturation). A significant increase in free radicals and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed in SCs of experimental rats. Real time PCR and western blot data showed decreased expression of Ar, Fshr, Inhibin B, Transferrin, Androgen binding protein, Claudin 11 and Occludin in SCs of experimental rats; concentrations of lactate, pyruvate and retinoic acid also decreased. Serum FSH, luteinizing hormone and estradiol increased, whereas testosterone and prolactin decreased in experimental rats. Western blot detection revealed decreased levels of transcription factors regulating Fshr viz., USF-1, USF-2, SF-1, c-fos, c-jun and GATA 1, and those of Ar viz., Sp-1, ARA54, SRC-1 and CBP in experimental rats, whereas the levels of cyclinD1 and p53, repressors of Ar increased. ChIP assay detected decreased USF-1 and USF-2 binding to Fshr promoter, and binding of Sp-1 to Ar promoter. We conclude that gestational exposure to CrVI affects SC structure and function in F1 progeny by inducing oxidative stress and diminishing the expression of Ar and Fshr through attenuation of their specific transcriptional regulators and their interaction with the respective promoter.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores do FSH/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores do FSH/genética , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
7.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1097-1107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (KLK2)-like KLK3 (prostate-specific antigen [PSA])-belongs to the highly conserved serine proteases of the glandular kallikrein protein family (KLK family). Studies suggested that measurement of KLK2 serum levels advanced the predictive accuracy of PSA testing in prostate cancer. METHODS: To clarify the potential utility of KLK2 as a prognostic tissue biomarker, KLK2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in more than 12 000 prostate cancers. RESULTS: Normal epithelium cells usually showed weak to moderate KLK2 immunostaining, whereas KLK2 was negative in 23%, weak in 38%, moderate in 35%, and strong in 4% of 9576 analyzable cancers. Lost or reduced KLK2 immunostaining was associated with advanced tumor stage, high Gleason score, lymph node metastasis, increased cell proliferation, positive resection margin, and early PSA recurrence (P < .0001). Comparison with previously analyzed molecular alterations revealed a strong association of KLK2 loss and presence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (P < .0001), most of all analyzed common deletions (9 of 11; P ≤ .03), and decreased PSA immunostaining (P < .0001 each). Cancers with combined negative or weak immunostaining of KLK2 and PSA showed worse prognosis than cancers with at least moderate staining of one or both proteins (P < .0001). Multivariate analyses including established preoperative and postoperative prognostic parameters showed a strong independent prognostic impact of KLK2 loss alone or in combination of PSA, especially in erythroblast transformation-specific-negative cancers (P ≤ .006). CONCLUSIONS: Loss of KLK2 expression is a potentially useful prognostic marker in prostate cancer. Analysis of KLK2 alone or in combination with PSA may be useful for estimating cancer aggressiveness at the time of biopsy.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Idoso , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Calicreínas/genética , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/biossíntese , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/biossíntese , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo
8.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1058-1070, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most prostate cancers express androgen receptor (AR), and our previous studies have focused on identifying transcription factors that modify AR function. We have shown that nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) regulates AR activity in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, the status of NFIB in prostate cancer was unknown. METHODS: We immunostained a tissue microarray including normal, hyperplastic, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, primary prostatic adenocarcinoma, and castration-resistant prostate cancer tissue samples for NFIB, AR, and synaptophysin, a marker of neuroendocrine differentiation. We interrogated publically available data sets in cBioPortal to correlate NFIB expression and AR and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) activity scores. We analyzed prostate cancer cell lines for NFIB expression via Western blot analysis and used nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation to assess where NFIB is localized. We performed co-immunoprecipitation studies to determine if NFIB and AR interact. RESULTS: NFIB increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm of prostate cancer samples versus matched normal controls, independent of Gleason score. Similarly, cytoplasmic AR and synaptophysin increased in primary prostate cancer. We observed strong NFIB staining in primary small cell prostate cancer. The ratio of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear NFIB staining was predictive of earlier biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, once adjusted for tumor margin status. Cytoplasmic AR was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence. There was no statistically significant difference between NFIB and synaptophysin expression in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer, but cytoplasmic AR expression was increased in castration-resistant samples. In primary prostate cancer, nuclear NFIB expression correlated with cytoplasmic NFIB and nuclear AR, while cytoplasmic NFIB correlated with synaptophysin, and nuclear and cytoplasmic AR. In castration-resistant prostate cancer samples, NFIB expression correlated positively with an AR activity score, and negatively with the NEPCa score. In prostate cancer cell lines, NFIB exists in several isoforms. We observed NFIB predominantly in the nuclear fraction of prostate cancer cells with increased cytoplasmic expression seen in castration-resistant cell lines. We observed an interaction between AR and NFIB through co-immunoprecipitation experiments. CONCLUSION: We have described the expression pattern of NFIB in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer and its positive correlation with AR. We have also demonstrated AR interacts with NFIB.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição NFI/biossíntese , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
9.
Mol Cell ; 79(5): 812-823.e4, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668201

RESUMO

Steroid receptors activate gene transcription by recruiting coactivators to initiate transcription of their target genes. For most nuclear receptors, the ligand-dependent activation function domain-2 (AF-2) is a primary contributor to the nuclear receptor (NR) transcriptional activity. In contrast to other steroid receptors, such as ERα, the activation function of androgen receptor (AR) is largely dependent on its ligand-independent AF-1 located in its N-terminal domain (NTD). It remains unclear why AR utilizes a different AF domain from other receptors despite that NRs share similar domain organizations. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of DNA-bound full-length AR and its complex structure with key coactivators, SRC-3 and p300. AR dimerization follows a unique head-to-head and tail-to-tail manner. Unlike ERα, AR directly contacts a single SRC-3 and p300. The AR NTD is the primary site for coactivator recruitment. The structures provide a basis for understanding assembly of the AR:coactivator complex and its domain contributions for coactivator assembly and transcriptional regulation.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/metabolismo , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação Proteica , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2689, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483206

RESUMO

The antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) has improved survival in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, most patients eventually develop Enz resistance that may involve inducing the androgen receptor (AR) splicing variant 7 (ARv7). Here we report that high expression of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is associated with positive ARv7 detection in CRPC patients following Enz treatment. Targeting MAO-A with phenelzine or clorgyline, the FDA-approved drugs for antidepression, resensitize the Enz resistant (EnzR) cells to Enz treatment and further suppress EnzR cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that Enz-increased ARv7 expression can transcriptionally enhance MAO-A expression resulting in Enz resistance via altering the hypoxia HIF-1α signals. Together, our results show that targeting the Enz/ARv7/MAO-A signaling with the antidepressants phenelzine or clorgyline can restore Enz sensitivity to suppress EnzR cell growth, which may indicate that these antidepression drugs can overcome the Enz resistance to further suppress the EnzR CRPC.


Assuntos
Clorgilina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Fenelzina/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(12): 1493-1504, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite its rarity, male breast cancer shows a steadily rising incidence. Given the absence of ad hoc prospective randomized clinical trials, treatment strategies are based on extrapolation from female breast cancer recommendations or solely on population-based data. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the current treatment landscape for male breast cancer in the adjuvant and in the metastatic setting. The authors also discuss the biology and genomic landscape of male breast cancer. Original research and review articles, relative to the period 2010-2019, were included in the review of the literature. EXPERT OPINION: There is a major medical need to include male patients with breast cancer in prospective clinical trials. The call to equality in breast cancer care can be pursued via two divergent paths: (i) a gender-neutral delivery of breast cancer information and (ii) the creation of separate sections, for the more common female breast cancer and for the rare male ones. We propose to differentiate male breast cancer care, acknowledging unique onco-sexual and social needs that can be only partially shared.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327277

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is marked by a wide range of clinical disease courses, ranging from asymptomatic to deadly. There have been many studies seeking to explore the correlations between COVID-19 clinical outcomes and various clinical variables, including age, sex, race, underlying medical problems, and social habits. In particular, the relationship between smoking and COVID-19 outcome is controversial, with multiple conflicting reports in the current literature. In this study, we aim to analyze how smoking may affect the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. We analyzed sequencing data from lung and oral epithelial samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We found that the receptor and transmembrane protease necessary for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively, were upregulated in smoking samples from both lung and oral epithelial tissue. We then explored the mechanistic hypothesis that smoking may upregulate ACE2 expression through the upregulation of the androgen pathway. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 upregulation were both correlated to androgen pathway enrichment and the specific upregulation of central pathway regulatory genes. These data provide a potential model for the increased susceptibility of smoking patients to COVID-19 and encourage further exploration into the androgen and tobacco upregulation of ACE2 to understand the potential clinical ramifications.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Fumar/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética
13.
Prostate ; 80(10): 742-752, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is an effective first-line chemotherapy agent used in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, most times chemotherapy with docetaxel eventually fails due to the development of docetaxel resistance. Natural killer (NK) cells are the first line of defense against cancer and infections. NK cell function is determined by a delicate balance between signals received via activating and inhibitory receptors. The aim of this study is to explore whether the potential docetaxel-resistant mechanism is associated with impaired NK cell cytotoxicity toward CRPC cells. METHODS: By performing MTT assay, we explored the role of docetaxel in regulating NK cells' cytotoxicity. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to measure messenger RNA and protein levels separately. Luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were performed to analyze the mechanism. RESULTS: We found that docetaxel could suppress the immunotherapy efficacy of NK cells toward CRPC cells via the androgen receptor (AR)-lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1) signals in vitro. Analysis of the mechanism revealed that docetaxel functioned through increasing AR to upregulate LLT1 expression in CRPC cells. AR transcriptionally activated LLT1 expression by binding to its promoter region. Furthermore, targeting AR with ASC-J9 or blocking LL1 by anti-human LLT1 monoclonal antibody could reverse the suppressive effect of docetaxel on the immunotherapy efficacy of NK cells toward CRPC cells. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that chemotherapy agent docetaxel could increase AR that transcriptionally regulated the expression of NK inhibitory ligand LLT1 on CRPC cells. An increase of LL1 may further suppress the immunological efficacy of NK cells to kill CRPC cells. Additionally, targeting AR or blocking LL1 could enhance the immunotherapy efficacy of NK cells toward CRPC cells which might be considered as a new therapeutic option for the prevention or treatment of docetaxel resistance.


Assuntos
Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/imunologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Receptores Androgênicos/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Terapia Combinada , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Curcumina/farmacologia , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Lectinas Tipo C/antagonistas & inibidores , Lectinas Tipo C/biossíntese , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Superfície Celular/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2508, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427840

RESUMO

Despite the clinical success of Androgen Receptor (AR)-targeted therapies, reactivation of AR signalling remains the main driver of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. In this study, we perform a comprehensive unbiased characterisation of LNCaP cells chronically exposed to multiple AR inhibitors (ARI). Combined proteomics and metabolomics analyses implicate an acquired metabolic phenotype common in ARI-resistant cells and associated with perturbed glucose and lipid metabolism. To exploit this phenotype, we delineate a subset of proteins consistently associated with ARI resistance and highlight mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (DECR1), an auxiliary enzyme of beta-oxidation, as a clinically relevant biomarker for CRPC. Mechanistically, DECR1 participates in redox homeostasis by controlling the balance between saturated and unsaturated phospholipids. DECR1 knockout induces ER stress and sensitises CRPC cells to ferroptosis. In vivo, DECR1 deletion impairs lipid metabolism and reduces CRPC tumour growth, emphasizing the importance of DECR1 in the development of treatment resistance.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Próstata/enzimologia , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12315-12323, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424106

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) antagonist enzalutamide is one of the principal treatments for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, not all patients respond, and resistance mechanisms are largely unknown. We hypothesized that genomic and transcriptional features from metastatic CRPC biopsies prior to treatment would be predictive of de novo treatment resistance. To this end, we conducted a phase II trial of enzalutamide treatment (160 mg/d) in 36 men with metastatic CRPC. Thirty-four patients were evaluable for the primary end point of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)50 response (PSA decline ≥50% at 12 wk vs. baseline). Nine patients were classified as nonresponders (PSA decline <50%), and 25 patients were classified as responders (PSA decline ≥50%). Failure to achieve a PSA50 was associated with shorter progression-free survival, time on treatment, and overall survival, demonstrating PSA50's utility. Targeted DNA-sequencing was performed on 26 of 36 biopsies, and RNA-sequencing was performed on 25 of 36 biopsies that contained sufficient material. Using computational methods, we measured AR transcriptional function and performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to identify pathways whose activity state correlated with de novo resistance. TP53 gene alterations were more common in nonresponders, although this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.055). AR gene alterations and AR expression were similar between groups. Importantly, however, transcriptional measurements demonstrated that specific gene sets-including those linked to low AR transcriptional activity and a stemness program-were activated in nonresponders. Our results suggest that patients whose tumors harbor this program should be considered for clinical trials testing rational agents to overcome de novo enzalutamide resistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
16.
Prostate ; 80(11): 799-810, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a multifaceted protein with a prognostic value in hormone-naïve prostate cancer (PC). It has previously been associated with the development of castration resistance. However, RGS2 expression in clinical specimens of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and its clinical relevance has not been explored. In the present study, RGS2 was assessed in CRPC and in relation to the development of castration resistance. METHODS: In the present study, RGS2 expression was evaluated with immunohistochemistry in patient materials of hormone-naïve and castration-resistant primary tumors, also in matched specimens before and after 3 months of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the clinical significance of RGS2 expression. RGS2 expression in association to castration-resistant growth was assessed experimentally in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of CRPC. In vitro, hormone depletion of LNCaP and enzalutamide treatment of LNCaP, 22Rv1, and VCaP was performed to evaluate the association between RGS2 and the androgen receptor (AR). Stable RGS2 knockdown was used to evaluate the impact of RGS2 in association to PC cell growth under hormone-reduced conditions. Gene and protein expression were evaluated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. RESULTS: RGS2 expression is increased in CRPC and enriched under ADT. Furthermore, a high RGS2 level is prognostic for poor cancer-specific survival for CRPC patients and significantly reduced failure-free survival (FFS) after an initiated ADT. Additionally, the prognostic value of RGS2 outperforms prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in terms of FFS. The present study furthermore suggests that RGS2 expression is reflective of AR activity. Moreover, low RGS2-expressing cells display hampered growth under hormone-reduced conditions, in line with the poor prognosis associated with high RGS2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of RGS2 are associated with aggressive forms of castration-resistant PC. The results demonstrate that a high level of RGS2 is associated with poor prognosis in association with castration-resistant PC growth. RGS2 alone, or in association with PSA, has the potential to identify patients that require additional treatment at an early stage during ADT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/biossíntese , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteínas RGS/genética , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455539

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is marked by a wide range of clinical disease courses, ranging from asymptomatic to deadly. There have been many studies seeking to explore the correlations between COVID-19 clinical outcomes and various clinical variables, including age, sex, race, underlying medical problems, and social habits. In particular, the relationship between smoking and COVID-19 outcome is controversial, with multiple conflicting reports in the current literature. In this study, we aim to analyze how smoking may affect the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. We analyzed sequencing data from lung and oral epithelial samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We found that the receptor and transmembrane protease necessary for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively, were upregulated in smoking samples from both lung and oral epithelial tissue. We then explored the mechanistic hypothesis that smoking may upregulate ACE2 expression through the upregulation of the androgen pathway. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 upregulation were both correlated to androgen pathway enrichment and the specific upregulation of central pathway regulatory genes. These data provide a potential model for the increased susceptibility of smoking patients to COVID-19 and encourage further exploration into the androgen and tobacco upregulation of ACE2 to understand the potential clinical ramifications.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Fumar/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0226057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413024

RESUMO

Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was first identified in the rodent prostate and is abundantly expressed in human and rodent prostate epithelium, stroma, immune cells and endothelium of the blood vessels. In the prostates of mice with inactivated ERß, mutant phenotypes include epithelial hyperplasia and increased expression of androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes, most of which are also upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa). ERß is expressed in both basal and luminal cells in the prostate while AR is expressed in luminal but not in the basal cell layer which harbors the prostate stem cells. To investigate the mechanisms of action of ERß and its potential cross-talk with AR, we used RNA-seq to study the effects of estradiol or the synthetic ligand, LY3201, in AR-positive LNCaP PCa cells which had been engineered to express ERß. Transcriptomic analysis indicated relatively few changes in gene expression with ERß overexpression, but robust responses following ligand treatments. There is significant overlap of responsive genes between the two ligands, estradiol and LY3201 as well as ligand-specific alterations. Gene set analysis of down-regulated genes identified an enrichment of androgen-responsive genes, such as FKBP5, CAMKK2, and TBC1D4. Consistently, AR transcript, protein levels, and transcriptional activity were down-regulated following ERß activation. In agreement with this, we find that the phosphorylation of the CAMKK2 target, AMPK, was repressed by ligand-activated ERß. These findings suggest that ERß-mediated signaling pathways are involved in the negative regulation of AR expression and activity, thus supporting a tumor suppressive role for ERß in PCa.


Assuntos
Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/agonistas , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo
19.
Gene ; 753: 144812, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470507

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is a complex and elaborate differentiation process and is critical for male fertility. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis serves as a significant neuroendocrine system to regulate spermatogenesis. As a constitute of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, Sertoli cells promote spermatogenesis via protecting, nourishing, and supporting germ cells upon hormone determination. Here we clarified how the hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including FSH, testosterone and LH, regulate spermatogenesis via the androgen receptor, cAMP/PKA, PI3k/Akt signaling pathways in Sertoli cells. Other endogenous hormones in higher vertebrates, including ouabain, estradiol, leptin, MIS, PGD2, and thyroid hormone, also regulate spermatogenesis via the AR or cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Among them, the dynamics of adherens junctions, gap junctions, and blood-testis barrier, glucose uptake, lactate supply and differentiation of Sertoli cells are regulated by more comprehensive hormones and signaling pathways in Sertoli cells. In infertile patients or patients with blocked spermatogenesis, the AR, cAMP/PKA and PI3k/Akt signaling pathways and related components exhibit abnormal activity or disordered content. The clinical specimens from patients with testicular cancer show similar mutated AR genes. According to the existing clinical evidence, it is valuable to study the deep mechanism of male infertility and testicular tumors from the perspective of hormones and signaling pathways in Sertoli cells.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/fisiopatologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1103-1111, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435981

RESUMO

The androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a congenital disease characterized by androgen resistance due to androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations, resulting in disorders of sex differentiation in 46,XY individuals. However, the underlying mechanisms in the majority of AR variants and the phenotype-genotype correlations are unclear. Here, we identified a p.Y764H variant of the AR gene that results in different phenotypes in a family. Structural analyses revealed that amino acid substitution affected protein properties and spatial conformation, and in vitro, functional studies showed impaired nuclear translocation ability of the mutated protein. Moreover, the extent to which this variant reduced nuclear translocation depends on the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations. Our results, for the first time, demonstrated a pathogenesis of the p.Y764H mutations in AR resulting in AIS phenotype, and indicated that AIS patients with p.Y764H mutation and preserved gonad might have residual AR activity at high androgen levels, putting patients at risk for pubertal virilization in the future. We provide an in-depth insight into the pathogenesis in AIS based on the amino acid substitution, which may help aid its precise diagnosis, personalized treatment, and organized follow-up to avoid gender dysphoria.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/metabolismo , Animais , Células COS , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Hemizigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transporte Proteico , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Irmãos
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