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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4498, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908142

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) is the master regulator of prostate cancer (PCa) development, and inhibition of AR signalling is the most effective PCa treatment. AR is expressed in PCa cells and also in the PCa-associated stroma, including infiltrating macrophages. Macrophages have a decisive function in PCa initiation and progression, but the role of AR in macrophages remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that AR signalling in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line supports PCa cell line migration and invasion in culture via increased Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) signalling and expression of its downstream cytokines. Moreover, AR signalling in THP-1 and monocyte-derived macrophages upregulates IL-10 and markers of tissue residency. In conclusion, our data suggest that AR signalling in macrophages may support PCa invasiveness, and blocking this process may constitute one mechanism of anti-androgen therapy.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Anilidas/farmacologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Buffy Coat/citologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Técnicas de Cocultura , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Invasividade Neoplásica/imunologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Células THP-1 , Compostos de Tosil/farmacologia , Compostos de Tosil/uso terapêutico
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105586, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882451

RESUMO

Estrogenic effects triggered by androgens have been previously shown in a few studies. Aromatization and direct binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) are the most proposed mechanisms. For example, previously, a modulation of vitellogenin A (VtgA) by testosterone (T), an aromatizable androgen, was reported in brown trout primary hepatocytes. The effect was reversed by an ER antagonist. In this study, using the same model the disruption caused by T and by the non-aromatizable androgen - dihydrotestosterone (DHT), was assessed in selected estrogenic targets. Hepatocytes were exposed (96 h) to six concentrations of each androgen. The estrogenic targets were VtgA, ERα, ERß1 and two zona pellucida genes, ZP2.5 and ZP3a.2. The aromatase CYP19a1 gene and the androgen receptor (AR) were also included. Modulation of estrogenic targets was studied by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, using an HScore system. VtgA and ERα were up-regulated by DHT (1, 10, 100 µM) and T (10, 100 µM). In contrast, ERß1 was down-regulated by DHT (10, 100 µM), and T (100 µM). ZP2.5 mRNA levels were increased by DHT and T (1, 10, 100 µM), while ZP3a.2 was up-regulated by DHT (100 µM) and T (10, 100 µM). Positive correlations were found between VtgA and ERα mRNA levels and ZPs and ERα, after exposure to both androgens. The mRNA levels of CYP19a1 were not changed, while AR expression tended to increase after micromolar DHT exposures. HScores for Vtg and ZPs corroborated the molecular findings. Both androgens triggered estrogen signaling through direct binding to ERs, most probably ERα.


Assuntos
Androgênios/toxicidade , Di-Hidrotestosterona/toxicidade , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/toxicidade , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4153, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814769

RESUMO

The histone methyltransferase DOT1L methylates lysine 79 (K79) on histone H3 and is involved in Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) fusion leukemogenesis; however, its role in prostate cancer (PCa) is undefined. Here we show that DOT1L is overexpressed in PCa and is associated with poor outcome. Genetic and chemical inhibition of DOT1L selectively impaired the viability of androgen receptor (AR)-positive PCa cells and organoids, including castration-resistant and enzalutamide-resistant cells. The sensitivity of AR-positive cells is due to a distal K79 methylation-marked enhancer in the MYC gene bound by AR and DOT1L not present in AR-negative cells. DOT1L inhibition leads to reduced MYC expression and upregulation of MYC-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligases HECTD4 and MYCBP2, which promote AR and MYC degradation. This leads to further repression of MYC in a negative feed forward manner. Thus DOT1L selectively regulates the tumorigenicity of AR-positive prostate cancer cells and is a promising therapeutic target for PCa.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Terapêutica com RNAi/métodos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008506, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645119

RESUMO

Circulating androgens can modulate immune cell activity, but the impact of androgens on viral pathogenesis remains unclear. Previous data demonstrate that testosterone reduces the severity of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in male mice by mitigating pulmonary inflammation rather than by affecting viral replication. To examine the immune responses mediated by testosterone to mitigate IAV-induced inflammation, adult male mice remained gonadally intact or were gonadectomized and treated with either placebo or androgen-filled (i.e., testosterone or dihydrotestosterone) capsules prior to sublethal IAV infection. Like intact males, treatment of gonadectomized males with androgens improved the outcome of IAV infection, which was not mediated by changes in the control of virus replication or pulmonary cytokine activity. Instead, androgens accelerated pulmonary leukocyte contraction to limit inflammation. To identify which immune cells were contracting in response to androgens, the composition of pulmonary cellular infiltrates was analyzed and revealed that androgens specifically accelerated the contraction of total pulmonary inflammatory monocytes during peak disease, as well as CD8+ T cells, IAV-specific CD8+ T numbers, cytokine production and degranulation by IAV-specific CD8+ T cells, and the influx of eosinophils into the lungs following clearance of IAV. Neither depletion of eosinophils nor adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells could reverse the ability of testosterone to protect males against IAV suggesting these were secondary immunologic effects. The effects of testosterone on the contraction of immune cell numbers and activity were blocked by co-administration of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide and mimicked by treatment with dihydrotestosterone, which was also able to reduce the severity of IAV in female mice. These data suggest that androgen receptor signaling creates a local pulmonary environment that promotes downregulation of detrimental inflammatory immune responses to protect against prolonged influenza disease.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Testosterona/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Receptores Androgênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
5.
Prostate ; 80(12): 950-961, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is characterized by aberrant lipid metabolism, including elevated fatty acid oxidation. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of fatty acid oxidation. This study aimed to determine if CPT1B has a critical role in prostate cancer progression and to identify its regulatory mechanism. METHODS: CPT1B expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases was compared with patient survival data. A tissue microarray was constructed with 60 samples of prostate cancer and immunohistochemically stained for CPT1B. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines 22RV1 and C4-2 in which CPT1B expression had been stably knocked down were established; and cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and invasion were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays, flow cytometry, and Transwell assays, respectively. To examine the impact of androgen receptor (AR) inhibition on CPT1B expression, JASPAR CORE was searched to identify AR-binding sites in CPT1B. Dual luciferase and ChIP assays were performed to confirm CPT1B activity and AR binding, respectively. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in prostate cancer underwent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Enzalutamide-resistant C4-2 cells were generated and the mechanism of enzalutamide resistance and downstream signaling pathway changes of CPT1B to C4-2 was explored through CCK-8 test. RESULTS: CPT1B expression was upregulated in human prostate cancer compared with normal prostate tissue and was associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival. Silencing of CPT1B resulted in downregulated cell proliferation, reduced S-phase distribution, and lower invasive ability, whereas the opposite was observed in CRPC cells overexpressing CPTB1. DEGS in prostate cancer were correlated with G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, molecular transducer activity, and calcium ion binding. AR may regulate CPT1B expression and activity via specific binding sites, as confirmed by dual luciferase and ChIP assays. The CCK-8 experiment demonstrated that CPT1B overexpression in C4-2 cells did not significantly increase the ability of enzalutamide resistance. However, overexpression of CPT1B in C4-2R cells significantly increased the enzalutamide resistance. Upregulation of CPT1B expression increased AKT expression and phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: CPT1B is upregulated in prostate cancer and is correlated with poor prognosis, indicating its potential as a biomarker. AR inhibits the transcription of CPT1B. In the CRPC cell line, overexpression of CPT1B alone cannot promote enzalutamide resistance, but in the drug-resistant line C4-2R, overexpression of CPT1B can promote the resistance of C4-2R to enzalutamide.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Prostate ; 80(12): 1012-1023, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas of the prostate classically lose androgen receptor (AR) expression, may harbor loss of the RB1, TP53, and PTEN tumor suppressor genes, and are associated with a poor prognosis. However usual-type adenocarcinomas may also contain areas of NE differentiation, and in this context the molecular features and biological significance are less certain. METHODS: We examined the molecular phenotype and oncologic outcomes of primary prostate adenocarcinomas with ≥5% NE differentiation (≥5% chromogranin A-positive NE cells in any given tumor spot on tissue microarray) using three independent study sets: a set of tumors with paneth cell-like NE differentiation (n = 26), a retrospective case-cohort of intermediate- and high-risk patients enriched for adverse outcomes (n = 267), and primary tumors from a retrospective series of men with eventual castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (n = 55). RESULTS: Benign NE cells expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels compared with paired benign luminal cells (P < .001). Similarly, paneth-like NE carcinoma cells or carcinoma cells expressing chromogranin A expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels than paired non-NE carcinoma cells (P < .001). Quantified ERG protein expression, was also lower in chromogranin A-labeled adenocarcinoma cells compared with unlabeled cells (P < .001) and tumors with NE differentiation showed lower gene expression scores for AR activity compared with those without. Despite evidence of lower AR signaling, adenocarcinomas with NE differentiation did not differ by prevalence of TP53 missense mutations, or PTEN or RB1 loss, compared with those without NE differentiation. Finally, NE differentiation was not associated with time to metastasis in intermediate- and high-risk patients (P = .6 on multivariate analysis), nor with progression-free survival in patients with CRPC treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (P = .9). CONCLUSION: NE differentiation in usual-type primary prostate adenocarcinoma is a molecularly and clinically distinct form of lineage plasticity from that occurring in small cell NE carcinoma.


Assuntos
Células Neuroendócrinas/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neuroendócrinas/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109188, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679048

RESUMO

We have reported that gestational exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI) represses androgen receptor (Ar) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) in Sertoli cells (SCs) of adult rats, while the mechanism underlying remains obscure. We tested the hypothesis "transient gestational exposure to CrVI during the critical embryonic windows of testicular differentiation and growth may have adverse impact on transcription factors controlling the expression of Ar and Fshr in SCs of the F1 progeny". CrVI (K2Cr2O7) was given through drinking water (50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm), to pregnant rats from gestational day 9-14 (testicular differentiation) and 15 to 21 (prenatal differentiation and proliferation of SC); male progenies were sacrificed on postnatal day 30 (Completion of postnatal SC maturation). A significant increase in free radicals and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed in SCs of experimental rats. Real time PCR and western blot data showed decreased expression of Ar, Fshr, Inhibin B, Transferrin, Androgen binding protein, Claudin 11 and Occludin in SCs of experimental rats; concentrations of lactate, pyruvate and retinoic acid also decreased. Serum FSH, luteinizing hormone and estradiol increased, whereas testosterone and prolactin decreased in experimental rats. Western blot detection revealed decreased levels of transcription factors regulating Fshr viz., USF-1, USF-2, SF-1, c-fos, c-jun and GATA 1, and those of Ar viz., Sp-1, ARA54, SRC-1 and CBP in experimental rats, whereas the levels of cyclinD1 and p53, repressors of Ar increased. ChIP assay detected decreased USF-1 and USF-2 binding to Fshr promoter, and binding of Sp-1 to Ar promoter. We conclude that gestational exposure to CrVI affects SC structure and function in F1 progeny by inducing oxidative stress and diminishing the expression of Ar and Fshr through attenuation of their specific transcriptional regulators and their interaction with the respective promoter.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores do FSH/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores do FSH/genética , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
8.
Oncol Res Treat ; 43(7-8): 346-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645702

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mammary Paget's disease (MPD) is a rare cutaneous manifestation. Epidemiologically, more than half of the MPD patients concurrently have underlying invasive ductal carcinoma (MPD-IDC), and their prognosis remains poor despite multimodal treatments of breast cancer have markedly improved patients' survival. Accordingly, it is crucial to seek out novel therapeutic targets of MPD-IDC. As an emerging biological marker, the value of androgen receptor (AR) in MPD-IDC is inconsistent. Our objectives were to investigate the associations between AR and clinicopathological factors, and to explore its prognostic value in MPD-IDC. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 103 MPD-IDC patients, and immunohistochemical staining was used to determine their AR statuses. RESULTS: AR was expressed in 44 patients (42.7%), and AR expression was significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.038) and axillary lymph node (ALN) status (p = 0.025). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that AR positivity was significantly associated with better overall survival (OS) in MPD-IDC patients (p = 0.019) and estrogen receptor-negative MPD-IDC patients (p = 0.039). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that AR was not an independent prognostic indicator of disease-free survival (DFS) or OS in MPD-IDC patients (p = 0.395 and p = 0.073, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to AR-negative tumors, patients with AR-positive ones were more likely to have lower BMI, no ALN metastasis, and better OS. AR-targeted treatments for MPD-IDC may add to existing therapeutic approaches to improve their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Doença de Paget Mamária/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Doença de Paget Mamária/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668346

RESUMO

Fish are exposed to steroids of different classes in contaminated waters, but their effects are not sufficiently understood. Here we employed an anti-sense technique using morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs, GRα and GRß) and androgen receptor (AR) to investigate their role in physiological and transcriptional responses. To this end, zebrafish embryos were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CLO), androstenedione (A4) and mixtures containing different classes of steroids. CLO caused a decrease of spontaneous muscle contraction and increase of heart rate, as well as transcriptional induction of pepck1, fkbp5, sult2st3 and vitellogenin (vtg1) at 24 and/or 48 h post fertilization (hpf). Knockdown of GRs eliminated these effects, while knockdown of AR decreased the ar transcript but caused no expressional changes, except induction of sult2st3 after exposure to A4 at 24 hpf. Exposure to a mixture of 6 steroids comprising progesterone (P4) and three progestins, cyproterone acetate, dienogest, drospirenone, 17ß-estradiol (E2) and CLO caused a significant induction of pepck1, sult2st3, vtg1 and per1a. Knockdown of GRs eliminated the physiological effects and the up-regulation of vtg1, sult2st3, pepck1, fkbp5 and per1a. Thus, as with CLO, responses in mixtures were regulated by GRs independently from the presence of other steroids. Exposure to a mixture comprising A4, CLO, E2 and P4 caused induction of vtg1, cyp19b, sult2st3 and fkbp5. Knockdown of AR had no effect, indicating that regulation of these genes occurred by the GRs and estrogen receptor (ER). Our findings show that in early embryos GRs cause vtg1 and sult2st3 induction in addition to known glucocorticoid target genes. Each steroid receptor regulated its own target genes in steroid mixtures independently from other steroids. However, enhanced expressional induction occurred for vtg1 and fkbp5 in steroid mixtures, indicating an interaction/cross-talk between GRs and ER. These findings have importance for the understanding of molecular effects of steroid mixtures.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Esteroides/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Mol Cell ; 79(5): 812-823.e4, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668201

RESUMO

Steroid receptors activate gene transcription by recruiting coactivators to initiate transcription of their target genes. For most nuclear receptors, the ligand-dependent activation function domain-2 (AF-2) is a primary contributor to the nuclear receptor (NR) transcriptional activity. In contrast to other steroid receptors, such as ERα, the activation function of androgen receptor (AR) is largely dependent on its ligand-independent AF-1 located in its N-terminal domain (NTD). It remains unclear why AR utilizes a different AF domain from other receptors despite that NRs share similar domain organizations. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of DNA-bound full-length AR and its complex structure with key coactivators, SRC-3 and p300. AR dimerization follows a unique head-to-head and tail-to-tail manner. Unlike ERα, AR directly contacts a single SRC-3 and p300. The AR NTD is the primary site for coactivator recruitment. The structures provide a basis for understanding assembly of the AR:coactivator complex and its domain contributions for coactivator assembly and transcriptional regulation.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/metabolismo , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação Proteica , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
12.
Prostate ; 80(12): 926-937, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruption of the phenotypic landscape via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables prostate cancer cells to metastasize and acquire therapeutic resistance. Our previous studies demonstrated that cabazitaxel (CBZ) (second-generation Food and Drug Administration-approved taxane chemotherapy), used for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), causes reversal of EMT to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and reduces expression of kinesin motor protein KIFC1 (HSET). The present study examined the effect of sequencing CBZ chemotherapy mediated MET on prostate tumor redifferentiation overcoming therapeutic resistance in models of advanced prostate cancer. METHODS: To examine the impact of androgens on the antitumor effect of CBZ, we used human prostate cancer cell lines with different sensitivity to androgens and CBZ, in vitro, and two human prostate cancer xenograft models in vivo. Tumor-bearing male mice (with either the androgen-sensitive LNCaP or the CRPC 22Rv1 xenografts) were treated with CBZ (3 mg/kg) alone, or in combination with castration-induced androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for 14 days. RESULTS: Cell viability assays indicate that the presence of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (1 nM) confers resistance to CBZ in vitro. CBZ treatment in vivo induced MET in LNCaP-derived tumors as shown by increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin levels. Sequencing CBZ after ADT improves tumor response in androgen-sensitive LNCaP, but not in CRPC 22Rv1 xenografts. Mechanistic dissection revealed a novel association between the androgen receptor and HSET in prostate cancer cells that is inhibited by CBZ in an androgen-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new insights into the phenotypic reprogramming of prostate cancer cells to resensitize tumors to CBZ action. This evidence is of translational significance in treatment sequencing (CBZ and ADT) towards improved therapeutic benefit in patients with lethal CRPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Orquiectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Prostate ; 80(12): 993-1005, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay of treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Unfortunately, although ADT initially prolongs survival, most patients relapse and develop resistance. Clinical failure of these treatments in CRPC highlights the urgent need to develop novel strategies to more effectively block androgen receptor (AR) signaling and target other oncogenic factors responsible for ADT resistance. METHODS: We developed a small-molecule compound LG1836 and investigated the in vitro and in vivo activity of LG1836 against CRPC in cellular and animal models. RESULTS: LG1836 exhibits potent in vitro cytotoxicity in CRPC cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that LG1836 inhibits the expression of AR and AR variant 7, partially mediated via proteasome-dependent protein degradation. LG1836 also suppresses survivin expression and effectively induces apoptosis in CRPC cells. Significantly, as a single agent, LG1836 is therapeutically efficacious in suppressing the in vivo growth of CRPC in the subcutaneous and intraosseous models and extends the survival of tumor-bearing mice. CONCLUSIONS: These preclinical studies indicate that LG1836 is a promising lead compound for the treatment of CRPC.


Assuntos
Piperidinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Survivina/antagonistas & inibidores , Survivina/biossíntese , Ubiquitinação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2689, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483206

RESUMO

The antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) has improved survival in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, most patients eventually develop Enz resistance that may involve inducing the androgen receptor (AR) splicing variant 7 (ARv7). Here we report that high expression of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is associated with positive ARv7 detection in CRPC patients following Enz treatment. Targeting MAO-A with phenelzine or clorgyline, the FDA-approved drugs for antidepression, resensitize the Enz resistant (EnzR) cells to Enz treatment and further suppress EnzR cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that Enz-increased ARv7 expression can transcriptionally enhance MAO-A expression resulting in Enz resistance via altering the hypoxia HIF-1α signals. Together, our results show that targeting the Enz/ARv7/MAO-A signaling with the antidepressants phenelzine or clorgyline can restore Enz sensitivity to suppress EnzR cell growth, which may indicate that these antidepression drugs can overcome the Enz resistance to further suppress the EnzR CRPC.


Assuntos
Clorgilina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Fenelzina/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(12): 1493-1504, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite its rarity, male breast cancer shows a steadily rising incidence. Given the absence of ad hoc prospective randomized clinical trials, treatment strategies are based on extrapolation from female breast cancer recommendations or solely on population-based data. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the current treatment landscape for male breast cancer in the adjuvant and in the metastatic setting. The authors also discuss the biology and genomic landscape of male breast cancer. Original research and review articles, relative to the period 2010-2019, were included in the review of the literature. EXPERT OPINION: There is a major medical need to include male patients with breast cancer in prospective clinical trials. The call to equality in breast cancer care can be pursued via two divergent paths: (i) a gender-neutral delivery of breast cancer information and (ii) the creation of separate sections, for the more common female breast cancer and for the rare male ones. We propose to differentiate male breast cancer care, acknowledging unique onco-sexual and social needs that can be only partially shared.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Can J Urol ; 27(3): 10205-10212, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), pandemic has afflicted > 3.3 million people around the world since December 2019. Though, more than 1000 publications have appeared in scientific journals addressing a plethora of questions, there is a considerable hiatus in understanding of the behavior and natural history of the virus and its impact on urology. Also, a modified approach is the need of hour in taking care of patients as urologists should safeguard their teams, families, and patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors have used guidelines from USA, Canada, UK, Europe and India for making recommendations to help urologist define their own policies that may have to be fine-tuned on the basis of continued and evolving challenges they would encounter and the local resources at their disposal. RESULTS: COVID-19 do effect genitourinary system from kidney to testis. The authors provide scientific basis to urologists to help identify patients by remote consultation who are likely to be harmed by coming to the hospital, and not to miss those who need hospitalization for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. There is uncompromised need of specific precautions during surgery to safe guard the surgeon and his team along with the patient. CONCLUSIONS: Urological operations during COVID-19 pandemic should be limited to emergency cases during the acute phase with an exit strategy planned in a staggered manner, based on the scientific risk stratification. Telemedicine (e-clinics or virtual clinics) would help achieve the goal of risk stratification.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doenças Urológicas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Saúde Reprodutiva , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Doenças Urológicas/etiologia , Doenças Urológicas/metabolismo , Doenças Urológicas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Urológicas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/normas
17.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127178, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505947

RESUMO

Hydraulic fracturing (HF) technology is increasingly utilized for oil and gas extraction operations. The widespread use of HF has led to concerns of negative impacts on both the environment and human health. Indeed, the potential endocrine disrupting impacts of HF chemicals is one such knowledge gap. Herein, we used structure-based molecular docking to assess the binding affinities of 60 HF chemicals to the human androgen receptor (AR). Five HF chemicals had relatively high predicted AR binding affinity, suggesting the potential for endocrine disruption. We next assessed androgenic and antiandrogenic activities of these chemicals in vitro. Of the five candidate AR ligands, only Genapol®X-100 significantly modified AR transactivation. To better understand the structural effect of Genapol®X-100 on the potency of AR inhibition, we compared the antiandrogenic activity of Genapol®X-100 with that of its structurally similar chemical, Genapol®X-080. Interestingly, both Genapol®X-100 and Genapol®X-080 elicited an antagonistic effect at AR with 20% relative inhibitory concentrations of 0.43 and 0.89 µM, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism of AR inhibition of these two chemicals in vitro, and found that both Genapol®X-100 and Genapol®X-080 inhibited AR through a noncompetitive mechanism. The effect of these two chemicals on the expression of AR responsive genes, e.g. PSA, KLK2, and AR, was also investigated. Genapol®X-100 and Genapol®X-080 altered the expression of these genes. Our findings heighten awareness of endocrine disruption by HF chemicals and provide evidence that noncompetitive antiandrogenic Genapol®X-100 could cause adverse endocrine health effects.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Antagonistas de Androgênios/química , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Androgênios , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Humanos , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327277

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is marked by a wide range of clinical disease courses, ranging from asymptomatic to deadly. There have been many studies seeking to explore the correlations between COVID-19 clinical outcomes and various clinical variables, including age, sex, race, underlying medical problems, and social habits. In particular, the relationship between smoking and COVID-19 outcome is controversial, with multiple conflicting reports in the current literature. In this study, we aim to analyze how smoking may affect the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. We analyzed sequencing data from lung and oral epithelial samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We found that the receptor and transmembrane protease necessary for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively, were upregulated in smoking samples from both lung and oral epithelial tissue. We then explored the mechanistic hypothesis that smoking may upregulate ACE2 expression through the upregulation of the androgen pathway. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 upregulation were both correlated to androgen pathway enrichment and the specific upregulation of central pathway regulatory genes. These data provide a potential model for the increased susceptibility of smoking patients to COVID-19 and encourage further exploration into the androgen and tobacco upregulation of ACE2 to understand the potential clinical ramifications.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Fumar/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética
19.
Prostate ; 80(11): 799-810, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a multifaceted protein with a prognostic value in hormone-naïve prostate cancer (PC). It has previously been associated with the development of castration resistance. However, RGS2 expression in clinical specimens of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and its clinical relevance has not been explored. In the present study, RGS2 was assessed in CRPC and in relation to the development of castration resistance. METHODS: In the present study, RGS2 expression was evaluated with immunohistochemistry in patient materials of hormone-naïve and castration-resistant primary tumors, also in matched specimens before and after 3 months of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the clinical significance of RGS2 expression. RGS2 expression in association to castration-resistant growth was assessed experimentally in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of CRPC. In vitro, hormone depletion of LNCaP and enzalutamide treatment of LNCaP, 22Rv1, and VCaP was performed to evaluate the association between RGS2 and the androgen receptor (AR). Stable RGS2 knockdown was used to evaluate the impact of RGS2 in association to PC cell growth under hormone-reduced conditions. Gene and protein expression were evaluated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. RESULTS: RGS2 expression is increased in CRPC and enriched under ADT. Furthermore, a high RGS2 level is prognostic for poor cancer-specific survival for CRPC patients and significantly reduced failure-free survival (FFS) after an initiated ADT. Additionally, the prognostic value of RGS2 outperforms prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in terms of FFS. The present study furthermore suggests that RGS2 expression is reflective of AR activity. Moreover, low RGS2-expressing cells display hampered growth under hormone-reduced conditions, in line with the poor prognosis associated with high RGS2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of RGS2 are associated with aggressive forms of castration-resistant PC. The results demonstrate that a high level of RGS2 is associated with poor prognosis in association with castration-resistant PC growth. RGS2 alone, or in association with PSA, has the potential to identify patients that require additional treatment at an early stage during ADT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/biossíntese , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteínas RGS/genética , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1103-1111, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435981

RESUMO

The androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a congenital disease characterized by androgen resistance due to androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations, resulting in disorders of sex differentiation in 46,XY individuals. However, the underlying mechanisms in the majority of AR variants and the phenotype-genotype correlations are unclear. Here, we identified a p.Y764H variant of the AR gene that results in different phenotypes in a family. Structural analyses revealed that amino acid substitution affected protein properties and spatial conformation, and in vitro, functional studies showed impaired nuclear translocation ability of the mutated protein. Moreover, the extent to which this variant reduced nuclear translocation depends on the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations. Our results, for the first time, demonstrated a pathogenesis of the p.Y764H mutations in AR resulting in AIS phenotype, and indicated that AIS patients with p.Y764H mutation and preserved gonad might have residual AR activity at high androgen levels, putting patients at risk for pubertal virilization in the future. We provide an in-depth insight into the pathogenesis in AIS based on the amino acid substitution, which may help aid its precise diagnosis, personalized treatment, and organized follow-up to avoid gender dysphoria.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/metabolismo , Animais , Células COS , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Hemizigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transporte Proteico , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Irmãos
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