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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4829-4841, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878771

RESUMO

Most breast cancers express the estrogen receptor (ER) receptor and are negative for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor. ER+/HER2- cancers are treated with hormone-based therapies in the adjuvant setting and derive significant survival benefit from these therapies in the metastatic setting. However, hormone resistance develops in most metastatic patients. An increased understanding of the biology of ER+/HER2- breast cancers has led to the development of new therapies for this disease including CDK4/6 inhibitors and PI3K inhibitors. Several other neoplastic processes are targeted by novel drugs in clinical development, addressing cancer vulnerabilities. These include newer ways to block the ER and targeting the HER2 receptors in ER+/HER2- cancers expressing HER2 in low levels not qualifying for clinical positivity. In addition, promising therapeutic options include targeting other surface receptors or their downstream pathways, as well as targeting the apoptotic machinery and boosting the immune response which is initially insufficient in these cancers. A selection of new drugs in advanced development for ER+/HER2- breast cancer will be discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Estrogênicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e20996, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871976

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pure mucinous carcinoma is a rare type of breast carcinoma, but it usually has a favorable prognosis. Tumors of pure mucinous carcinoma are typically positive for both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), and they do not commonly overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). However, when tumors have HER2 overexpression and are progesterone receptor negative, the prognosis is worse. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old female reported a slow growth mass of 3 years, which was radiologically diagnosed as fibroadenoma at another institution. The patient came to our institution for treatment and follow-up. She had no salient past history. DIAGNOSIS: Excisional biopsy revealed a pure mucinous breast carcinoma that was ER (100%, moderate-strong intensity), PR(-), 5% Ki-67 (+), and HER2(3+) by immunohistochemistry. The HER2 gene was found to be amplified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The clinical staging was T2N0M0, with pathological grade I, subtype luminal B. INTERVENTIONS: After a modified radical mastectomy, she received four 21-day cycles of intravenous docetaxel (75 mg/m), intravenous cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m), and intravenous trastuzumab (8 mg/kg) (loading dose) on day 1 followed by 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks to complete a full year of treatment. She then received 2.5 mg of letrozole daily for 5 years. OUTCOMES: After following up for 2 years, the patient's outcome was survival without recurrence. Cardiac ultrasounds were performed every 3 months and there was no change in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LEVF). CONCLUSION: It is essential to correctly diagnose the ER(+), PR(-) HER2(+) subtype in mucinous carcinoma. This type should be treated with chemotherapy and anti-HER2 therapy, as well as aromatase inhibitor endocrine therapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5557-5566, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: E- and P-cadherin (E-cadh, P-cadh) control tumor cell invasion, metastatic or stemness potential and chemotherapy resistance. The study aimed to assess E- and P-cadherin expression in breast cancer molecular subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for E-cadh and P-cadh was performed for 97 breast cancer cases. Membrane (M), cytoplasmic (C) or mixed (MC) patterns of E-cadh and P-cadh were considered in our evaluation. RESULTS: E-cadh and P-cadh C pattern was significantly correlated in the HER2 subtype (p=0.031). P-cadh M pattern was highly specific for the HER2 subtype (p=0.002). Only P-cadh C characterized the triple negative breast cancer subtype (p=0.015). For Luminal B/HER2 cases, P-cadh M pattern was strongly coexpressed with the E-cadh MC pattern (p=0.012). Progesterone receptor (PR) expression influenced E-cadh M pattern in the Luminal B/HER2 subtype (p=0.042). CONCLUSION: E- and P-cadherins define distinct subgroups within breast cancer molecular subtypes. Our findings support the inclusion of E- and P-cadherin into breast cancer molecular classification.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Caderinas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/classificação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5649-5657, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) has been indicated as a marker showing good prognosis in breast cancer. In luminal breast cancer, which has good a prognosis, it shows more significant elevation in small-sized and low-grade tumors. In contrast, Ki-67 is defined as a poor prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to emphasise the prognostic importance of GATA3 and the inverse relationship with Ki-67. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, 90 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer were immunohistochemically evaluated for Ki-67 and GATA3 expression. The relationship between GATA3 and Ki-67 expression was examined. In addition, the relationship between these two factors with estrogen, progesterone, human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor antibodies and other prognostic parameters such as disease-free survival and local recurrence was investigated. We accepted the level of ≥5% nüclear reaction as positive for GATA 3. A Ki-67 cut-off value of 20% was accepted as positive. RESULTS: In GATA3 positive breast cancers, good prognostic parameters were seen including high estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, progesterone receptor (PR) positivity, small tumor size and low histological grade as well as low Ki-67 expression. In breast cancers showing high Ki-67 expression, ER, PR, and GATA3 positivity were lower and there was higher human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity and high histological grade while the tumor size was larger. CONCLUSION: Our study has revealed that GATA3 has an inverse relationship with Ki-67, whereas it has a positive releationship with good prognostic factors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Estrogênios/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Progesterona/genética , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
5.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1296-1308, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) testing might provide a current assessment of the genomic profile of advanced cancer, without the need to repeat tumour biopsy. We aimed to assess the accuracy of ctDNA testing in advanced breast cancer and the ability of ctDNA testing to select patients for mutation-directed therapy. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicohort, phase 2a, platform trial of ctDNA testing in 18 UK hospitals. Participants were women (aged ≥18 years) with histologically confirmed advanced breast cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2. Patients had completed at least one previous line of treatment for advanced breast cancer or relapsed within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were recruited into four parallel treatment cohorts matched to mutations identified in ctDNA: cohort A comprised patients with ESR1 mutations (treated with intramuscular extended-dose fulvestrant 500 mg); cohort B comprised patients with HER2 mutations (treated with oral neratinib 240 mg, and if oestrogen receptor-positive with intramuscular standard-dose fulvestrant); cohort C comprised patients with AKT1 mutations and oestrogen receptor-positive cancer (treated with oral capivasertib 400 mg plus intramuscular standard-dose fulvestrant); and cohort D comprised patients with AKT1 mutations and oestrogen receptor-negative cancer or PTEN mutation (treated with oral capivasertib 480 mg). Each cohort had a primary endpoint of confirmed objective response rate. For cohort A, 13 or more responses among 78 evaluable patients were required to infer activity and three or more among 16 were required for cohorts B, C, and D. Recruitment to all cohorts is complete and long-term follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03182634; the European Clinical Trials database, EudraCT2015-003735-36; and the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN16945804. FINDINGS: Between Dec 21, 2016, and April 26, 2019, 1051 patients registered for the study, with ctDNA results available for 1034 patients. Agreement between ctDNA digital PCR and targeted sequencing was 96-99% (n=800, kappa 0·89-0·93). Sensitivity of digital PCR ctDNA testing for mutations identified in tissue sequencing was 93% (95% CI 83-98) overall and 98% (87-100) with contemporaneous biopsies. In all cohorts, combined median follow-up was 14·4 months (IQR 7·0-23·7). Cohorts B and C met or exceeded the target number of responses, with five (25% [95% CI 9-49]) of 20 patients in cohort B and four (22% [6-48]) of 18 patients in cohort C having a response. Cohorts A and D did not reach the target number of responses, with six (8% [95% CI 3-17]) of 74 in cohort A and two (11% [1-33]) of 19 patients in cohort D having a response. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were raised gamma-glutamyltransferase (13 [16%] of 80 patients; cohort A); diarrhoea (four [25%] of 20; cohort B); fatigue (four [22%] of 18; cohort C); and rash (five [26%] of 19; cohort D). 17 serious adverse reactions occurred in 11 patients, and there was one treatment-related death caused by grade 4 dyspnoea (in cohort C). INTERPRETATION: ctDNA testing offers accurate, rapid genotyping that enables the selection of mutation-directed therapies for patients with breast cancer, with sufficient clinical validity for adoption into routine clinical practice. Our results demonstrate clinically relevant activity of targeted therapies against rare HER2 and AKT1 mutations, confirming these mutations could be targetable for breast cancer treatment. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, AstraZeneca, and Puma Biotechnology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(7): 1505-1509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim:of the study is to determine the frequency of polymorphism of estrogen receptor gene ESR1 (T-397C variant) in patients with premenstrual syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 50 women with diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome (the basic group) and 25 persons without it (the control group) were examined. Polymerase chain reaction was used to study T-397C polymorphism of estrogen receptor gene ESR1. RESULTS: Results:There was no significant difference in allele and genotype rates of ESR1 gene between persons with premenstrual syndrome and controls. TT genotype was determined in 24.0 % women in the control group and 24 % of patients in basic group (OR=1.00, 95 % CI=0.32-3.08, p=1.00), TC genotype - in 52.0 % and 46.0 % of individuals respectively (OR=0.79, 95 % CI=0.30-2.06, p=0.62), CC genotype - 24.0 % and 30.0 % of women respectively (OR=1.36, 95 % CI=0.45-4.07, p=0.59). Also, the frequency of T allele and C allele was similar in individuals with pathology and healthy women. There was no significant difference in allele and genotype rates of T-397C variant of ESR1 gene between patients with mild and severe forms of premenstrual syndrome and controls. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: There is no association of T-397C polymorphic variant of estrogen receptor gene ESR1 with the development of premenstrual syndrome.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estrogênios , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110944, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800225

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a weak estrogenic endocrine disruptor and a well-known plasticizer, has the potential to perturb diverse physiological functions; however, its impact on immune and metabolic function in aquatic vertebrates is relatively less understood. The present study aims to investigate the impact of BPA on hepatotoxicity, metabolic and immune parameters vis-à-vis estrogen receptor expression modulation in a freshwater teleost, Labeo bata (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes). The 96-h median lethal concentration of BPA in L. bata has been determined as 4.79 mg/L. Our data demonstrate that congruent with induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG), chronic exposure to sub-lethal BPA (2 and 4 µM/L) attenuates erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but not leukocyte number. Further, a significant increase in MDA, concomitant with diminished catalase and heightened GST activity corroborates well with hepatic dystrophic changes, appearance of fatty liver (macrovesicular steatosis) and elevated serum lipids (triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL) in BPA-treated groups. Interestingly, a differential regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes at transcript and protein level signifies negative influence of BPA on hepatic ERα/ERß homeostasis in this species. While at a lower dose it promotes Akt phosphorylation (activation), BPA at the higher dose attenuates ERK1/2 phosphorylation (activation), suggesting potential alteration in insulin sensitivity. Importantly, dose-dependent decrease in hepatic TNF-α, IL-1ß, iNOS (NOS2) expression and nitric oxide (NO) level corresponds well with progressive decline in p-NF-κB, p-p38 MAPK, albeit with differential sensitivity, in BPA-exposed groups. Collectively, BPA exposure has wide-spread negative influence on hematological, biochemical and hepatic events in this species.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Animais , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Água Doce/química , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Inflamação , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4567-4570, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Historically, breast cancer has been treated according to an evaluation of biomarkers, such as the estrogen receptor and HER2 status. Recently, molecular profiling has been used to detect driver mutations and select anti-cancer treatment strategies. In addition to detecting pathogenic mutations, the total mutation count (tumor mutation burden) has been considered as another biomarker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed molecular profiling of 143 breast cancer tissues obtained from resected tissues via surgical operation. RESULTS: Suspected germline mutations were detected in 10% of the patients with a higher somatic mutation ratio. CONCLUSION: As hypermutated breast cancers are more likely to benefit from certain anti-cancer treatment strategies, molecular profiling can be used as a biomarker.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3584, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681091

RESUMO

Responses to immunotherapy are uncommon in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer and to date, lack predictive markers. This randomized phase II study defines safety and response rate of epigenetic priming in ER-positive breast cancer patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors as primary endpoints. Secondary and exploratory endpoints included PD-L1 modulation and T-cell immune-signatures. 34 patients received vorinostat, tamoxifen and pembrolizumab with no excessive toxicity after progression on a median of five prior metastatic regimens. Objective response was 4% and clinical benefit rate (CR + PR + SD > 6 m) was 19%. T-cell exhaustion (CD8+ PD-1+/CTLA-4+) and treatment-induced depletion of regulatory T-cells (CD4+ Foxp3+/CTLA-4+) was seen in tumor or blood in 5/5 patients with clinical benefit, but only in one non-responder. Tumor lymphocyte infiltration was 0.17%. Only two non-responders had PD-L1 expression >1%. This data defines a novel immune signature in PD-L1-negative ER-positive breast cancer patients who are more likely to benefit from immune-checkpoint and histone deacetylase inhibition (NCT02395627).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Vorinostat/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20396, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541460

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients with, or who develop, metastatic breast cancer have a 5-year relative survival of about 25%. Endocrine therapy clearly improves outcomes in patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In the metastatic setting, the primary goal of treatment is to maintain long-term disease control with good quality of life. Rarely, exceptional responders achieve durable disease control, and potential cures cannot be ruled out. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with primary breast cancer and associated synchronous bone metastases, who experienced a disease response of 12 years with hormonal therapy as maintenance after first line chemotherapy, with a good toxicity profile. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with estrogen receptor + human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- metastatic breast cancer with synchronous bone metastases. INTERVENTIONS: This patient was treated with chemotherapy for 6 cycles as a first-line therapy following by endocrine treatment given as a maintenance therapy. OUTCOMES: Our patient experienced a progression-free survival >12 years with an exceptionally good quality of life. LESSONS: Our anecdotal experience highlights the existence of exceptional responders among patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, who achieve clinical remission and durable disease control with endocrine therapy. Being able to identify these patients could help in the selection of the best treatment option among the many available.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Qualidade de Vida , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(12): 1493-1504, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite its rarity, male breast cancer shows a steadily rising incidence. Given the absence of ad hoc prospective randomized clinical trials, treatment strategies are based on extrapolation from female breast cancer recommendations or solely on population-based data. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the current treatment landscape for male breast cancer in the adjuvant and in the metastatic setting. The authors also discuss the biology and genomic landscape of male breast cancer. Original research and review articles, relative to the period 2010-2019, were included in the review of the literature. EXPERT OPINION: There is a major medical need to include male patients with breast cancer in prospective clinical trials. The call to equality in breast cancer care can be pursued via two divergent paths: (i) a gender-neutral delivery of breast cancer information and (ii) the creation of separate sections, for the more common female breast cancer and for the rare male ones. We propose to differentiate male breast cancer care, acknowledging unique onco-sexual and social needs that can be only partially shared.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574189

RESUMO

The transcriptional regulatory machinery in mitochondrial bioenergetics is complex and is still not completely understood. We previously demonstrated that the histone methyltransferase Smyd1 regulates mitochondrial energetics. Here, we identified Perm1 (PPARGC-1 and ESRR-induced regulator, muscle specific 1) as a downstream target of Smyd1 through RNA-seq. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Smyd1 directly interacts with the promoter of Perm1 in the mouse heart, and this interaction was significantly reduced in mouse hearts failing due to pressure overload for 4 weeks, where Perm1 was downregulated (24.4 ± 5.9% of sham, p<0.05). Similarly, the Perm1 protein level was significantly decreased in patients with advanced heart failure (55.2 ± 13.1% of donors, p<0.05). Phenylephrine (PE)-induced hypertrophic stress in cardiomyocytes also led to downregulation of Perm1 (55.7 ± 5.7% of control, p<0.05), and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Perm1 rescued PE-induced downregulation of estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), a key transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial energetics, and its target gene, Ndufv1 (Complex I). Pathway enrichment analysis of cardiomyocytes in which Perm1 was knocked-down by siRNA (siPerm1), revealed that the most downregulated pathway was metabolism. Cell stress tests using the Seahorse XF analyzer showed that basal respiration and ATP production were significantly reduced in siPerm1 cardiomyocytes (40.7% and 23.6% of scrambled-siRNA, respectively, both p<0.05). Luciferase reporter gene assay further revealed that Perm1 dose-dependently increased the promoter activity of the ERRα gene and known target of ERRα, Ndufv1 (Complex I). Overall, our study demonstrates that Perm1 is an essential regulator of cardiac energetics through ERRα, as part of the Smyd1 regulatory network.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ratos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15047-15054, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532922

RESUMO

Tamoxifen, a widely used modulator of the estrogen receptor (ER), targets ER-positive breast cancer preferentially. We used a powerful validation-based insertion mutagenesis method to find that expression of a dominant-negative, truncated form of the histone deacetylase ZIP led to resistance to tamoxifen. Consistently, increased expression of full-length ZIP gives the opposite phenotype, inhibiting the expression of genes whose products mediate resistance. An important example is JAK2 By binding to two specific sequences in the promoter, ZIP suppresses JAK2 expression. Increased expression and activation of JAK2 when ZIP is inhibited lead to increased STAT3 phosphorylation and increased resistance to tamoxifen, both in cell culture experiments and in a mouse xenograft model. Furthermore, data from human tumors are consistent with the conclusion that decreased expression of ZIP leads to resistance to tamoxifen in ER-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
14.
Mol Cell ; 78(5): 876-889.e6, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502422

RESUMO

Many microRNAs (miRNAs) are generated from primary transcripts containing multiple clustered stem-loop structures that are thought to be recognized and cleaved by the Microprocessor complex as independent units. Here, we uncover an unexpected mode of processing of the bicistronic miR-15a-16-1 cluster. We find that the primary miR-15a stem-loop is not processed on its own but that the presence of the neighboring primary miR-16-1 stem-loop on the same transcript can compensate for this deficiency in cis. Using a CRISPR/Cas9 screen, we identify SAFB2 (scaffold attachment factor B2) as an essential co-factor in this miR-16-1-assisted pri-miR-15 cleavage and describe SAFB2 as an accessory protein of the Microprocessor. Notably, SAFB2-mediated cleavage expands to other clustered pri-miRNAs, indicating a general mechanism. Together, our study reveals an unrecognized function of SAFB2 in miRNA processing and suggests a scenario in which SAFB2 enables the binding and processing of suboptimal Microprocessor substrates in clustered primary miRNA transcripts.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/genética , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética
15.
Toxicology ; 439: 152477, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360609

RESUMO

We previously reported that exposure during gestation and lactation to a low dose of glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) reduced the area and perimeter of male offspring mammary gland at postnatal day 60 (PND60), whereas a higher dose increased the longitudinal growth of the gland. Here, our aim was to assess whether perinatal exposure to GBH exhibits endocrine disruptive action in male mammary gland at an early time point (pre-puberty), which could be related to the changes observed after puberty. We also wanted to explore whether an early evaluation of the male rat mammary gland is appropriate to assess exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Pregnant rats were orally exposed, through the diet, to vehicle (saline solution), 3.5 or 350 mg/kg/day of GBH from gestational day 9 until weaning. At PND21, the male offspring were euthanized, and mammary gland samples were collected. The histology and proliferation index of the mammary glands were evaluated, and the mRNA expression of estrogen (ESR1) and androgen (AR) receptors, cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), amphiregulin (Areg), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) were assessed. Moreover, the phosphorylated-Erk1/2 (p-ERK1/2) protein expression was determined. No differences were observed in mammary epithelial structures and AR expression between experimental groups; however, the proliferation index was reduced in GBH3.5-exposed males. This result was associated with decreased ESR1, Ccnd1, Areg, IGF1, EGFR and IGF1R mRNA expressions, as well as reduced p-Erk1/2 protein expression in these animals. ESR1, Ccnd1, IGF1R and EGFR expressions were also reduced in GBH350-exposed males. In conclusion, the mammary gland development of pre-pubertal male rats is affected by perinatal exposure to GBH. Although further studies are still needed to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in GBH350 exposure, the present results may explain the alterations observed in mammary gland growth of post-pubertal males exposed to low doses of GBH. Our results also suggest that early evaluation of the male rat mammary gland is useful in assessing exposure to potential EDCs. However, analysis of EDCs effects at later time points should not be excluded.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/biossíntese , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Estrogênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/biossíntese , Receptores de Esteroides/biossíntese
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2506, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427851

RESUMO

The genetic basis and corresponding clinical relevance of prolactinomas remain poorly understood. Here, we perform whole genome sequencing (WGS) on 21 patients with prolactinomas to detect somatic mutations and then validate the mutations with digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of tissue samples from 227 prolactinomas. We identify the same hotspot somatic mutation in splicing factor 3 subunit B1 (SF3B1R625H) in 19.8% of prolactinomas. These patients with mutant prolactinomas display higher prolactin (PRL) levels (p = 0.02) and shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.02) compared to patients without the mutation. Moreover, we identify that the SF3B1R625H mutation causes aberrant splicing of estrogen related receptor gamma (ESRRG), which results in stronger binding of pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (Pit-1), leading to excessive PRL secretion. Thus our study validates an important mutation and elucidates a potential mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of prolactinomas that may lead to the development of targeted therapeutics.


Assuntos
Fosfoproteínas/genética , Prolactinoma/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Prolactina/genética , Prolactina/metabolismo , Prolactinoma/metabolismo , Prolactinoma/mortalidade , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Pit-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição Pit-1/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Transl Res ; 222: 56-66, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413498

RESUMO

Management of advanced prostate cancer remains complex, with substantial changes in treatment options emerging in recent years having implications for treatment selection and sequencing. Recognition of the importance of androgen signaling has led to life-prolonging treatments, as well as "liquid biopsy" techniques to guide these treatments in some settings. Therapies that target estrogen receptor signaling are efficacious but infrequently used options for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. It is possible that nuances of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, or selective modulation of ER signaling, might favorably influence outcomes in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Expression of ERs and their variants has been investigated in other cancers such as breast. Constitutively activating gene alterations can potentially lead to ER activation and subsequently promote cancer progression. The identification of these aberrations may help identify cancer phenotypes that are susceptible or resistant to therapies involved in ER signaling. This review outlines the current literature regarding ER signaling in prostate cancer, and provides background for exploration of potentially useful ER signaling biomarkers in advanced prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética
18.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 2133-2139, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare malignancy, which is often triple-negative for the hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and thus, does not benefit from targeted therapy. In this study, we examined the expression of methylation and demethylation enzymes by immunostaining MBC and the adjacent normal tissues or triple-negative ductal carcinoma (TNDC), and identified alterations that may be used as therapeutic targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied surgical specimens from 15 patients who underwent surgery for MBC at Kanagawa Cancer Center between 2005 and 2016, and similarly from 14 patients with TNDC. The frequencies of high methylation/demethylation enzyme expression were compared among them. RESULTS: The frequencies of high enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and multiple myeloma SET domain (MMSET) expression were significantly higher in both MBC and TNDC than in normal tissue. CONCLUSION: EZH2 and MMSET may be useful therapeutic targets in MBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Metaplasia/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Metaplasia/diagnóstico , Metaplasia/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
19.
Anesthesiology ; 133(1): 165-184, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain-derived estrogen is implicated in pain-related aversion; however, which estrogen receptors mediate this effect remains unclear. This study hypothesized that the different estrogen receptors in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex play distinct roles in pain-related aversion. METHODS: Formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance and place escape/avoidance paradigms were used to evaluate pain-related aversion in rodents. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect estrogen receptor expression. Patch-clamp recordings were used to examine N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rostral anterior cingulate cortex slices. RESULTS: The administration of the estrogen receptor-ß antagonist 4-(2-phenyl-5,7-bis [trifluoromethyl] pyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) phenol (PHTPP) or the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 antagonist (3aS*,4R*,9bR*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta [c] quinolone (G15) but not the estrogen receptor-α antagonist 1,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy) phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP) into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex blocked pain-related aversion in rats (avoidance score, mean ± SD: 1,3-bis [4-hydroxyphenyl]-4-methyl-5-(4-[2-piperidinylethoxy] phenol)-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP): 47.0 ± 18.9%, 4-(2-phenyl-5,7-bis [trifluoromethyl] pyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) phenol (PHTPP): -7.4 ± 20.6%, and [3aS*,4R*,9bR*]-4-[6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl]-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta [c] quinolone (G15): -4.6 ± 17.0% vs. vehicle: 46.5 ± 12.2%; n = 7 to 9; P < 0.0001). Consistently, estrogen receptor-ß knockdown but not estrogen receptor-α knockdown by short-hairpin RNA also inhibited pain-related aversion in mice (avoidance score, mean ± SD: estrogen receptor-α-short-hairpin RNA: 26.0 ± 7.1% and estrogen receptor-ß-short-hairpin RNA: 6.3 ± 13.4% vs. control short-hairpin RNA: 29.1 ± 9.1%; n = 7 to 10; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the direct administration of the estrogen receptor-ß agonist 2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) or the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 agonist (±)-1-([3aR*,4S*,9bS*]-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta [c]quinolin-8-yl)-ethanone (G1) into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex resulted in conditioned place avoidance (avoidance score, mean ± SD: 2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN): 35.3 ± 9.5% and (±)-1-([3aR*,4S*,9bS*]-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta [c]quinolin-8-yl)-ethanone (G1): 43.5 ± 22.8% vs. vehicle: 0.3 ± 14.9%; n = 8; P < 0.0001) but did not affect mechanical or thermal sensitivity. The activation of the estrogen receptor-ß/protein kinase A or G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1/protein kinase B pathway elicited the long-term potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that estrogen receptor-ß and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 but not estrogen receptor-α in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex contribute to pain-related aversion by modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Receptores Estrogênicos , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/farmacologia , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Estrogênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 222: 105469, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179334

RESUMO

Phthalates are commonly used in plastic products in daily life. The endocrine-disrupting effects of phthalates have been widely reported. Accumulating evidence from human cohorts and lab animals indicate exposure to phthalates might impair neurodevelopment. However, the direct causal relationship and mechanism between phthalates with neurodevelopment and neurotoxicity have not been firmly established. We found that phthalates (i.e. DBP, DINP, BBP) disrupted the expression of estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b), and impaired neurogenesis in the brain of zebrafish during embryonic development. Moreover, the abnormal expression of estrogen receptors, especially esr2a, was partly rescued in zebrafish which exposed to phthalates, with the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. Hence, impaired neurogenesis of zebrafish exposed to phthalates was partly reversed by tamoxifen treatment. Moreover, our results show that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived human neurons exposed to phthalates triggered double-strand DNA breaks in vitro. Overall, this study demonstrates that exposure to phthalates affects neurodevelopment in zebrafish embryos and induces neurotoxicity in human neurons partly through disrupting the expression of estrogen receptors.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Antagonistas do Receptor de Estrogênio/farmacologia , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
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