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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280085, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer causes 935,000 cancer deaths yearly. High local immune cell infiltration serves as a positive prognostic factor in CRC. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce innate immune responses and lead to adaptive immune system activation. TLRs play protumorigenic and antitumorigenic roles. We aimed to explore the relationship between TLR immunoexpressions and the infiltration densities of T-lymphocytes in CRC. METHODS: Immunohistochemical TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 positivity and the density of CD3- and CD8-positive cells in tumoral and stromal tissue were evaluated from the tissue microarray slides of 549 consecutive CRC surgical patients treated at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, between 1998 and 2005. We calculated the associations and correlations using Pearson's chi-square and Spearman's correlation tests, generating survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Positive intratumoral CD3 and CD8 densities associated with a high TLR2 expression (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and a high TLR4 expression (p = 0.013 and p = 0.025). A low TLR5 immunoexpression associated with negative intratumoral CD3 (p = 0.001) and CD8 (p = 0.011) and a low stromal CD3 (p = 0.001). No association or correlation emerged between TLR7 immunoexpression and CD3 or CD8 cell density. A low CD3-CD8 tumor-stroma index indicated a worse prognosis among all TLR subgroups, except the TLR7-negative subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: We detected significant associations and correlations between high tissue TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 immunoexpressions and high densities of CD3- and CD8-positive cells. Combining these markers may improve the prognostic evaluation of CRC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Receptores Toll-Like , Humanos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Prognóstico , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
Clin Lab ; 69(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: By damaging the liver, hepatitis B can result in acute and chronic diseases, such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Viable treatments for such diseases using natural products and determinative biomarkers have been proposed but require evaluation to improve their effects. Therefore, this study aims to examine how effectively a specific natural product (namely, royal jelly) protects the body from the copy number of the virus, as well as TLR1 to TLR9 gene expressions. METHODS: The effectiveness of royal jelly was tested by giving it (orally) to 30 hepatitis B patients for one month. HBV copy number and mRNA levels of TLRs were explored using Real Time PCR technique, and liver enzymes were evaluated too. RESULTS: Orally treatment with royal jelly led to a significant decrease in HBV-DNA copy number, down-regulation of TLR2 and TLR8, and up-regulation of TLR3. However, mRNA levels of the TLRs were not altered in the female, while TLR1, TLR2, and TLR5 were significantly decreased in the male participants. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that royal jelly has anti-viral and anti-inflammatory roles in the in vivo conditions in a dependent manner in TLR3, TLR2, and TLR8. Therefore, it can be suggested as a safe complementary agent for patients with hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Receptores Toll-Like , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Expressão Gênica , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética
4.
J Immunol Res ; 2023: 1884439, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703865

RESUMO

Platelets have toll-like receptors (TLRs); however, their function in thrombosis or hemostasis under flow conditions is not fully known. Thrombin-inhibited anticoagulated whole blood was treated with various TLR agonists and then perfused over fibrillar collagen using microfluidic assay at venous wall shear rate (100 s-1). Platelet deposition was imaged with fluorescent anti-CD61. For perfusion of whole blood without TLR agonist addition, platelets rapidly accumulated on collagen and eventually occluded the microchannels. Interestingly, most of the tested TLR agonists (Pam3CKS4, MALP-2, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid HMW, imiquimod, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides) strongly reduced platelet deposition on collagen, while only the TLR4 agonist endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced deposition. Following 90 sec of deposition under flow of untreated blood, the addition of various TLR-7 agonists (imiquimod, vesatolimod, and GSK2245035) all caused immediate blockade of further platelet deposition. Since TLR signaling can activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), the IKK-inhibitor (IKK inhibitor VII) and NF-κB inhibitor (Bay 11-7082) were tested. The IKK/NF-κB inhibitors strongly inhibited platelet deposition under flow. Furthermore, addition of Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 ligand), MALP-2 (TLR2/6 ligand), and Imquimod (TLR7 ligand) reduced phosphotidylserine (PS) exposure. Activation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6, TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 in whole blood reduced platelet deposition under flow on collagen; however, LPS (major Gram negative bacterial pathogenic component) activation of LTR4 was clearly prothrombotic.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Humanos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 7 Toll-Like , Receptor 1 Toll-Like , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Imiquimode , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas , Colágeno
5.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680279

RESUMO

Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (AIV) of the H9N2 subtype can infect and cause disease in chickens. Little is known about the efficacy of immune-based strategies for reducing the transmission of these viruses. The present study investigated the efficacy of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (CpG ODN 2007 and poly(I:C)) to reduce H9N2 AIV transmission from TLR-treated seeder (trial 1) or inoculated chickens (trial 2) to naive chickens. The results from trial 1 revealed that a low dose of CpG ODN 2007 led to the highest reduction in oral shedding, and a high dose of poly(I:C) was effective at reducing oral and cloacal shedding. Regarding transmission, the recipient chickens exposed to CpG ODN 2007 low-dose-treated seeder chickens showed a maximum reduction in shedding with the lowest number of AIV+ chickens. The results from trial 2 revealed a maximum reduction in oral and cloacal shedding in the poly(I:C) high-dose-treated chickens (recipients), followed by the low-dose CpG ODN 2007 group. In these two groups, the expression of type I interferons (IFNs), protein kinase R (PKR), interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), viperin, and (interleukin) IL-1ß, IL-8, and 1L-18 was upregulated in the spleen, cecal tonsils and lungs. Hence, TLR ligands can reduce AIV transmission in chickens.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Galinhas , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Ligantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674552

RESUMO

Platelets are the second most abundant blood component after red blood cells and can participate in a variety of physiological and pathological functions. Beyond its traditional role in hemostasis and thrombosis, it also plays an indispensable role in inflammatory diseases. However, thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic problem in the clinic, and it presents a proportional relationship with the fatality of many diseases. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of thrombocytopenia is of great importance. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is one of the most relevant characteristics of thrombopoiesis and the platelet inflammatory function. We know that the TLR family is found on the surface or inside almost all cells, where they perform many immune functions. Of those, TLR2 and TLR4 are the main stress-inducing members and play an integral role in inflammatory diseases and platelet production and function. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present and discuss the relationship between platelets, inflammation and the TLR family and extend recent research on the influence of the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways and the regulation of platelet production and function. Reviewing the interaction between TLRs and platelets in inflammation may be a research direction or program for the treatment of thrombocytopenia-related and inflammatory-related diseases.


Assuntos
Trombocitopenia , Trombopoese , Humanos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like , Trombocitopenia/metabolismo , Inflamação
7.
J Immunotoxicol ; 20(1): 2148782, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538286

RESUMO

The Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein MyD88 is integral to airway inflammatory response to microbial-enriched organic dust extract (ODE) exposures. ODE-induced airway neutrophil influx and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was essentially abrogated in global MyD88-deficient mice, yet these mice demonstrate an increase in airway epithelial cell mucin expression. To further elucidate the role of MyD88-dependent responses specific to lung airway epithelial cells in response to ODE in vivo, the surfactant protein C protein (SPC) Cre+ embryologic expressing airway epithelial cells floxed for MyD88 to disrupt MyD88 signaling were utilized. The inducible club cell secretory protein (CCSP) Cre+, MyD88 floxed, were also developed. Using an established protocol, mice were intranasally instilled with ODE or saline once or daily up to 3 weeks. Mice with MyD88-deficient SPC+ lung epithelial cells exhibited decreased neutrophil influx following ODE exposure once and repetitively for 1 week without modulation of classic pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and neutrophil chemoattractants. This protective response was lost after 3 weeks of repetitive exposure. ODE-induced Muc5ac mucin expression at 1 week was also reduced in MyD88-deficient SPC+ cells. Acute ODE-induced IL-33 was reduced in MyD88-deficient SPC+ cells whereas serum IgE levels were increased at one week. In contrast, mice with inducible MyD88-deficient CCSP+ airway epithelial cells demonstrated no significant difference in experimental indices following ODE exposure. Collectively, these findings suggest that MyD88-dependent signaling targeted to all airway epithelial cells plays an important role in mediating neutrophil influx and mucin production in response to acute organic dust exposures.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Animais , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/farmacologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Poeira , Mucinas/metabolismo , Mucinas/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 62: 152080, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535188

RESUMO

Novel biomarkers of in utero infections are needed to help guide early therapy. The toll like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-1) are proteins involved in the initial reaction of the innate immune system to infectious diseases. This study tested the hypothesis that a panel of TLRs and RIG-1 in the placenta could serve as an early biomarker of in utero infections. The TLRs and RIG-1 expression as determined by immunohistochemistry was scored in 10 control placentas (normal delivery or neonatal damage from known non-infectious cause), 8 placentas from documented in utero bacterial infection, and 7 placentas from documented in utero viral infections blinded to the clinical information. The non-infected placentas showed the following profile: no expression (TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8), moderate expression (TLR2), and strong expression (RIG-1). The bacterial and viral infection cases shared the following profile: no to mild expression (TLR 2, TLR7, and RIG1), moderate expression (TLR4), and strong expression (TLR1, TLR3, and TLR8). The histologic findings in the chorionic villi were equivalent in the infected cases and controls, underscoring the need for molecular testing by the surgical pathologist when in utero infection is suspected. The results suggest that a panel of TLRs/RIG-1 analyses can allow the pathologist and/or clinician to diagnose in utero infections soon after birth. Also, treatments to antagonize the effects of TLR1, 3, and 8 may help abrogate in utero neonatal damage.


Assuntos
Receptor 1 Toll-Like , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Receptor 7 Toll-Like , Receptor 8 Toll-Like , Receptor 3 Toll-Like , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Placenta
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 640: 125-133, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502628

RESUMO

Rab GTPases are known for controlling intracellular membrane traffic in a GTP-dependent manner. Rab7l1, belonging to family of Rab GTPases, is important for both endosomal sorting and retrograde transport. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of Rab7l1 in phagosome maturation. However, its role in regulating macrophage innate-effector signaling and cytokine response is not clearly understood. In this study, we have demonstrated that upon treatment of Rab7l1-knocked-down (Rab7l1-KD) THP-1 macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CSK4 has led to higher induction levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) as compared to the control cells that received scrambled shRNA. Similar results were observed in Rab7l1-KD RAW 264.7 and Balb/c peritoneal macrophages. The phospho-ERK 1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and phospho-p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) levels, known to be responsible for higher induction of TNF-α and IL-10 respectively, were higher in Rab7l1-KD THP-1 macrophages which also displayed higher nuclear translocation of p50/p65 nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) upon stimulation with LPS. Surface expression levels of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 and CD14 receptors were higher in Rab7l1-KD THP-1 macrophages as compared to the control cells. However, intracellular levels of these receptors were lower in Rab7l1-KD THP-1 macrophages as compared to the control group. Together, our study suggests that Rab7l1 has a role in regulating MAPK signaling and cytokine effector responses in macrophages by regulating the surface expression of membrane receptors.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
10.
Cells ; 11(24)2022 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36552771

RESUMO

Steroid receptor RNA activator gene (SRA1) emerges as a player in pathophysiological responses of adipose tissue (AT) in metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We previously showed association of the AT SRA1 expression with inflammatory cytokines/chemokines involved in metabolic derangement. However, the relationship between altered adipose expression of SRA1 and the innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as players in nutrient sensing and metabolic inflammation as well as their downstream signaling partners, including interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), remains elusive. Herein, we investigated the association of AT SRA1 expression with TLRs, IRFs, and other TLR-downstream signaling mediators in a cohort of 108 individuals, classified based on their body mass index (BMI) as persons with normal-weight (N = 12), overweight (N = 32), and obesity (N = 64), including 55 with and 53 without T2D. The gene expression of SRA1, TLRs-2,3,4,7,8,9,10 and their downstream signaling mediators including IRFs-3,4,5, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were determined using qRT-PCR and SRA1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. AT SRA1 transcripts' expression was significantly correlated with TLRs-3,4,7, MyD88, NF-κB, and IRF5 expression in individuals with T2D, while it associated with TLR9 and TRAF6 expression in all individuals, with/without T2D. SRA1 expression associated with TLR2, IRAK1, and IRF3 expression only in individuals with obesity, regardless of diabetes status. Furthermore, TLR3/TLR7/IRAK1 and TLR3/TLR9 were identified as independent predictors of AT SRA1 expression in individuals with obesity and T2D, respectively. Overall, our data demonstrate a direct association between the AT SRA1 expression and the TLRs together with their downstream signaling partners and IRFs in individuals with obesity and/or T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Receptor 3 Toll-Like , Humanos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558553

RESUMO

Existing reports focus on zinc-associated immunity and infection in malnourished children; however, whether zinc also plays an important role in the immune homeostasis of the non-zinc-deficient population remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between zinc status and toll-like receptor (TLR)-related innate immunity and infectious outcome in well-nourished children. A total of 961 blood samples were collected from 1 through 5 years of age. Serum zinc was analyzed, and mononuclear cells isolated to assess TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 production by ELISA after stimulation with TLR ligands. Childhood infections were analyzed as binary outcomes with logistic regression. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 1.4-9.6% throughout the first 5 years. There was significant association between zinc and TLR-stimulated cytokine responses. Higher serum zinc was associated with decreased risk of ever having pneumonia (aOR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99) at 3 years, and enterocolitis (aOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99) at 5 years. Serum zinc was lower in children who have had pneumonia before 3 years of age (72.6 ± 9 vs. 81.9 ± 13 µg/dL), and enterocolitis before 5 years (89.3 ± 12 vs. 95.5 ± 13 µg/dL). We emphasize the importance of maintaining optimal serum zinc in the young population.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Imunidade Inata , Desnutrição , Receptores Toll-Like , Zinco , Criança , Humanos , Citocinas , Enterocolite , Minerais , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Zinco/sangue
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 366, 2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: From the ancient, medicinal benefits of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) have been implicated for respiratory and digestive diseases despite the effects of Hyssop on viral infections have not been mechanistically investigated. In this study, we examined whether the Hyssop extract activated anti-viral innate immunity, as a sentinel for immune system, through activation of endosomal TLRs recognizing nucleic acids and their downstream signaling. The Hyssop herb extracts was prepared and co-cultured with healthy individual's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). After viability assay, gene expression levels of TLR3,7,8,9, as well as MyD88 and NF-κB, were evaluated in treated PBMCs using Real-time PCR. Next, the secretion level of immune related cytokines was quantified via ELISA. RESULTS: Post 24 h, 40 µg/ml of the extract significantly inhibited the viability of less than 50% of cells compared to the control and had a maximum effect on cellular function. The Hyssop-treated PBMCs demonstrated an elevated expression of endosomal TLRs genes, as well as MyD88 and NF-κB. Moreover, the release of INF-α and ß notably enhanced in cell culture supernatant, while the content of inflammatory cytokines remarkably diminished (P < 0.05). The Hyssop extract was capable of inducing antiviral innate immune responses so can be promising in antiviral drug strategies.


Assuntos
Hyssopus , NF-kappa B , Hyssopus/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1065211, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36505476

RESUMO

When the viruses invade the body, they will be recognized by the host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll like receptor (TLR) or retinoic acid-induced gene-I like receptor (RLR), thus causing the activation of downstream antiviral signals to resist the virus invasion. The cross action between ubiquitination and proteins in these signal cascades enhances the antiviral signal. On the contrary, more and more viruses have also been found to use the ubiquitination system to inhibit TLR/RLR mediated innate immunity. Therefore, this review summarizes how the ubiquitination system plays a regulatory role in TLR/RLR mediated innate immunity, and how viruses use the ubiquitination system to complete immune escape.


Assuntos
Receptores Toll-Like , Vírus , Imunidade Inata , Ubiquitinação , Antivirais
14.
Biomed Khim ; 68(6): 459-469, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573411

RESUMO

Long-term alcohol consumption causes the development of neuroinflammation in various brain structures. One of the mechanisms involved in this process is the increased activity of TLR-signaling intracellular pathways. Studies confirm the ability of ginseng extract or its individual ginsenosides to reduce the increased activity of TLR-signaling pathways. The aim of our study was to study the effect of the amount of ginsenosides obtained from the extract of the Panax japonicus cell line on the state of the TLR-signaling system in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus of the rat brain in a model of long-term alcohol consumption during alcohol withdrawal. The results of the study showed that ginsenosides were able to make changes in the TLR signaling system, which has been altered by long-term alcohol consumption. A significant effect of ginsenosides on the level of TLR3 and TLR4 mRNA in the nucleus accumbens was found, while in the hippocampus, ginsenosides significantly affected the level of TLR7 mRNA. The effect of ginsenosides on the level of mRNA of transcription factors and cytokines involved in TLR-signaling was evaluated. Thus, results of our study confirm that ginsenosides are able to influence the state of TLR-signaling pathways, but this effect is multidirectional in relation to different brain structures. In the future, it seems interesting to evaluate the role of individual ginsenosides in relation to genes of TLR-signaling, as well as the effect of ginsenosides on other brain structures.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Ginsenosídeos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Ratos , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Encéfalo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
Cells ; 11(23)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497137

RESUMO

The engagement of B cells with surface-tethered antigens triggers the formation of an immune synapse (IS), where the local secretion of lysosomes can facilitate antigen uptake. Lysosomes intersect with other intracellular processes, such as Toll-like Receptor (TLR) signaling and autophagy coordinating immune responses. However, the crosstalk between these processes and antigen presentation remains unclear. Here, we show that TLR stimulation induces autophagy in B cells and decreases their capacity to extract and present immobilized antigens. We reveal that TLR stimulation restricts lysosome repositioning to the IS by triggering autophagy-dependent degradation of GEF-H1, a Rho GTP exchange factor required for stable lysosome recruitment at the synaptic membrane. GEF-H1 degradation is not observed in B cells that lack αV integrins and are deficient in TLR-induced autophagy. Accordingly, these cells show efficient antigen extraction in the presence of TLR stimulation, confirming the role of TLR-induced autophagy in limiting antigen extraction. Overall, our results suggest that resources associated with autophagy regulate TLR and BCR-dependent functions, which can finetune antigen uptake by B cells. This work helps to understand the mechanisms by which B cells are activated by surface-tethered antigens in contexts of subjacent inflammation before antigen recognition, such as sepsis.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Antígenos/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Autofagia , Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498932

RESUMO

Here, we link approved and emerging nucleic acid-based therapies with the expanding universe of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) and the innate immune responses that sense oligonucleotides taken up into endosomes. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3, 7, 8, and 9 are located in endosomes and can detect nucleic acids taken up through endocytic routes. These receptors are key triggers in the defense against viruses and/or bacterial infections, yet they also constitute an Achilles heel towards the discrimination between self- and pathogenic nucleic acids. The compartmentalization of nucleic acids and the activity of nucleases are key components in avoiding autoimmune reactions against nucleic acids, but we still lack knowledge on the plethora of nucleic acids that might be released into the extracellular space upon infections, inflammation, and other stress responses involving increased cell death. We review recent findings that a set of single-stranded oligonucleotides (length of 25-40 nucleotides (nt)) can temporarily block ligands destined for endosomes expressing TLRs in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. We discuss knowledge gaps and highlight the existence of a pool of RNA with an approximate length of 30-40 nt that may still have unappreciated regulatory functions in physiology and in the defense against viruses as gatekeepers of endosomal uptake through certain routes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos , Vírus , Humanos , Antivirais , Oligonucleotídeos , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1049340, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36479129

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, originally discovered to stimulate innate immune reactions against microbial infection. TLRs also play essential roles in bridging the innate and adaptive immune system, playing multiple roles in inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Thanks to the immune stimulatory potential of TLRs, TLR-targeted strategies in cancer treatment have proved to be able to regulate the tumor microenvironment towards tumoricidal phenotypes. Quantities of pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using TLR-targeted strategies in treating cancer have been initiated, with some drugs already becoming part of standard care. Here we review the structure, ligand, signaling pathways, and expression of TLRs; we then provide an overview of the pre-clinical studies and an updated clinical trial watch targeting each TLR in cancer treatment; and finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects of TLR-targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Receptores Toll-Like
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1023567, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36531997

RESUMO

While inflammation induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is required to combat infection, persistent inflammation can damage host tissues and contribute to a myriad of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Thus, it is essential not only that TLR signaling be activated in the presence of pathogens but that TLR signaling is ultimately terminated. One mechanism that limits persistent TLR signaling is alternative pre-mRNA splicing. In addition to encoding the canonical mRNAs that produce proteins that promote inflammation, many genes in the TLR signaling pathway also encode alternative mRNAs that produce proteins that are dominant negative inhibitors of signaling. Many of these negative regulators are induced by immune challenge, so production of these alternative isoforms represents a negative feedback loop that limits persistent inflammation. While these alternative splicing events have been investigated on a gene by gene basis, there has been limited systemic analysis of this mechanism that terminates TLR signaling. Here we review what is known about the production of negatively acting alternative isoforms in the TLR signaling pathway including how these inhibitors function, how they are produced, and what role they may play in inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Precursores de RNA , Receptores Toll-Like , Humanos , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Inflamação
19.
Mar Drugs ; 20(12)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36547913

RESUMO

Airborne particulate matter (PM) originating from industrial processes is a major threat to the environment and health in East Asia. PM can cause asthma, collateral lung tissue damage, oxidative stress, allergic reactions, and inflammation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of eckmaxol, a phlorotannin isolated from Ecklonia&nbsp;maxima, against PM-induced inflammation in MH-S macrophage cells. It was found that PM induced inflammation in MH-S lung macrophages, which was inhibited by eckmaxol treatment in a dose-dependent manner (21.0-84.12 µM). Eckmaxol attenuated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in PM-induced lung macrophages. Subsequently, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) were downregulated. PM stimulated inflammation in MH-S lung macrophages by activating Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Eckmaxol exhibited anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing the activation of TLRs, downstream signaling of NF-κB (p50 and p65), and MAPK pathways, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. These findings suggest that eckmaxol may offer substantial therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Pulmão , Macrófagos , Material Particulado , Feófitas , Pneumonia , Polifenóis , Humanos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Feófitas/química , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1020574, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405698

RESUMO

Manuka honey (MH) is known for its wound-healing, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor properties. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of MH in inflammatory responses, with some studies highlighting its pro-inflammatory capacity and others showing that it has a predominantly anti-inflammatory activity. The current study is aimed at characterizing the immunomodulatory capacity of MH using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, focusing on the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with 1% MH (w/v) resulted in a significant increase in the gene expression (~26-fold) and secretion (~27-fold) of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Similarly, an increase was observed in the gene expression of other inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as the chemokines; (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) and (C-C) motif ligand 2 (CCL2). Using an in vivo model, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MH in C57BL/6 mice elicited a peritoneal response characterized by a significant expansion in the number of peritoneal exudate cells (PECs), which was mainly due to a 35-fold increase in the recruitment of neutrophils. Importantly, this response was evident in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-defective C3H/HeJ mice, indicating that the observed stimulatory effect occurs independently of TLR4 and unlikely to be mediated by any lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contaminant. MH administration also led to changes in the phenotypic expression and functional maturation of peritoneal macrophages, as evidenced by a shift towards the CD11blo F4/80lo phenotype and an increase in the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins. In contrast, the MH-initiated peritoneal response was largely abrogated in mice deficient in myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) protein, a critical adaptor of most TLR signaling pathways. Thus, the current findings help to characterize the immunostimulatory properties of MH and their dependence on TLR signaling, and highlight the potential utility of MH as an immunomodulatory agent in a variety of disorders.


Assuntos
Mel , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Camundongos , Animais , Receptores Toll-Like , Ligantes , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Interleucina-6
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