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1.
J Endocrinol ; 247(2): R45-R62, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966970

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a new strain of coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. At the time of writing, SARS-CoV-2 has infected over 5 million people worldwide. A key step in understanding the pathobiology of the SARS-CoV-2 was the identification of -converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 to gain entry into host cells. ACE2 is an established component of the 'protective arm' of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) that opposes ACE/angiotensin II (ANG II) pressor and tissue remodelling actions. Identification of ACE2 as the entry point for SARS-CoV-2 into cells quickly focused attention on the use of ACE inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) in patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease given that these pharmacological agents upregulate ACE2 expression in target cells. ACE2 is cleaved from the cells by metalloproteases ADAM10 and ADAM17. Steroid hormone receptors regulate multiple components of the RAAS and may contribute to the observed variation in the incidence of severe COVID-19 between men and women, and in patients with pre-existing endocrine-related disease. Moreover, glucocorticoids play a critical role in the acute and chronic management of inflammatory disease, independent of any effect on RAAS activity. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, has emerged as a life-saving treatment in severe COVID-19. This review will examine the endocrine mechanisms that control ACE2 and discusses the impact of therapies targeting the RAAS, glucocorticoid and other endocrine systems for their relevance to the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the treatment and recovery from COVID-19-related critical illness.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Esteroides/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo
2.
Planta Med ; 86(12): 867-875, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557519

RESUMO

Artemisia annua tea is a popular dosage form used to treat and prevent malaria in some developing countries. However, repeated drinking leads to an obviously decreased efficacy, which may be related to the induction of metabolizing enzymes by artemisinin. In the present study, the ability of different components in A. annua to activate the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor was evaluated by the dual luciferase reporter gene system. The changes in mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results showed that in the pregnane X receptor-mediated CYP3A4 reporter gene system, chrysosplenetin and arteannuin B exhibited a weak induction effect on pregnane X receptor wt, while arteannuin A had a strong induction effect on pregnane X receptor wt and pregnane X receptor 370 and a weak induction effect on pregnane X receptor 163. In the pregnane X receptor-mediated CYP2B6 reporter gene system, arteannuin A had a moderate induction effect on pregnane X receptor wt and pregnane X receptor 379, and a weak induction effect on pregnane X receptor 403, while arteannuin B had a weak induction effect on pregnane X receptor wt and pregnane X receptor 379. Arteannuin A had a strong induction effect on constitutive androstane receptor 3 in constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP3A4/2B6 reporter gene systems, while arteannuin B showed a weak induction effect on constitutive androstane receptor 3 in the constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP2B6 reporter gene system. The mRNA and protein expressions of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 were increased when the pregnane X receptor or constitutive androstane receptor was activated. Various components present in A. annua differentially affect the activities of pregnane X receptor isoforms and the constitutive androstane receptor, which indicates the possibility of a drug-drug interaction. This partly explains the decline in efficacy after repeated drinking of A. annua tea.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6 , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Indução Enzimática , Hepatócitos , Extratos Vegetais , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares
3.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126753, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464781

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) is an engineered nanomaterial which was demonstrated to have outstanding capacity for adsorption of organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the ligands and activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Due to the partially overlapping ligand capacity of AhR and pregnane X receptor (PXR), we tested the impact of GO particles on their signalling. While reporter gene assay revealed potentiating effect of GO on ligand-activated AhR-dependent luciferase activity, there was no effect for PXR. However, inducible target genes for AhR (CYP1A1) or PXR (ABCB1) were decreased at mRNA as well as protein levels by the presence of GO in HepG2 (for AhR), LS180 (for PXR) or primary human hepatocytes (both receptors). Moreover, the presence of GO diminished PXR and AhR protein levels in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. This was partially reversed by proteasome inhibitor MG132 for AhR but not for PXR. In conclusion, GO decreases ligand-stimulated activities of AhR and PXR in human cells.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Xenobióticos/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Receptor de Pregnano X , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Xenobióticos/química
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 470, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980607

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms underlying the response to exercise and inactivity are not fully understood. We propose an innovative approach to profile the skeletal muscle transcriptome to exercise and inactivity using 66 published datasets. Data collected from human studies of aerobic and resistance exercise, including acute and chronic exercise training, were integrated using meta-analysis methods (www.metamex.eu). Here we use gene ontology and pathway analyses to reveal selective pathways activated by inactivity, aerobic versus resistance and acute versus chronic exercise training. We identify NR4A3 as one of the most exercise- and inactivity-responsive genes, and establish a role for this nuclear receptor in mediating the metabolic responses to exercise-like stimuli in vitro. The meta-analysis (MetaMEx) also highlights the differential response to exercise in individuals with metabolic impairments. MetaMEx provides the most extensive dataset of skeletal muscle transcriptional responses to different modes of exercise and an online interface to readily interrogate the database.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência
6.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 112957, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672375

RESUMO

Parabens are class of preservatives used in vast majority of commercial products, and a potential Endocrine Disrupting Chemical (EDC). The present study was undertaken to delineate the effects of n-butylparaben on F1 male progeny exposed maternally through gestation and lactation via subcutaneous route. The F0 dams were given subcutaneous injections of n-butylparaben from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 with doses of 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg Bw/day in corn oil. The F1 male rats were monitored for pubertal development and sexual maturation; these were sacrificed on PND 30, 45 and 75. On PND 75, these F1 male rats were subjected for fertility assessment with unexposed female rats. A delayed testicular descent at 100 and 1000 mg/kg Bw dose and delayed preputial separation at 10 mg/kg Bw dose was observed in exposed F1 male rats. Decreased sperm count, motility and Daily Sperm Production was observed at 100 mg/kg Bw dose at PND 75. Interestingly, the sperm transit time in the epididymis was accelerated at this dose. Significant perturbed testicular expression of steroid receptors (ERα and ß, AR), INSL3 and StAR genes with increased T and LH levels indicates direct effect on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. These F1 generation adult rats were sub-fertile with increased (%) pre- and post-implantation loss at 100 and 1000 mg/kg Bw/day dose. This is the first report on n-butylparaben highlighting the involvement of testicular leydig cells with accelerated sperm transit time leading to reduced fertility in the maternally exposed F1 male rats through estrogenic/anti-androgenic action.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Parabenos/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112300, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606536

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mahuang-Tang (MHT) has traditionally been used in Asia to treat a variety of diseases, such as fever without sweating, joint pain, lower back pain, asthma, and gynecological conditions. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a kind of gynecological disease that causes amenorrhea, infertility, and menopausal and urogenital disorders that could benefit from MHT treatment. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we examined the effects of MHT on ovarian hormones and steroidogenic enzymes in female PCOS rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PCOS rat model was induced by Letrozole, and an in vivo evaluation of whether the dietary consumption of MHT improved the PCOS-like symptoms was conducted. The luteinizing hormone (LH) level and luteinizing hormone/follicular-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio increased in PCOS rats but decreased following MHT treatment. In the PCOS rats, the reduced estrogen level was restored to that of normal controls with MHT treatment in serum. The transcription level(s) of gonadotropin receptors (Fshr and Lhr), steroid receptors (Pgr, and Esr1) and steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp19a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17a1, and Cyp11a1) changed under the PCOS condition, and were regulated by MHT treatment in the ovaries of PCOS rats. The reproductive tissues of Letrozole-induced PCOS rats were restored into estrogenic condition from androgen environments. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MHT ameliorates the symptoms of PCOS by improving the dysregulation of ovarian steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in PCOS rats.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Letrozol , Medicina Tradicional , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores da Gonadotropina/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Esteroide Hidroxilases/genética
8.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 17(1): 111, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of expression profiles of major endometrial effectors of steroid physiology in endometriosis have yielded markedly conflicting conclusions, presumably because the relative effects of type of endometriosis, fertility history and menstrual cycle phases on the measured variables were not considered. In the present study, endometrial mRNA and protein levels of several effectors of steroid biosynthesis and action in patients with stage III-IV ovarian endometriosis (OE) with known fertility and menstrual cycle histories were compared with the levels in control endometrium to test this concept. METHODS: Endometrial samples were collected from patients without endometriosis (n = 32) or OE stages III-IV (n = 52) with known fertility and cycle histories. qRT-PCR and immunoblotting experiments were performed to measure levels of NR5A1, STAR, CYP19A1, HSD17Bs, ESRs and PGR transcripts and proteins, respectively. Tissue concentrations of steroids (P4, T, E1 and E2) were measured using ELISAs. RESULTS: The levels of expression of aromatase and ERß were lower (P < 0.0001) and 17ß-HSD1 (P < 0.0001) and PRA (P < 0.01) were higher in OE endometrium. Lower aromatase levels and higher 17ß-HSD1 levels were detected in fertile (aromatase: P < 0.05; 17ß-HSD1: P < 0.0001) and infertile (aromatase: P < 0.0001; 17ß-HSD1: P < 0.0001) OE endometrium than in the matched control tissues. Both proliferative (PP) and secretory (SP) phase OE samples expressed aromatase (P < 0.0001) and ERß (PP: P < 0.001; SP: P < 0.01) at lower levels and 17ß-HSD1 (P < 0.0001) and PRA (PP: P < 0.01; SP: P < 0.0001) at higher levels than matched controls. Higher 17ß-HSD1 (P < 0.01) and E2 (P < 0.05) levels and a lower (P < 0.01) PRB/PRA ratio was observed in infertile secretory phase OE endometrium than in control. CONCLUSIONS: We report that dysregulated expression of 17ß-HSD1 and PGR resulting in hyperestrogenism and progesterone resistance during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, rather than an anomaly in aromatase expression, was the hallmark of eutopic endometrium from infertile OE patients. Furthermore, the results provide proof of concept that the fertility and menstrual cycle histories exerted relatively different effects on steroid physiology in the endometrium from OE patients compared with the control subjects.


Assuntos
Endometriose/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Doenças Ovarianas/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/análise , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aromatase/análise , Aromatase/genética , Endométrio/química , Estradiol/análise , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Ciclo Menstrual , Progesterona/análise , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113329, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600704

RESUMO

Transcription factors including pregnane X receptor (Pxr) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) are important modulators of Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in mammalian cells. However, whether such modulation is conserved in zebrafish embryos remains largely unknown. In this manuscript, pxr- and nrf2-deficient models were constructed with CRISPR/Cas9 system, to evaluate the individual function of Pxr and Nrf2 in the regulation of ABC transporters and detoxification of heavy metal ions like Cd2+ and Ag+. As a result, both Cd2+ and Ag+ conferred extensive interactions with ABC transporters in wild type (WT) embryos: their accumulation and toxicity were affected by the activity of ABC transporters, and they significantly induced the mRNA expressions of ABC transporters. These induction effects were reduced by the mutation of pxr and nrf2, but elevations in the basal expression of ABC transporters compensated for the loss of their inducibility. This could be an explanation for remaining transporter function in both mutant models as well as the unaltered toxicity of metal ions in pxr-deficient embryos. However, mutation of nrf2 disrupted the production of glutathione (GSH), resulting in the enhanced toxicity of Cd2+/Ag+ in zebrafish embryos. In addition, elevated expressions of other transcription factors like aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr) 1b, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (ppar)-ß, and nrf2 were found in pxr-deficient models without any treatment, while enhanced induction of ahr1b, ppar-ß and pxr could only be seen in nrf2-deficient embryos after the treatment of metal ions, indicating different compensation phenomena for the absence of transcription factors. After all, pxr-deficient and nrf2-deficient zebrafish embryos are useful tools in the functional investigation of Pxr and Nrf2 in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, the compensatory mechanisms should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results and need in-depth investigations.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Receptor de Pregnano X/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
10.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000145, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589603

RESUMO

Male reproductive glands like the mammalian prostate and the paired Drosophila melanogaster accessory glands secrete seminal fluid components that enhance fecundity. In humans, the prostate, stimulated by environmentally regulated endocrine and local androgens, grows throughout adult life. We previously showed that in fly accessory glands, secondary cells (SCs) and their nuclei also grow in adults, a process enhanced by mating and controlled by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling. Here, we demonstrate that BMP-mediated SC growth is dependent on the receptor for the developmental steroid ecdysone, whose concentration is reported to reflect sociosexual experience in adults. BMP signalling appears to regulate ecdysone receptor (EcR) levels via one or more mechanisms involving the EcR's N terminus or the RNA sequence that encodes it. Nuclear growth in virgin males is dependent on ecdysone, some of which is synthesised in SCs. However, mating induces additional BMP-mediated nuclear growth via a cell type-specific form of hormone-independent EcR signalling, which drives genome endoreplication in a subset of adult SCs. Switching to hormone-independent endoreplication after mating allows growth and secretion to be hyperactivated independently of ecdysone levels in SCs, permitting more rapid replenishment of the accessory gland luminal contents. Our data suggest mechanistic parallels between this physiological, behaviour-induced signalling switch and altered pathological signalling associated with prostate cancer progression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Ecdisona/metabolismo , Genoma de Inseto , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Animais , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Copulação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(10): 1234-1247, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570833

RESUMO

Phosphoinositides have a pivotal role in the maturation of nascent phagosomes into microbicidal phagolysosomes. Following degradation of their contents, mature phagolysosomes undergo resolution, a process that remains largely uninvestigated. Here we studied the role of phosphoinositides in phagolysosome resolution. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), which is abundant in maturing phagolysosomes, was depleted as they tubulated and resorbed. Depletion was caused, in part, by transfer of phagolysosomal PtdIns(4)P to the endoplasmic reticulum, a process mediated by oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1L (ORP1L), a RAB7 effector. ORP1L formed discrete tethers between the phagolysosome and the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in distinct regions with alternating PtdIns(4)P depletion and enrichment. Tubules emerged from PtdIns(4)P-rich regions, where ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 8B (ARL8B) and SifA- and kinesin-interacting protein/pleckstrin homology domain-containing family M member 2 (SKIP/PLEKHM2) accumulated. SKIP binds preferentially to monophosphorylated phosphoinositides, of which PtdIns(4)P is most abundant in phagolysosomes, contributing to their tubulation. Accordingly, premature hydrolysis of PtdIns(4)P impaired SKIP recruitment and phagosome resolution. Thus, resolution involves phosphoinositides and tethering of phagolysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fagossomos/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Monócitos/ultraestrutura , Fagocitose , Fagossomos/ultraestrutura , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteólise , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124551, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549662

RESUMO

To characterize the potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment that interact with the crustacean ecdysone receptor (EcR), we established a method involving in silico modeling/molecular docking and in vitro reporter gene assay. Cherry shrimp (Neocaridina davidi) EcR (NdEcR) and retinoid X receptor (NdRxR) were identified and cloned for use in this method. A theoretical 3D model of NdEcR ligand-binding domain (LBD) was built in silico based on sequence homology with the established X-ray structure of insect EcR. The interaction of the NdEcR LBD with ecdysteroids, diacylhydrazine (DAH) pesticides, and other potential EDCs was evaluated using molecular docking programs. The results revealed that the ligand-binding pocket in the NdEcR LBD was flexible and adaptive for accommodating ligands of different shapes. The agonistic and antagonistic activities of the candidate compounds were further assessed by in vitro reporter gene assay using human cell lines transiently transfected with NdEcR and NdRxR expression plasmids and a reporter plasmid containing synthesized ecdysone response element. The assay was validated by the dose-dependent responses of EcR-mediated gene transcription after treating the transfected cell lines with ecdysteroids, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and ponasterone A. Examination of the candidate compounds using the reporter gene assay revealed restricted functional specificity to ecdysteroids and DAHs. Three of the tested DAH pesticides originally targeting the insect EcR were found to be weak agonists and strong antagonists of NdEcR. These results suggest that DAHs are potential EDCs for crustaceans that disrupt their ecdysteroid signals by functioning as EcR agonists or antagonists.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecdisteroides/farmacologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Simulação por Computador , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Decápodes/genética , Ecdisona/metabolismo , Ecdisona/farmacologia , Ecdisteroides/toxicidade , Ecdisterona/análogos & derivados , Ecdisterona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Receptores de Esteroides/agonistas , Receptores de Esteroides/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores X Retinoide/química , Receptores X Retinoide/genética , Receptores X Retinoide/metabolismo
13.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(10): 1206-1218, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548609

RESUMO

Cholesterol activates the master growth regulator, mTORC1 kinase, by promoting its recruitment to the surface of lysosomes by the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). The mechanisms that regulate lysosomal cholesterol content to enable mTORC1 signalling are unknown. Here, we show that oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and its anchors at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), VAPA and VAPB, deliver cholesterol across ER-lysosome contacts to activate mTORC1. In cells lacking OSBP, but not other VAP-interacting cholesterol carriers, the recruitment of mTORC1 by the Rag GTPases is inhibited owing to impaired transport of cholesterol to lysosomes. By contrast, OSBP-mediated cholesterol trafficking drives constitutive mTORC1 activation in a disease model caused by the loss of the lysosomal cholesterol transporter, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). Chemical and genetic inactivation of OSBP suppresses aberrant mTORC1 signalling and restores autophagic function in cellular models of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). Thus, ER-lysosome contacts are signalling hubs that enable cholesterol sensing by mTORC1, and targeting the sterol-transfer activity of these signalling hubs could be beneficial in patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Doenças de Niemann-Pick/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
14.
Gene Expr Patterns ; 34: 119074, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563631

RESUMO

The insect steroid hormone ecdysone is a key regulator of oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and many other species. Despite the diversity of cellular functions of ecdysone in oogenesis, the molecular regulation of most ecdysone-responsive genes in ovarian cells remains largely unexplored. We performed a functional screen using the UAS/Gal4 system to identify non-coding cis-regulatory elements within well-characterized ecdysone-response genes capable of driving transcription of an indelible reporter in ovarian cells. Using two publicly available transgenic collections (the FlyLight and Vienna Tiles resources), we tested 62 Gal4 drivers corresponding to ecdysone-response genes EcR, usp, E75, br, ftz-f1 and Hr3. We observed 31 lines that were sufficient to drive a UAS-lacZ reporter in discrete cell populations in the ovary. Reporter expression was reproducibly observed in both somatic and germ cells at distinct stages of oogenesis, including those previously characterized as critical points of ecdysone regulation. Our studies identified several useful new reagents, adding to the UAS/Gal4 toolkit available for genetic analysis of oogenesis in Drosophila. Further, our study provides novel insight into the molecular regulation of ecdysone signaling in oogenesis.


Assuntos
Ecdisona/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Oogênese/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(12): 1696-1707, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498019

RESUMO

Purpose: Hyperthermia (HT), a clinical treatment involving delivery of heat to tumors, has been used in combination with traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy to enhance their effects. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the high efficacy of combination therapy is not clear. This study was conducted to identify the molecular mechanism underlying the sensitization of lung cancer to radiotherapy by HT.Materials and methods: Nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3 (NR4A3) and Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) expression in non-small-cell lung cancer cells was confirmed by performing real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed via a colony-forming assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining.Results and conclusions: Expression profile analysis revealed elevated levels of NR4A3 and KLF11 in A549 lung cancer cells after treatment with HT combined with radiation. We also confirmed that NR4A3 and KLF11 induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation by elevating intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. Knockdown of NR4A3 or KLF11 using siRNA led to decreased effects of radiohyperthermia. Finally, the effect of these two factors on lung cancer progression was evaluated by in vivo xenograft studies. Taken together, the results suggest that NR4A3 and KLF11 are critical for increasing the efficacy of radiotherapy in combination with HT.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Camundongos
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 7041-7049, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399736

RESUMO

A preovulatory surge (PS) of luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone triggers follicle ovulation, which is the first step of egg production and is orchestrated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In the HPG axis, hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin releasing hormone, and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, control the production of follicle stimulating hormone and LH by the pituitary, which subsequently regulate ovarian production of estradiol and progesterone, respectively. The goal of this study was to characterize the HPG axis function of average egg producing hens by assessing plasma hormone profiles and hypothalamic, pituitary, and follicle gene expression outside and during the PS (n = 3 per group). Results were analyzed by a one-way ANOVA using the mixed models procedure of SAS. Plasma estradiol was not affected by the PS (P > 0.05), but plasma progesterone levels increased 8-fold during the PS when compared to basal progesterone levels (P < 0.05). HPG axis gene expression related to ovulation stimulation (e.g., GNRH, GNRHR, and LHB) was down-regulated during the PS; whereas gene expression related to follicle development (e.g., FSHB) was up-regulated during the PS. Additionally, in the hypothalamus and pituitary, estradiol receptor expression was up-regulated during the PS, whereas progesterone receptor expression was down-regulated during the PS. In the follicle cells, gene expression pertaining to progesterone (e.g., STAR), androgen (e.g., HSD17B1), and estradiol (e.g., CYP19A1) production was up-regulated during the PS. Prior to this study, the HPG axis had yet to be characterized during the PS in the turkey hen. This study showed that the PS significantly impacted gene expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovarian follicles. These results provide a foundation for further research into the regulation of ovulation and egg production in turkey hens.


Assuntos
Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Perus/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Progesterona/sangue , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 85-90, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400788

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) is a potentially useful pest control method because of its high specificity. Silencing the expression of important RNAi target genes of pests will block important biological processes and reduce pest damage. Ecdysone is a unique arthropod hormone and the ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a key factor in molting pathway. We investigated the possibility that dsRNA targeting of the EcR of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (TcEcR) could effectively block development from larvae to adults. The mRNA level of TcEcR was highest in the larva stage, and 73.1% of the mites failed to survive the larva stage when TcEcR expression was silenced. Only 11.7% of T. cinnabarinus ingesting dsRNA successfully developed into adults, while 86.7% in the control succeeded in molting across each stage. RNAi significantly increased the developmental intervals of T. cinnabarinus. Under the effects of dsRNA, development times for the larva and first nymph doubled. Phenotype of body size change and death were observed during the development of T. cinnabarinus ingesting dsRNA. These findings suggest that RNAi is a potential means for the control of T. cinnabarinus. Genes in hormone pathways such as EcR are possible RNAi targets.


Assuntos
Larva/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Tetranychidae/metabolismo , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Tetranychidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Oncogene ; 38(44): 6985-7001, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409903

RESUMO

The prognosis after curative resection of gastric cancer (GC) remains unsatisfactory, and thus, the development of treatments involving alternative molecular and genetic targets is critical. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which are newly discovered molecules with key roles in the non-coding RNA network, have been identified as critical regulators in various cancers. Here, we aimed to determine the circRNA expression profile and to investigate the functional and prognostic significance of circRNA in GC. Using next-generation sequencing profiling, we first characterized an abundant circRNA in GC, hsa_circ_0008549, derived from the OSBPL10 gene and named it circOSBPL10. The expression of circOSBPL10 was found to be upregulated in GC tissues by quantitative RT-PCR, and silencing of circOSBPL10 significantly inhibited GC cell growth, migration, and invasion in multiple experiments. We further confirmed that miR-136-5p is a downstream target of circOSBPL10 using RNA pull-down and luciferase reporter assays. Rescue experiments confirmed that circOSBPL10 regulates biological functions in GC cells via a circOSBPL10-miR-136-5p-WNT2 axis. In vivo experiments showed that circOSBPL10 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in mice. Furthermore, the level of circOSBPL10 was observed to be a prognostic marker of the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with GC. Taken together, our findings reveal that circOSBPL10 may serve as a new proliferation factor and prognostic marker in GC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Receptores de Esteroides/fisiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(30): 15150-15159, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285338

RESUMO

In response to microbial stimulation, monocytes can differentiate into macrophages or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) but the molecular requirements guiding these possible fates are poorly understood. In addition, the physiological importance of MoDCs in the host cellular and immune responses to microbes remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the nuclear orphan receptor NR4A3 is required for the proper differentiation of MoDCs but not for other types of DCs. Indeed, the generation of DC-SIGN+ MoDCs in response to LPS was severely impaired in Nr4a3 -/- mice, which resulted in the inability to mount optimal CD8+ T cell responses to gram-negative bacteria. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that NR4A3 is required to skew monocyte differentiation toward MoDCs, at the expense of macrophages, and allows the acquisition of migratory characteristics required for MoDC function. Altogether, our data identify that the NR4A3 transcription factor is required to guide the fate of monocytes toward MoDCs.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Receptores de Esteroides/deficiência , Receptores de Esteroides/imunologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/deficiência , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 112: 103184, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295549

RESUMO

The rate of carbohydrate metabolism is tightly coordinated with developmental transitions in Drosophila, and fluctuates depending on the requirements of a particular developmental stage. These successive metabolic switches result from changes in the expression levels of genes encoding glycolytic, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), and oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. In this report, we describe a repressive action of ecdysone signaling on the expression of glycolytic genes and enzymes of glycogen metabolism in Drosophila development. The basis of this effect is an interaction between the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR), a specific regulator of the Drosophila glycolysis. We found an overlapping DNA-binding pattern for the EcR and ERR in the Drosophila S2 cells. EcR was detected at a subset of the ERR target genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism. The 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment of both the Drosophila larvae and the S2 cells decreased transcriptional levels of ERR targets. We propose a joint action mode for both the EcR and ERR, for at least a subset of the glycolytic genes. We find that both receptors bind to the same regulatory regions and may form or be part of a joint transcriptional regulatory complex in the Drosophila S2 cells.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecdisterona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética
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