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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008097

RESUMO

Research shows that bullying is a significant workplace issue. A previous study showed increased sickness-related absences among municipality employees during the Icelandic economic crisis in 2008. This led to the following research questions: has bullying and/or harassment increased between the time points of the study up to seven years after the crisis? Did bullying and/or harassment change depending on downsizing? Are quantitative job demands, role conflicts and social support connected to bullying and/or harassment at work and if so, how? The study is based on a four-wave longitudinal balanced panel dataset consisting of those who work within the education and care services operated by Icelandic municipalities. It was seen that bullying and harassment had increased between the time points of the study. Furthermore, employees in downsized workplaces, workplaces with higher quantitative job demands, more role conflicts and less support were more likely to experience bullying and/or harassment than employees in other workplaces. Since the effects may prevail for several years, the study demonstrates that the consequences of downsizing need to be carefully considered and that managers must be supported in that role. As economic crises tend to occur periodically, presently due to COVID-19, the knowledge is both of theoretical and practical importance.


Assuntos
Bullying , Recessão Econômica , Downsizing Organizacional , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Humanos , Islândia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931506

RESUMO

This study quantifies the economic effect of a possible lockdown of Tokyo to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The negative effect of such a lockdown may propagate to other regions through supply chains because of supply and demand shortages. Applying an agent-based model to the actual supply chains of nearly 1.6 million firms in Japan, we simulate what would happen to production activities outside Tokyo if production activities that are not essential to citizens' survival in Tokyo were shut down for a certain period. We find that if Tokyo were locked down for a month, the indirect effect on other regions would be twice as large as the direct effect on Tokyo, leading to a total production loss of 27 trillion yen in Japan or 5.2% of the country's annual GDP. Although the production that would be shut down in Tokyo accounts for 21% of the total production in Japan, the lockdown would result in an 86% reduction of the daily production in Japan after one month.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Recessão Econômica , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tóquio
5.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 112, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944509

RESUMO

Background: Although "social isolation" protects the life and health of Vietnamese citizens from the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, it also triggers massive reductions in the economic activities of the country. Objective: our study aimed to identify negative impacts of COVID-19 on occupations of Vietnamese people during the first national lockdown, including the quality and quantity of jobs as well as adverse problems at work due to COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study using web-based platforms was conducted during the first time of social isolation in Vietnam at the beginning of April 2020. We utilized a respondent-driven sampling technique to select 1423 respondents from 63 cities and provinces over Vietnam. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to define sub-domains of perceived impacts of COVID-19 on occupations. Findings: Approximately two-thirds of respondents reported decreases in their income (61.6%), and 28.2% reported that their income deficit was 40% and above. The percentage of female individuals having decreased revenue due to COVID-19 was higher than that of male respondents (65.2% and 54.7%, respectively). "Worry that colleagues exposed to COVID-19 patients" and "Being alienated because employment-related to COVID-19" accounted for the highest score in each factor. Compared to healthcare workers, being self-employed/unemployed/retired were less likely to suffer from "Increased workload and conflicts due to COVID-19" and "Disclosure and discrimination related to COVID-19 work exposure." Conclusion: Our study revealed a drastic reduction in both the quality and quantity of working, as well as the increased fear and stigmatization of exposure to COVID-19 at workplaces. Health protection and economic support are immediate targets that should be focused on when implementing policies and regulations.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Desempenho Profissional , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e223, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958089

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), while mild in most cases, has nevertheless caused significant mortality. The measures adopted in most countries to contain it have led to colossal social and economic disruptions, which will impact the medium- and long-term health outcomes for many communities. In this paper, we deliberate on the reality and facts surrounding the disease. For comparison, we present data from past pandemics, some of which claimed more lives than COVID-19. Mortality data on road traffic crashes and other non-communicable diseases, which cause more deaths each year than COVID-19 has so far, is also provided. The indirect, serious health and social effects are briefly discussed. We also deliberate on how misinformation, confusion stemming from contrasting expert statements, and lack of international coordination may have influenced the public perception of the illness and increased fear and uncertainty. With pandemics and similar problems likely to re-occur, we call for evidence-based decisions, the restoration of responsible journalism and communication built on a solid scientific foundation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Recessão Econômica , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Risco , Distância Social
9.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 51: 102165, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732175

RESUMO

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic offers many medical, economic, societal, and cultural challenges. The response by individual states in the United States of America varies, but with the common initial impetus for all being to "flatten the curve," which was intended to delay infections and spread the burden and impact on hospitals and medical systems. Starting with that intention, the responses by states has included many major steps not taken in prior pandemics. Those steps have significantly adversely affected hospitals rather than support them, and the overall impact has been to "flatten the economy" rather than just to "flatten the curve." Many state governors have stated that their decisions are "science-led" and "data driven" but the reality is that there is not relevant experimental data. The progression of decisions during the early pandemic decisions is traced, and the basis of decisions based in science or herd mentality is discussed. Experiences are not experiments, and experiences are not founded in the scientific process. Medical and government leaders must be vigilant to recognize the limitations of available data in responding to unique circumstances.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Recessão Econômica , Economia Médica , Política de Saúde , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Governo Estadual , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784978

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the insurance industry by studying the case of Ghana from March to June 2020. With a parallel comparison to previous pandemics such as SARS-CoV, H1N1 and MERS, we developed outlines for simulating the impact of the pandemic on the insurance industry. The study used qualitative and quantitative interviews to estimate the impact of the pandemic. Presently, the trend is an economic recession with decreasing profits but increasing claims. Due to the cancellation of travels, events and other economic losses, the Ghanaian insurance industry witnessed a loss currently estimated at GH Ȼ112 million. Our comparison and forecast predicts a normalization of economic indicators from January 2021. In the meantime, while the pandemic persists, insurers should adapt to working from remote locations, train and equip staff to work under social distancing regulations, enhance cybersecurity protocols and simplify claims/premium processing using e-payment channels. It will require the collaboration of the Ghana Ministry of Health, Banking Sector, Police Department, Customs Excise and Preventive Service, other relevant Ministries and the international community to bring the pandemic to a stop.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Seguradoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Recessão Econômica , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Seguradoras/economia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias
13.
Public Health ; 185: 275-282, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extensive empirical and theoretical studies have been devoted to analyzing the relationship between tobacco and income. The price and income elasticities of demand for cigarette consumption are the main focus of studies in this body of literature. However, few empirical studies exist that analyze how economic growth affects the cigarette market, and no one has studied the effects of economic expansions and recessions. Spain, as in the other countries of the European Union, has suffered a strong recession since 2008. Therefore, this article aims to detect if income elasticity takes different values in economic growth and recession and, in addition, to check whether price elasticity in Spain is consistent with previous studies. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational epidemiological study. METHODS: In this article, the price and income elasticities of demand for cigarette consumption are measured for the Spanish cigarette market using time series data from 1957 to 2016 and by applying a non-linear autoregressive dynamics lag model. The novel specification proposed in this study is the determination of the possible effects of asymmetries in the economic shocks on cigarette consumption. RESULTS: Our results reveal that cigarette consumption maintains a notable asymmetric relationship. In particular, our results show that in expansion shocks, cigarette consumption increases (a 10% economic growth is associated with a 4.05% increase in cigarette consumption), whereas in recession shocks, cigarette consumption decreases dramatically, with a more pronounced pattern in recession phases than in expansion phases (a 10% economic decline is associated with a 58.16% decrease in cigarette consumption). On the other hand, price elasticity maintains the same behavior shown in the previous literature (a 10% price increase is associated with a 2% decrease in cigarette consumption). CONCLUSIONS: Higher cigarette prices are associated with decreased smoking. In addition, the economic recession helps in decreasing cigarette consumption. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that tax authorities have our results in mind before establishing health policies. If the authorities do not, it is possible that they will not obtain the expected results in terms of decreased tobacco consumption.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Comércio/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Recessão Econômica , União Europeia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Espanha , Impostos/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco
14.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 25-30, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690355

RESUMO

The sobering reality of the COVID-19 pandemic is that it has brought people together at home at a time when we want them apart in the community. This will bring both benefits and challenges. It will affect people differently based upon their age, health status, resilience, family support structures, and socio-economic background. This article will assess the impact in high income countries like Australia, where the initial wave of infection placed the elderly at the greatest risk of death whilst the protective measures of physical distancing, self-isolation, increased awareness of hygiene practices, and school closures with distance learning has had considerable impact on children and families acutely and may have ramifications for years to come.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Recessão Econômica , Educação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Alfabetização Digital , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919 , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/economia
18.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(3)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595676

RESUMO

The aim of this editorial is to illustrate the new public funding framework of the Italian National Health System following the Covid-19 pandemic. The document reviews the measures put in place by the Italian Government and European Institutions such as the European Commission (EC), the European Central Bank (ECB) and the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) to deal with this health crisis and subsequent severe economic recession, with particular reference to sources and uses of resources. The use of new budgetary financial spaces in deficit entails greater attention to the assessment of interventions and makes it necessary to keep expenditure under strict control. At the same time, the remodeling of expenditure within its aggregates, public investment in innovation, and the removal of administrative obstacles can strengthen the capacity of the healthcare system to meet the extraordinary needs deriving from the spread of Covid-19 and its resilience to future health shocks.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Recessão Econômica , Europa (Continente) , Gastos em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Saúde Pública
20.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S191-S192, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551770

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is projected to cause an economic shock larger than the global financial crisis of 2007-2008 and a recession as great as anything seen since the Great Depression in 1930s. The social and economic consequences of lockdowns and social distancing measures, such as unemployment, broken relationships and homelessness, create potential for intergenerational trauma extending decades into the future. In this article, we argue that, in the absence of a vaccine, governments need to introduce universal basic income as a means of mitigating this trauma. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Recessão Econômica , Renda , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Trauma Psicológico , Assistência Pública , Adulto , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Trauma Psicológico/economia , Trauma Psicológico/etiologia , Trauma Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Assistência Pública/economia , Desemprego
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