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1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(2): 244-258, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Drawing on the ideas of the adult dietary balance index method, based on the recipes of the kindergartens in Lanzhou City, to establish a dietary balance index that can quickly, accurately and conveniently evaluate the dietary quality of the people in the park. METHODS: The stratified random sampling method was used to select and collect 329 recipes for the 40 kindergartens in different geographical locations, grades and properties(public and private) in Lanzhou City from 2012 to 2017. Used EpiData 3. 1 to enter the main food types of the recipe, the specific cooking ingredients and the supply amount of the ingredients. In combination with the 2016 dietary guidelines for the dietary requirements of the population, determined the components and ranges of values for the dietary balance index appropriate for the population. And used this index to evaluate the quality of some complete recipes. RESULTS: The pre-school children's dietary balance index system in Lanzhou City includes 8 individual indicators: cereals, vegetables and fruits, milk and dairy products, soy products and nuts, animal foods, snacks for food consumption, food types and cooking method. Preliminary application of the index system to evaluate the dietary quality of some kindergartens showed that there were significant differences in LBS and DQD between kindergartens of different grades and different years(P<0. 05), and there was no significant difference in HBS(P>0. 05). The result of the dietary evaluation method were consistent. CONCLUSION: The established dietary balance index for preschool children in Lanzhou City can meet the rapid, accurate and convenient evaluation of the dietary quality of the population during the park. In addition to focusing on establishing relevant indicators for food group classification and evaluation, the establishment of specific indicator systems should also increase indicators on children's dietary types and cooking and processing method.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta , Política Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Frutas , Humanos , Verduras
2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 152: 88-95, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121274

RESUMO

AIMS: To secure adequate carbohydrate supply in pregnancy, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends a minimum amount of carbohydrates of 175 g daily. Currently a low carbohydrate diet is a popular health trend in the general population and this might also be common among overweight and obese pregnant women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, we explored carbohydrate consumption among pregnant women with T2D including women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) for comparison. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive women with T2D (N = 96) and T1D (N = 108), where dietary records were collected at the first antenatal visit. RESULTS: Among women with T2D and T1D, bodyweight at the first visit was 90.8 ±â€¯22 (mean ±â€¯SD) and 75.5 ±â€¯15 kg (P < 0.001) while HbA1c was 6.6 ±â€¯1.2% (49 ±â€¯13 mmol/mol) and 6.6 ±â€¯0.8% (48 ±â€¯8 mmol/mol), P = 0.8, respectively. The average daily carbohydrate consumption from the major carbohydrate sources was similar in the two groups (159 ±â€¯56 and 167 ±â€¯48 g, P = 0.3), as was the level of total daily physical activity (median (interquartile range)): 215 (174-289) and 210 (178-267) metabolic equivalent of task-hour/week (P = 0.9). A high proportion of women with T2D and T1D (52% and 40%, P = 0.08) consumed fewer carbohydrates than recommended by the IOM. The prevalence of ketonuria (≥4 mmol/L) was 1% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In early pregnancy, a lower daily carbohydrate consumption than recommended by the IOM was common among women with T2D. The results were quite similar to women with T1D, despite a markedly higher bodyweight in women with T2D. Reassuringly, ketonuria was rare in both groups.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Gravidez em Diabéticas/dietoterapia , Gravidez em Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/normas , Carboidratos da Dieta/normas , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.) Health and Medicine Division , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
3.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 29(5): 306-310, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130187

RESUMO

Consumption of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFAs) increases LDL cholesterol, either decreases or has no effect on HDL cholesterol, and increases markers of inflammation. Observational studies have shown that consumption of TFA produced by partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (PHOs) is associated with increased mortality and incidence of MI and stroke rates. Regulatory initiatives to restrict PHOs to less than 2 g per day from food sources, along with concurrent initiatives to reduce tobacco exposure, have been associated with reduction in cardiovascular mortality and MI rates. What remains unknown is whether the consumption of amounts <2 g per day of PHOs is also harmful and whether TFAs present in milk and the meats of ruminant animals is beneficial or harmful.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Animais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
4.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 101, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992005

RESUMO

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have important roles in physiological homeostasis. Numerous studies have provided extensive information about the roles of n-3 LCPUFA, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Arachidonic acid (ARA) is one of the major n-6 LCPUFAs and its biological aspects have been well studied. However, nutritional information for ARA is limited, especially in adult humans. This review presents a framework of dietary ARA intake and the effects of ARA supplementation on LCPUFA metabolism in adult humans, and the nutritional significance of ARA and LCPUFA is discussed.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais
5.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934755

RESUMO

Dairy product consumption is important during childhood, as dairy products provide nutrients to support growth and development. However, a high proportion of children globally are not meeting recommended daily intakes, which may have long-term health implications. Accumulating evidence suggests that interventions aimed at instilling healthy lifestyle habits are most effective when initiated during the preschool years. Therefore, the purpose of the review was to identify the characteristics of effective dairy and/or calcium interventions targeting preschool-aged children. A systematic literature review identified 14 intervention studies published between 1998⁻2018 addressing dairy/calcium intakes in the preschool population (1.5 to 5 years). Intervention reporting was assessed using intervention intensity, behavior change techniques and Workgroup for Intervention Development and Evaluation Research (WIDER), with the quality of studies evaluated using risk of bias and Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Five of the 14 studies included in the review reported significant improvements in children's dairy (4/5) or calcium (1/5) intake. Characteristics that may enable intervention effectiveness include the delivery of interventions in one setting (preschool facility), using specific behavior change techniques (environmental restructuring and teach to use prompts/cues), and targeting both parent and child. Overall, the interventions assessed demonstrated variable success and highlighted the need for developing effective interventions designed to increase dairy and/or calcium intakes in preschool-aged children.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Cálcio na Dieta , Laticínios , Dieta/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recomendações Nutricionais
6.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987388

RESUMO

In this study, we used the Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition (CCHS) 2015 data to examine the consumption patterns of grain-based foods (GBFs) for Canadian adults. We used a k-mean cluster analysis based on the contribution of 21 grain-based foods to total energy intake of adults in Canada to find the dietary patterns of GBFs. Cluster analyses rendered seven dietary patterns including: 'other bread', 'cake and cookies', 'pasta', 'rice', 'mixed', 'white bread', and finally 'whole wheat and whole-grain bread'. 'No grain' and 'rice' consumers had lower intakes of dietary fibre, folate, iron and calcium, which are the nutrients of public health concern in Canada. Adults consuming a 'mixed grain' dietary pattern had a greater daily intake of calcium, potassium, magnesium, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 than those in the 'no grain' dietary pattern. We also observed that a considerable proportion of individuals clustered in the 'rice' group are immigrants and belong to households with lower income levels.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Grão Comestível , Preferências Alimentares , Dieta Saudável , Adulto , Canadá , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(6): 1623-1628, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to healthy lifestyle factors has been shown to improve outcomes after stroke. This study aimed to identify lifestyle factors about eating habits that may affect the quality of life (QOL) in elderly stroke patients. METHODS: Fifty elderly patients with a first-ever stroke were enrolled. QOL was assessed by the Stroke and Aphasia QOL Scale-39-J. Lifestyle factors about eating habits were collected using questionnaires (Questions 1-17) for the intake of salt, calcium, magnesium, potassium, taurine, fiber, and protein, and the frequency of breakfast. RESULTS: QOL of physical, communication, and psychosocial subdomains was better in the low (healthy) tertile of poststroke eating habits (Questions 1-17) compared with the high tertile of post-troke eating habits (Questions 1-17). This relationship appeared in eating habits except for salt intake but not in eating habits of salt intake and directly measured salt intake. Compared with prestroke eating habits score, poststroke eating habits score was decreased (improved) in 36 patients concerning eating habits of salt intake, but only in 12 patients concerning eating habits except for salt intake (P < .05 by chi-square test). Poststroke eating habits of calcium and magnesium were associated with better psychosocial QOL and better physical or energy QOL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Poststroke eating habits of calcium and magnesium were associated with QOL in elderly patients with a first-ever stroke. Since eating habits except for salt intake was poorly improved after stroke, intensive interventions regarding eating habits might be important.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta Saudável , Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875784

RESUMO

Public interest in popular diets is increasing, in particular whole-food plant-based (WFPB) and vegan diets. Whether these diets, as theoretically implemented, meet current food-based and nutrient-based recommendations has not been evaluated in detail. Self-identified WFPB and vegan diet followers in the Adhering to Dietary Approaches for Personal Taste (ADAPT) Feasibility Survey reported their most frequently used sources of information on nutrition and cooking. Thirty representative days of meal plans were created for each diet. Weighted mean food group and nutrient levels were calculated using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) and data were compared to DRIs and/or USDA Dietary Guidelines/MyPlate meal plan recommendations. The calculated HEI-2015 scores were 88 out of 100 for both WFPB and vegan meal plans. Because of similar nutrient composition, only WFPB results are presented. In comparison to MyPlate, WFPB meal plans provide more total vegetables (180%), green leafy vegetables (238%), legumes (460%), whole fruit (100%), whole grains (132%), and less refined grains (-74%). Fiber level exceeds the adequate intakes (AI) across all age groups. WFPB meal plans failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)s for vitamin B12 and D without supplementation, as well as the RDA for calcium for women aged 51⁻70. Individuals who adhere to WFBP meal plans would have higher overall dietary quality as defined by the HEI-2015 score as compared to typical US intakes with the exceptions of calcium for older women and vitamins B12 and D without supplementation. Future research should compare actual self-reported dietary intakes to theoretical targets.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegana/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(1): 102-105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814405

RESUMO

To clarify the degree of consistency between the international recommendations and the national Japanese system, the nutrient reference values (NRVs) adopted by the CODEX were compared with current Japanese NRVs 2015, the dietary reference intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2015, and actual nutrient intake levels by the Japanese population. The Japanese NRV for protein was high relative to CODEX NRV-R (i.e., NRV-Requirement). The Japanese NRVs for folate and calcium were low, and vitamin K was high, relative to each CODEX NRV-R. However, it was similar to the DRI-J values, and current intake levels for the Japanese population. For iron, calculation methods were different between the CODEX and Japan. Japanese iron NRV was calculated based on the RDA without menstruatating women, whereas CODEX NRV-R was calculated based on the INL98 of all adult men and women. Actual intake levels of iron for the Japanese population were similarly low. The Japanese NRV for sodium was high and potassium was low based on DRI-J values, relative to the CODEX NRV-NCD. For nutrients that show large discrepancies between the CODEX and Japanese NRVs, the values should be discussed further.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Nutrientes/normas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Cálcio na Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/normas , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/normas , Valores de Referência
10.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. It is assumed to result from interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including nutrition. We hypothesized that there are differences in nutritional parameters between MS patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We examined 63 MS patients and 83 healthy controls. Nutritional status was determined by a dietary questionnaire, blood tests, quantification of cell membrane fatty acids, and serum antioxidant capacity. RESULTS: We found that MS patients consumed a more limited diet compared with the healthy group, indicated by a lower average of 31 nutrients and by consumption levels of zinc and thiamine below the recommended daily intake. Both consumption and measured iron values were significantly lower in MS patients, with the lowest measures in the severe MS group. Long saturated fatty acids (>C16) were significantly lower in MS patients, while palmitic and palmitoleic acids were both higher. Serum total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in the MS group compared with healthy controls, with the lowest measures in patients with severe MS. CONCLUSIONS: This study points to a possible correlation between nutritional status and MS. Understanding the clinical meaning of these findings will potentially allow for the development of future personalized dietary interventions as part of MS treatment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Tiamina/análise , Zinco/análise
11.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 3102870, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805036

RESUMO

Chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation is a well-characterized risk factor in the development of chronic metabolic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Diet could be an effective strategy for reducing inflammation associated with chronic disease. While anti-inflammatory properties of isolated dietary bioactive and functional foods have been routinely studied, the evaluation of dietary patterns on inflammation warrants further review-especially given the recent inclusion of dietary pattern recommendations into dietary guidelines and policies. Therefore, the objective of this narrative review is to examine current evidence linking diet to low-grade, systemic inflammation within the context of chronic disease. Specifically, we provide an update on the findings from human trials that have characterized anti-inflammatory properties of dietary patterns, defined by various methods and indexes. Given the complexity of interpreting results from dietary pattern analysis, we further present recent evidence on the anti-inflammatory roles of isolated bioactive nutrients and functional foods that are common components of distinct dietary patterns, in addition to considerations for interpreting dietary pattern research, population-specific dietary recommendations, and future studies. Overall, we observe a vast range of variability in the evidence from observational studies that have evaluated the relationships between healthy dietary patterns and inflammatory markers. These studies highlight the need for additional intervention studies with study designs that account for metabolic status, diversity in populations, breadth of inflammatory measurements, fasting vs. postprandial effects of diet, and control of confounding factors (e.g., genotype, microbiome profiles, and dietary adherence) in order to better understand the effect that diet has, as a whole, on inflammation. These strategies will help to strengthen diet recommendations aimed at reducing inflammation and chronic disease risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Recomendações Nutricionais
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 125: 210-216, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615956

RESUMO

A preliminary study by our group suggested that the absorption and accumulation of cadmium may be affected by zinc intake. Tobacco smoke is one major source of cadmium exposure that highly influences cadmium burden among smokers, but it is unclear whether this zinc-cadmium relationship differs by smoking status. The objective of this study was to examine whether the association between zinc intake and cadmium burden differs by smoking status using data from 3900 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. In an adjusted regression model, dietary cadmium was positively associated with blood and urinary cadmium. There was a significant interaction between zinc intake and smoking status, so we analyzed associations within smoking status subgroups. In an adjusted regression model, zinc intake was inversely associated with urinary cadmium only among non-smokers. Failure to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc was more common among current smokers than non-smokers, and among those in the highest quintile of blood and urinary cadmium than those in lower quintiles. Zinc intake was inversely associated with urinary cadmium only among subjects meeting the zinc RDA, suggesting that the relationship between zinc intake and cadmium burden differs by smoking status.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Zinco/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3769-3775, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper aims to assess different scenarios that reduce water use by following healthy diet recommendations. In this study, a food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual food intake of a sample of 723 individuals, aged 20-64 years, from Urmia, Iran. In order to calculate water use for production of food items, the water footprint method was applied. A linear programming technique was used to find a healthy diet with low blue water footprint in three scenarios. RESULTS: The biggest decline in water use compared with real intake (57%) was found in scenario 1, where the model-generated consider energy intake equal to usual energy intake. In scenario 2, in which the proportion of each food group was allowed to be in accordance with the Iranian food pyramid, the reduction in water use was less than for scenario 1 (47%). In scenario 3, where the Recommended Dietary Allowance values were also added to the set of model restrictions, the water usage was 51% of the real diet. CONCLUSION: A healthy diet with greater proportion of energy from fruit and dairy instead of a diet with high proportion of energy from 'meat-fish-poultry-eggs' and 'bread-cereal-rice-pasta' can supply all Recommended Dietary Allowances while reducing water use. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Água/metabolismo , Adulto , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais , Água/análise , Adulto Jovem
14.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(2)2019 01 29.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, the Norwegian National Nutrition Council concluded that inadequate iodine intake is widespread in sections of the Norwegian population, and that effective measures should be undertaken immediately. This literature review aims to summarise articles published since January 2016 that describe the iodine intake in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Embase. Altogether thirteen articles that reported intake of iodine from the diet or urinary iodine concentration were included. RESULTS: The recent studies confirm that inadequate iodine intake is widespread among women of fertile age, pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants who are exclusively breastfed, elderly persons, vegans and immigrants. There are few sources of iodine in the diet, and persons who avoid or have a low intake of milk and white fish are particularly vulnerable. INTERPRETATION: Inadequate iodine intake is a matter of particular concern in women of fertile age. Healthcare personnel should be aware of this and in certain cases recommend iodine-rich foods or iodine supplements to these and other vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Iodo , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/deficiência , Iodo/uso terapêutico , Iodo/urina , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite Humano/química , Noruega , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Recomendações Nutricionais , Veganos
15.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696021

RESUMO

We recently showed that using micronutrient ratios in nutritional research might provide more insights into how diet affects metabolism and health outcomes, based on the notion that nutrients, unlike drugs, are not consumed one at a time and do not target a single metabolic pathway. In this paper, we present a concept of macronutrient ratios, including intra- and inter-macronutrient ratios. Macronutrient intakes from food only, from the What We Eat in America website (summarized National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data) were transposed into Microsoft Excel to generate ratios. Overall, the dietary ratios of macronutrients may be more revealing and useful in epidemiology and in basic nutritional research than focusing on individual protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes. While macronutrient ratios may be applied to all types of nutritional research, nutritional epidemiology, and, ultimately, dietary guidelines, the methodology required has not been established yet. In the meantime, intra- and inter-macronutrient ratios may serve as a measure of individual and total macronutrient quality.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Nutrientes/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Estado Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais
16.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642136

RESUMO

In the first 2 years of life, it is important to limit exposure to foods high in free sugars, in order to lay foundations for lifelong eating patterns associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease. Intake data at this age is limited, so compliance with recommendations is not known. This analysis describes free sugars intakes, food sources and determinants of high consumption among Australian children at 2 years of age. Free sugars intakes were estimated using a customized Food Frequency Questionnaire, and median usual free sugars intake at 2 years was 22.5 (Interquartile Range (IQR) 12.8⁻37.7) g/day, contributing a median 8% of the estimated energy requirement (EER). Based on the EER, most children (71.1%) exceeded the World Health Organization recommendation that <5% of energy should come from free sugars, with 38% of participants exceeding the <10% recommendation. Children from households with the greatest socioeconomic disadvantage were more likely to exceed the 10% recommendation (Prevalence Ratio (PR) 1.44, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.13⁻1.84), and be in the top tertile for free sugars intake (PR 1.58, 95% CI 1.19⁻2.10) than the least disadvantaged. Main sources of free sugars were non-core foods, such as fruit juice, biscuits, cakes, desserts and confectionery; with yogurt and non-dairy milk alternatives the two notable exceptions. Improved efforts to reduce free sugars are needed from the introduction of solid food, with a particular focus on fruit juice and non-core foods.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Bebidas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doces , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Laticínios , Dieta , Feminino , Frutas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Recomendações Nutricionais , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
17.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669401

RESUMO

The World Health Organization recommends a minimum requirement of 0.8 g/day protein/kg ideal weight. Low protein diets are used against kidney failure progression. Efficacy and safety of these diets are uncertain. This paper reviews epidemiological studies about associations of protein intake with kidney function decline and mortality. Three studies investigated these associations; two reported data on mortality. Protein intake averaged >60 g/day and 1.2 g/day/kg ideal weight. An association of baseline protein intake with long-term kidney function decline was absent in the general population and/or persons with normal kidney function but was significantly positive in persons with below-normal kidney function. Independent of kidney function and other confounders, a J-curve relationship was found between baseline protein intake and mortality due to ≈35% mortality excess for non-cardiovascular disease in the lowest quintile of protein intake, a quintile where protein intake averaged <0.8 g/day/kg ideal weight. Altogether, epidemiological evidence suggests that, in patients with reduced kidney function, protein intakes of ≈0.8 g/d/kg ideal weight could limit kidney function decline without adding non-renal risks. Long-term lower protein intake could increase mortality. In most patients, an intake of ≈0.8 g/day/kg would represent a substantial reduction of habitual intake considering that average intake is largely higher.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Rim , Necessidades Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal/dietoterapia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Recomendações Nutricionais
18.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609695

RESUMO

Pregnant and lactating women in rural Niger are at high risk for inadequate intakes of multiple micronutrients. Thus, 24 h dietary recalls were conducted and analyzed for dietary intakes in this population (n = 202). Using linear programming analyses, micronutrient gaps in women's diets were identified, food-based recommendations (FBR) to improve dietary micronutrient adequacy were developed, and various supplementation strategies were modelled. Energy intakes were below estimated requirements, and, for most micronutrients, >50% of women were at risk of inadequate intakes. Linear programming analyses indicated it would be difficult to select a diet that achieved recommended dietary allowances for all but three (vitamin B6, iron and zinc) of 11 modeled micronutrients. Consumption of one additional meal per day, and adherence to the selected FBR (daily consumption of dark green leafy vegetables, fermented milk, millet, pulses, and vitamin A fortified oil), would result in a low percentage of women at risk of inadequate intakes for eight modeled micronutrients (vitamin A, riboflavin, thiamin, B6, folate, iron, zinc, and calcium). Because the promotion of realistic FBRs likely will not ensure that a low percentage of women are at risk of inadequate intakes for all modeled micronutrients, multiple micronutrient supplementation or provision of nutrient-dense foods should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Lactação/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Programação Linear , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Micronutrientes , Níger , Gravidez , Recomendações Nutricionais
19.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(1): 9-25, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671873

RESUMO

Essential hypertension still represents the most common cardiovascular risk factor, which is responsible for the vast majority of global burden of disease, worldwide. Antihypertensive treatment aimed at lowering blood pressure (BP) levels to the recommended therapeutic targets has demonstrated to reduce risk of developing major cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal complications. Despite these evidence, overall rates of BP control are dramatically low in most European and Western countries, as well as in the so called developing countries, thus contributing to the increasingly amount of hypertension-related costs and disabilities. For these reasons, preventive strategies aimed at improving BP control rates in treated hypertensive patients and reducing high-normal BP levels in asymptomatic otherwise healthy individuals may contribute to reduce the burden of disease related to hypertension. In this view, an extensive use of nutrients and nutraceuticals has demonstrated to provide favorable effects in hypertension management and control, beyond the adoption of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. These interventions can effectively and safely reduce BP levels to targets and prevent disease progression form high-normal BP levels towards stage 1 hypertension. The present consensus document will systematically describe and critically analyze the currently available evidence in favor of the use of nutrients and nutraceuticals in those individuals with high-normal BP levels at different cardiovascular risk profile.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Cardiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipertensão Essencial/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Dieta Saudável , Pré-Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Cardiologia/normas , Consenso , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Hipertensão Essencial/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Essencial/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Essencial/fisiopatologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 44(4): 450-453, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628461

RESUMO

Individuals who take medications may benefit from using vitamin and/or mineral supplements (VMS) yet excess supplementation can lead to overuse (daily intake exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL)). This study assessed VMS use of medically complex, community-living, older adults. A chart review of 229 patients ≥50 years with new medication assessments between 2014 and 2017 indicated that 76.9% of patients used ≥1 VMS daily. The UL for one or more nutrients was exceeded by 39.8% of supplement users.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vida Independente , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Recomendações Nutricionais , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
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