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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371796

RESUMO

Overlapping micronutrient interventions might increase the risk of excessive micronutrient intake, with potentially adverse health effects. To evaluate how strategies currently implemented in Benin and Ghana contribute to micronutrient intake in women of reproductive age (WRA), and to assess the risk for excess intakes, scenarios of basic rural and urban diets were built, and different on-going interventions were added. We estimated micronutrient intakes for all different scenarios. Four types of intervention were included in the scenarios: fortification, biofortification, supplementation and use of locally available nutrient-rich foods. Basic diets contributed poorly to daily micronutrient intake in WRA. Fortification of oil and salt were essential to reach daily requirements for vitamin A and iodine, while fortified flour contributed less. Biofortified products could make an important contribution to the coverage of vitamin A needs, while they were not sufficient to cover the needs of WRA. Iron and folic acid supplementation was a major contributor in the intake of iron and folate, but only in pregnant and lactating women. Risk of excess were found for three micronutrients (vitamin A, folic acid and niacin) in specific contexts, with excess only coming from voluntary fortified food, supplementation and the simultaneous overlap of several interventions. Better regulation and control of fortification and targeting of supplementation could avoid excess intakes.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/análise , Terapia Nutricional/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipernutrição/etiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Benin/epidemiologia , Biofortificação/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacina/análise , Terapia Nutricional/efeitos adversos , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina A/análise , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371876

RESUMO

The present study aimed to provide a descriptive analysis of the nutrient profile of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) marketed in Italy according to three front-of-pack labeling (FOPL) schemes implemented by France, i.e., the Nutriscore; by the United Kingdom, i.e., Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL); and by Italy, i.e., the NutrInform battery. The analysis was made in fourteen food product categories, corresponding to 124 foods. The application of the Nutriscore scheme showed that a significant proportion of foods (23%) were awarded an A or B. Furthermore, the analysis according to the MTL showed that food products that were above the threshold ("red") for fat, saturated fats, sugars, and salt ranged from 13% to 31%. Interestingly, even though all foods considered in the analysis were UPF, they were heterogeneous in nutritional composition, as demonstrated by the FOPL schemes applied, showing that UPF represent a heterogeneous group of foods with different characteristics. Such a finding may have relevant implications for epidemiological studies that analyze the association between UPF consumption and health outcomes, suggesting the need for better characterization of the effects of UPF intake on human health.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Fast Foods/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Itália
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371896

RESUMO

Sexual and gender minority college students are underrepresented in nutrition research and may face unique challenges related to eating which impact their overall diet quality. We assessed the differences in eating competence and dietary intake between sexual and gender minority (SGM) and cisgender heterosexual (CH) college students. Participants (n = 2645) reported sexual orientation, gender identity and completed the Eating Competence Satter Inventory (ecSI 2.0™ through an online questionnaire. Three-day food records examined dietary intake. Intake was compared to recommendations for nutrients of public health concern. Chi-square and ANCOVA examined differences between eating competence and dietary intake. There were no differences in total ecSI 2.0™ scores. Subscale scores for Eating Attitudes and Contextual Skills were significantly higher in CH vs. SGM students (13.4 ± 0.1 vs. 12.4 ± 0.4 p = 0.01 and 10.7 ± 0.1 vs. 9.9 ± 0.3, p = 0.01, respectively). Most students (40.8%) met one nutrient recommendation. The proportion of students meeting nutrient recommendations were similar for SGM and CH. SGM populations may struggle with attitudes and eating behaviors. Dietary intake of SGM and CH students were similarly inadequate when compared to recommendations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout is an undesirable mental condition, which may have a negative impact on individuals' health and work ability. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between diet and burnout symptoms among female public sector employees. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 630 female employees from 10 municipal work units of the city of Pori, Finland. Burnout symptoms were assessed with the Bergen Burnout Indicator (BBI). The consumption of food items was determined using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The main food groups were categorized into healthy and unhealthy foods based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for a healthy and balanced diet. RESULTS: In multivariate linear regression analysis, consumption of healthy food items had an inverse relationship with the severity of burnout symptoms independently of age, education years, physical activity, and depressive symptoms. De-tailed analysis revealed that subjects with lower BBI score consumed more often low-fat dairy produce, vegetables, fruit and berries, vegetable food, and white meat. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent consumption of healthy food items is associated with low level of burnout symptoms. Our results emphasize the importance of diverse and balanced healthy diet to promote work well-being.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Saúde do Trabalhador , Setor Público , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371903

RESUMO

Nutrition during pregnancy has lifelong impacts on the health of mother and child. However, this life stage presents unique challenges to healthy cooking and eating. Cooking interventions show promising results, but often lack theoretical basis and rigorous evaluation. The objective of this formative, qualitative study was to explore motivators, strategies, and barriers related to healthy cooking during pregnancy. Pregnant individuals' preferences for a cooking education program were also explored. We conducted five focus groups with pregnant individuals (n = 20) in Southeast Michigan in 2019. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, then double coded by two members of the research team. Mean gestational age was 18.3 ± 9.6 weeks. Common motivators included feeding other children, avoiding pregnancy complications, promoting fetal growth, and avoiding foodborne illness. Challenges included pregnancy symptoms, navigating nutrition recommendations, mental energy of meal planning, family preferences, and time constraints. Strategies employed were meal planning and including a variety of foods. Participants identified organizational strategies, recipes, nutrition information, and peer support as important components of a cooking intervention during pregnancy. This study characterized multiple challenges to healthy home cooking during pregnancy, providing novel insight to inform the development of cooking skills education programs during this important life stage.


Assuntos
Culinária , Dieta Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Motivação , Valor Nutritivo , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Michigan , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recomendações Nutricionais
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371913

RESUMO

Promoting children's healthy diets is a key public health priority. Family can play a relevant role in children's eating patterns. The goals of the current research were to identify different latent diet profiles in children based on their food consumption and to assess the relationship between profiles and family-related factors. A total of 678 school-aged children from the fifth and sixth grades participated. The study design was cross-sectional and questionnaire based. Research assessed healthy (fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages, and candies) food consumption and family-related factors. A latent profile analysis and multivariate data analysis were developed. Four diet profiles were identified: Combined Diet, Mainly Healthy Diet, Mainly Unhealthy Diet, and Very Unhealthy Diet. Nearly half of the children (45.22%) showed a Combined Diet profile, meaning that they reported eating nearly the same amount of healthy and unhealthy types of foods. Associations between the diet profiles, family income, and food availability were found. For example, the Mainly Healthy Diet profile was statistically associated with a higher family income and less access to unhealthy foods. The present study reinforces the idea that profiling diets can allow for a tailored healthy eating intervention model according to the specific needs of each diet profile.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras , Fatores Etários , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Poder Familiar , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371914

RESUMO

Few online food ordering systems provide tailored dietary feedback to consumers, despite suggested benefits. The study aim was to determine the effect of providing tailored feedback on the healthiness of students' lunch orders from a school canteen online ordering system. A cluster randomized controlled trial with ten government primary schools in New South Wales, Australia was conducted. Consenting schools that used an online canteen provider ('Flexischools') were randomized to either: a graph and prompt showing the proportion of 'everyday' foods selected or a standard online ordering system. Students with an online lunch order during baseline data collection were included (n = 2200 students; n = 7604 orders). Primary outcomes were the proportion of foods classified as 'everyday' or 'caution'. Secondary outcomes included: mean energy, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content. There was no difference over time between groups on the proportion of 'everyday' (OR 0.99; p = 0.88) or 'caution' items purchased (OR 1.17; p = 0.45). There was a significant difference between groups for average energy content (mean difference 51 kJ; p-0.02), with both groups decreasing. There was no difference in the saturated fat, sugar, or sodium content. Tailored feedback did not impact the proportion of 'everyday' or 'caution' foods or the nutritional quality of online canteen orders. Future research should explore whether additional strategies and specific feedback formats can promote healthy purchasing decisions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Dieta Saudável , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Comportamento Alimentar , Serviços de Alimentação , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Saudável/economia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação/economia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Planejamento de Cardápio , New South Wales , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371918

RESUMO

Effective actions for the fishery and aquaculture sectors to contribute toward improving nutrition rely on an understanding of the factors influencing fish intake, particularly amongst vulnerable populations. This scoping review synthesises evidence from 33 studies in the African Great Lakes Region to examine the influence of food environments on fish acquisition and consumption. We identified only two studies that explicitly applied a food environment framework and none that linked policy conditions with the contribution of fish to diets. Economic access to fish was represented in the largest number of included studies (21 studies), followed by preferences, acceptability and desirability of fish (17 studies) and availability and physical access (14 studies). Positive perceptions of taste and low cost, relative to other animal-source foods, were drivers of fish purchases in many settings; however, limited physical and economic access were frequently identified as preventing optimal intake. In lakeside communities, fish were increasingly directed toward external markets which reduced the availability and affordability of fish for local households. Few studies considered intra-household variations in fish access according to age, gender or physiological status, which represents an important knowledge gap. There is also scope for future research on seasonal influences on fish access and the design and rigorous evaluation of programmes and policies that address one or more constraints of availability, cost, convenience and preferences.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Pesqueiros , Peixes , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Marinhos , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Pesqueiros/economia , Cadeia Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Lagos , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371926

RESUMO

Fruits are micronutrient-rich sources which are often underrepresented in children's diets. More insights into the determinants of children's fruit consumption are needed to improve nutrition education in Teso South Sub-County, Kenya. A multiphase mixed method study was applied among 48 farm households with children 0-8 years of age. A market survey together with focus group discussions were used to design a formative research approach including qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The unavailability of fruits and the inability to plant fruit trees in the homesteads were the main challenges to improve fruit consumption behaviour, although a number of different fruit species were available on the market or in households. Perceived shortage of fruits, financial constraints to purchase fruits and taste were important barriers. Fruits as snacks given between meals was perceived as helpful to satisfy children. The mean number of fruit trees in the homesteads was positively associated with fruit consumption. Field trials are needed to test how best fruit trees within home gardens and on farms can be included, acknowledging limited space and constraints of households with young children. This should be combined with nutrition education programs addressing perceptions about the social and nutrient value of fruits for children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Produtos Agrícolas , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371927

RESUMO

The availability, purchase and consumption of foods high in fat, sugars and salt and low in fibre are linked to the high health and economic burden of noncommunicable diseases, including cancer, in Europe. Therefore, assessing the quality of the food offer is key as feedback to decision makers, as well as to identify good practices and areas of the food supply still requiring urgent action. We combined detailed market share and sales data with nutrition composition data to evaluate the nutritional quality of 14 packaged food and soft drinks categories sold across 22 European countries over the 2015-2018 period. Our analysis shows great variability of the nutritional composition within and among packaged food and soft drinks categories across European countries. Our estimates of the market-share weighted mean, a measure that integrates possible changes in nutrient content with the amount of a product sold to consumers, as well as daily per capita nutrient sale estimates, suggest a small but statistically significant progress in certain food categories only. Overall, the amounts of sugars, saturated fat, salt and fibre being sold to European citizens through these products is not improving to an extent to meet public health objectives.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Comércio/tendências , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Gorduras na Dieta/economia , Fibras na Dieta/economia , Açúcares da Dieta/economia , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Alimentar , Embalagem de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais/tendências , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/economia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are numerous guidelines developed for bone health. Yet, it is unclear whether the differences in guideline development methods explain the variability in the recommendations for vitamin D and calcium intake. The objective of this systematic review was to collate and compare recommendations for vitamin D and calcium across bone health guidelines, assess the methods used to form the recommendations, and explore which methodological factors were associated with these guideline recommendations. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other databases indexing guidelines to identify records in English between 2009 and 2019. Guidelines or policy statements on bone health or osteoporosis prevention for generally healthy adults aged ≥40 years were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted recommendations on daily vitamin D and calcium intake, supplement use, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and sunlight exposure; assessed guideline development methods against 25 recommended criteria in the World Health Organization (WHO) handbook for guideline development; and, identified types identified types of evidence underpinning the recommendations. RESULTS: we included 47 eligible guidelines from 733 records: 74% of the guidelines provided vitamin D (200~600-4000 IU/day) and 70% provided calcium (600-1200 mg/day) recommendations, 96% and 88% recommended vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, and 70% recommended a specific 25(OH)D concentration. On average, each guideline met 10 (95% CI: 9-12) of the total of 25 methodological criteria for guideline development recommended by the WHO Handbook. There was uncertainty in the association between the methodological criteria and the proportion of guidelines that provided recommendations on daily vitamin D or calcium. Various types of evidence, including previous bone guidelines, nutrient reference reports, systematic reviews, observational studies, and perspectives/editorials were used to underpin the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variability in vitamin D and calcium recommendations and in guideline development methods in bone health guidelines. Effort is required to strengthen the methodological rigor of guideline development and utilize the best available evidence to underpin nutrition recommendations in evidence-based guidelines on bone health.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371943

RESUMO

AIM: Hospital food provision is subject to multiple constraints (meal production, organization, health safety, environmental respect) which influence the meal tray offered to the patient. Multiple diets can add complexity and contribute to non-consumption of the meal. To avoid undernutrition, it appeared necessary to propose guidelines for foods and diets in hospitals. METHODS: These guidelines were developed using the Delphi method, as recommended by the HAS (French Health Authority), based on a formal consensus of experts and led by a group of practitioners and dieticians from the AFDN (French Association of Nutritionist Dieticians) and SFNCM (French Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism). RESULTS: Twenty-three recommendations were deemed appropriate and validated by a panel of 50 national experts, following three rounds of consultations, modifications and final strong agreement. These recommendations aim to define in adults: 1-harmonized vocabulary related to food and diets in hospitals; 2-quantitative and qualitative food propositions; 3-nutritional prescriptions; 4-diet patterns and patient adaptations; 5-streamlining of restrictions to reduce unnecessary diets and without scientific evidence; 6-emphasizing the place of an enriched and adapted diet for at-risk and malnourished patients. CONCLUSION: These guidelines will enable catering services and health-care teams to rationalize hospital food and therapeutic food prescriptions in order to focus on individual needs and tasty foods. All efforts should be made to create meals that follow these recommendations while promoting the taste quality of the dishes and their presentation such that the patient rediscovers the pleasure of eating in the hospital.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição/normas , Política Nutricional , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Comportamento Alimentar , França , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Refeições , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Formulação de Políticas , Recomendações Nutricionais
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371952

RESUMO

The distinct Tibetan regional diet is strongly influenced by the regional biogeography, indigenous traditions, popular religious beliefs and food taboos. In the context of the nutritional transition in Tibet, studies seldom report on the food consumption and dietary patterns of Tibetan residents. This is a cross-section study of 552 local adults (≥18 years old, 277 men and 275 women) living in 14 agricultural countries along the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Dietary intakes were assessed by a culturally specific FFQ and compared with the Chinese Dietary Pagoda (2016). Dietary Patterns were extracted by using PCA method. The binary logistic regression model was applied to assess the association between independent variables (genders, regions and age groups) and adherence to dietary patterns. With the exception of meat (100 ± 260 g/day) and soybean nuts (42 ± 12 g/day), which exceeded the recommended dietary intakes of CDP, the dietary intake of other foods were not up to the recommended value. In particular, the intake of aquatic products (2 ± 0.1 g/day), vegetables (90 ± 19 g/day), dairy products (114 ± 29 g/day), cereals (117 ± 27 g/day) and fruits (97 ± 25 g/day) were seriously inadequate, which were 95%, 70%, 62%, 53.2% and 51.5% lower than the recommended intakes, respectively. Four dietary patterns were identified. "Local traditional diet" was characterized by a high intake of tsampa (roasted highland barley flour), culturally specific beverages (sweet tea and yak buttered tea), potato and yak beef and was associated with female, rural and older adults (≥51 years old). The male, urban and 18~30 years old group had a higher adherence score with the "Han diet", which was comprised of rice, pork, dumplings, eggs, milk and cabbage. The "Beverage diet", which mainly include tsampa, chang (homemade barley wine) and sweet tea, was associated with the following group: female, urban and aged 18~30 years. The "Out-sourced diet" pattern, consisting of mainly rice, steam bread and some processed meat, was associated with being male, urban and 18-30 years of age. These findings indicate that the dietary practice of the Tibetan people still has strong local characteristics, but it is also undergoing a dietary transition with the penetration of the Chinese Han diet and the increased consumption of outsourced (processed) foods. The unbalanced dietary intake of Tibetan residents should be taken seriously by all parties.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Recomendações Nutricionais , Rios , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Tibet , População Urbana , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371965

RESUMO

Vegetables, fruits and berries are associated with reduced disease risk, and recommended intake is "five-a-day". We studied the intake of vegetables, fruits and berries and compliance with "five-a-day" in 11,425 adults (40-96 years) who completed a food frequency questionnaire in the seventh wave of the Tromsø Study (2015-2016). Intake and proportion above/below recommended intake (250 g/day of vegetables and 250 g/day of fruits/berries, combined and separately) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine compliance with recommendations in 10-year age-groups, and level of education, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity, in strata of sex and adjusted for total energy. Median intake of vegetables was 228 and 168 g/day, and fruits/berries 292 and 268 g/day, in women and men, respectively. In total, 31% of women and 17% of men met the five-a-day recommendation, and 44% and 60% of women, and 25% and 54% of men, met the recommendation for vegetables and fruits/berries, respectively. Odds of compliance with recommendation for both vegetables and fruits/berries were positively associated with age, education and physical activity (p trend < 0.001). The intake of vegetables, fruits and berries was suboptimal, in particular for vegetables. More women than men met the recommendation, and intake varied by education, physical activity level, age and BMI.


Assuntos
Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Frutas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Verduras , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Inquéritos Nutricionais
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210102

RESUMO

Dietary phosphorus intake in the USA has been consistently greater than the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) with several studies reporting associations between intake and health risks as well as all-cause mortality within healthy subjects and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current study utilized a novel approach to calculate added phosphorus content in foods to determine sources (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES 2001-2016, n = 39,796) and trends in consumption (NHANES 1988-1994, 2001-2016, n = 55,744) of total, naturally occurring, and added phosphorus. Among adults (19+ years), the mean intake of total and natural phosphorus (mg/day) in 1988-1994 as compared with 2015-2016 increased (total: 1292 ± SE 11 vs. 1398 ± SE 17; natural: 1113 ± SE 10 vs. 1243 ± SE 16 mg/day); in contrast, added phosphorus intake decreased during this time (178 ± SE 2.9 vs. 155 ± SE 4.1 mg/day). Added phosphorus as a percent of total ranged from about 14.6% in 1988-1994 to about 11.6% in 2015-2016. The top five sources of total and naturally occurring phosphorus, representing approximately 20% of intake, were cheese, pizza, chicken (whole pieces), reduced-fat milk, and eggs/omelets. The top five sources of added phosphorus were cheese, soft drinks, cakes/pies, rolls/buns, and cookies/brownies, representing 45% of added phosphorus in the diet. Consumption of added phosphorus has decreased over the past few decades, possibly due to increased demand for foods with less additives/ingredients but may also be due to inaccurate phosphorus values in nutrition databases. Further studies are needed to validate the added phosphorus calculations utilized in this study and nutrition databases should consider providing added phosphorus content.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais/tendências , Fósforo na Dieta/análise , Adulto , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recomendações Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071268

RESUMO

The US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) provide dietary recommendations to meet nutrient needs, promote health, and prevent disease. Despite 40 years of DGA, the prevalence of under-consumed nutrients continues in the US and globally, although dietary supplement use can help to fill shortfalls. Nutrient recommendations are based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to meet the nutrient requirements for nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group and many need to be updated using current evidence. There is an opportunity to modernize vitamin and mineral intake recommendations based on biomarker or surrogate endpoint levels needed to 'prevent deficiency' with DRIs based on ranges of biomarker or surrogate endpoints levels that support normal cell/organ/tissue function in healthy individuals, and to establish DRIs for bioactive compounds. We recommend vitamin K and Mg DRIs be updated and DRIs be established for lutein and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA). With increasing interest in personalized (or precision) nutrition, we propose greater research investment in validating biomarkers and metabolic health measures and the development and use of inexpensive diagnostic devices. Data generated from such approaches will help elucidate optimal nutrient status, provide objective evaluations of an individual's nutritional status, and serve to provide personalized nutrition guidance.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Promoção da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Luteína , Estado Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Vitamina K
17.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(2): 209-220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114781

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, care for an adequate diet, well adapted to the body's needs and the current level of physical activity, becomes of particular importance. Many dietary compounds participate in the functioning of the immune system, while vitamins D, C, A (including beta-carotene), E, B6, B12, folic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, iron, amino acids, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and intestinal microbiota are crucial in various types of defence processes. There has been no evidence that consumed food and its compounds, including those with pro-/prebiotic properties, play a significant role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection or alleviating its course. However, in terms of the nutritional value of food and the prevention of dysbiosis, recommending a varied diet with a high proportion of plant-based foods and an adequate amount of animal-based foods has a sound scientific basis. Malnutrition, underweight and obesity are considered independent and prognostic risk factors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which reduce a patient's chances of survival. Therefore, ensuring good nutritional status, including healthy body weight, is a reasonable approach in the prevention of viral infection SARS-CoV-2 or alleviating its course. The document is accompanied by two catalogues of practical nutritional recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressed to the general population and children.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Estado Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Academias e Institutos/normas , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Valor Nutritivo , Polônia , Saúde Pública , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063969

RESUMO

Potassium (K), the main cation inside cells, plays roles in maintaining cellular osmolarity and acid-base equilibrium, as well as nerve stimulation transmission, and regulation of cardiac and muscle functions. It has also recently been shown that K has an antihypertensive effect by promoting sodium excretion, while it is also attracting attention as an important component that can suppress hypertension associated with excessive sodium intake. Since most ingested K is excreted through the kidneys, decreased renal function is a major factor in increased serum levels, and target values for its intake according to the degree of renal dysfunction have been established. In older individuals with impaired renal function, not only hyperkalemia but also hypokalemia due to anorexia, K loss by dialysis, and effects of various drugs are likely to develop. Thus, it is necessary to pay attention to K management tailored to individual conditions. Since abnormalities in K metabolism can also cause lethal arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death, it is extremely important to monitor patients with a high risk of hyper- or hypokalemia and attempt to provide early and appropriate intervention.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiperpotassemia/metabolismo , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Hipopotassemia/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064118

RESUMO

The objective was to assess the relationship between children's picky eating (PE) status and nutrient intake from home-packed school lunches. The lunches of 321 students, aged 7-10 years, were quantified via cross-sectional direct observation. Children were classified as having PE (n = 155) or not (non-PE; n = 166) based on food neophobia scores and parental perceptions of PE. The PE group consumed significantly less protein, folate, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, D, and E than the non-PE group; however, both groups consumed amounts exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for protein, carbohydrates, sugar, sodium, iron, and vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, and C. Conversely, both groups consumed amounts significantly lower than DRIs for calcium, fibre, folate, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, and K. The PE group ate significantly less meat and alternatives, vegetables and fruit, and fruit than the non-PE group, and did not meet any of Canada's Food Guide (2007) recommendations. The non-PE group met recommendations for meat and alternatives only. PE impacts the dietary intake of children's home-packed lunches; however, many packed lunches were of low nutritional quality. Focus should be placed on provision of nutritionally complete school lunches for all children.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Seletividade Alimentar , Almoço/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia
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