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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1956): 20211101, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344181

RESUMO

The ability to infer unseen causes from evidence is argued to emerge early in development and to be uniquely human. We explored whether preschoolers and capuchin monkeys could locate a reward based on the physical traces left following a hidden event. Preschoolers and capuchin monkeys were presented with two cups covered with foil. Behind a barrier, an experimenter (E) punctured the foil coverings one at a time, revealing the cups with one cover broken after the first event and both covers broken after the second. One event involved hiding a reward, the other event was performed with a stick (order counterbalanced). Preschoolers and, with additional experience, monkeys could connect the traces to the objects used in the puncturing events to find the reward. Reversing the order of events perturbed the performance of 3-year olds and capuchins, while 4-year-old children performed above chance when the order of events was reversed from the first trial. Capuchins performed significantly better on the ripped foil task than they did on an arbitrary test in which the covers were not ripped but rather replaced with a differently patterned cover. We conclude that by 4 years of age children spontaneously reason backwards from evidence to deduce its cause.


Assuntos
Cebus , Recompensa , Animais
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444028

RESUMO

In the context of public health emergency management, it is worth studying ways to mobilize the enthusiasm of government, community, and residents. This paper adopts the method of combining evolutionary game and system dynamics to conduct a theoretical modeling and simulation analysis on the interactions of the behavioral strategies of the three participants. In response to opportunistic behavior and inadequate supervision in the static reward and punishment mechanism, we introduced a dynamic reward and punishment mechanism that considers changes in the social environment and the situation of epidemic prevention and control. This paper proves that the dynamic reward and punishment mechanism can effectively suppress the fluctuation problem in the evolutionary game process under static scenarios and achieve better supervision results through scenario analysis and simulation experiments.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Punição , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Emergências , Humanos , Recompensa
3.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 976-990, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424014

RESUMO

We investigated whether the developmental emergence of episodic future thinking (EFT) is associated with performance on a type of delay of gratification task: a delay choice task that involved choosing between a small reward now or a larger reward the next day. In Study 1, 4- to 5-year-olds' (N = 99) EFT as measured by a tool saving task was significantly associated with performance on the delay choice task, but this was not the case for other EFT measures. Study 2 compared the performance of 4- to 5-year-olds (N = 130) on the delay choice task when cued to think about either a future, past, or habitual event versus a no-cue baseline. Overall, cuing impaired performance on the delay choice task. Although EFT does show a relation to performance in a delay choice task in preschoolers, deliberately engaging in thought about future events may be too taxing in young children to reliably enhance the ability to make future-oriented decisions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Recompensa , Pensamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Tomada de Decisões , Previsões , Humanos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372384

RESUMO

Due to the increasing relevance of spatial information in different aspects of location-based services, various methods are used to collect this information. The use of crowdsourcing due to plurality and distribution is a remarkable strategy for collecting information, especially spatial information. Crowdsourcing can have a substantial effect on increasing the accuracy of data. However, many centralized crowdsourcing systems lack security and transparency due to a trusted party's existence. With the emergence of blockchain technology, there has been an increase in security, transparency, and traceability in spatial crowdsourcing systems. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based spatial crowdsourcing system in which workers confirm or reject the accuracy of tasks. Tasks are reports submitted by requesters to the system; a report comprises type and location. To our best knowledge, the proposed system is the first system that all participants receive rewards. This system considers spatial and non-spatial reward factors to encourage users' participation in collecting accurate spatial information. Privacy preservation and security of spatial information are considered in the system. We also evaluated the system efficiency. According to the experiment results, using the proposed system, information accuracy increased by 40%, and the minimum time for reviewing reports by facilities reduced by 30%. Moreover, we compared the proposed system with the current centralized and distributed crowdsourcing systems. This comparison shows that, although our proposed system omits the user's history to preserve privacy, it considers a consensus-based approach to guarantee submitted reports' accuracy. The proposed system also has a reward mechanism to encourage more participation.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Crowdsourcing , Humanos , Privacidade , Recompensa , Tecnologia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1594, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accumulated evidence has shown how professional drivers are, in psychosocial terms, among the most vulnerable workforces, and how their crashes (some of them preceded by stressful working conditions) constitute both an occupational and public health concern. However, there is a clear lack of validated tools for measuring stress and other key hazardous issues affecting transport workers, and most of the existing ones, frequently generic, do not fully consider the specific features that properly describe the work environment of professional driving. This study assessed the psychometric properties, convergent validity and consistency of two measures used for researching occupational stress among professional drivers: the Siegrist's ERI (Effort-Reward Imbalance Inventory) and Karasek's JCQ (Job Content Questionnaire). METHODS: We examined the data collected from 726 Spanish professional drivers. Analyses were performed using Structural Equation Models, thus obtaining basic psychometric properties of both measures and an optimized structure for the instruments, in addition to testing their convergent validity. RESULTS: The results suggest that the abbreviated versions of ERI (10 items) and JCQ (20 items) have clear dimensional structures, high factorial weights, internal consistency and an improved fit to the task's dynamics and hazards, commonly faced by of professional drivers; a short set of items with low psychometrical adjustment was excluded, and the root structure of the questionnaires was kept. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the value and reliability of ERI-10 and JCQ-20 for measuring job stress among professional drivers. Also, there is a high consistency between both measures of stress, even though they belong to different theoretical conceptions of the phenomenon. In practical settings, these instruments can be useful for occupational researchers and practitioners studying stress-related issues from the perspective of human factors.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Estresse Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445124

RESUMO

The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) is an important component of brain reward circuitry, but studies have revealed its involvement in pain circuitry also. However, its effect on trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and the mechanism underlying it are yet to be fully understood. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the outcomes of optogenetic stimulation of NAcc GABAergic neurons in an animal model of TN. Animals were allocated into TN, sham, and control groups. TN was generated by infraorbital nerve constriction and the optogenetic virus was injected into the NAcc. In vivo extracellular recordings were acquired from the ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Alterations of behavioral responses during stimulation "ON" and "OFF" conditions were evaluated. In vivo microdialysis was performed in the NAcc of TN and sham animals. During optogenetic stimulation, electrophysiological recordings revealed a reduction of both tonic and burst firing activity in TN animals, and significantly improved behavioral responses were observed as well. Microdialysis coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed significant alterations in extracellular concentration levels of GABA, glutamate, acetylcholine, dopamine, and citrulline in NAcc upon optic stimulation. In fine, our results suggested that NAcc stimulation could modulate the transmission of trigeminal pain signals in the TN animal model.


Assuntos
Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiopatologia , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Maxila/inervação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Optogenética/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa , Tálamo/metabolismo , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/metabolismo
7.
Nervenarzt ; 92(9): 878-891, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374803

RESUMO

In this paper, the domain positive valence systems (PVS) of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix and its subconstructs are presented and discussed. The PVS basically reflect different forms and aspects of reward processing. These have been investigated in psychiatry in the context of addiction, schizophrenia and depression for decades; the latter are therefore not the topic of this paper. This article presents the heuristic value of the RDoC system in understanding other disorders and constructs, namely the transdiagnostic symptom of anhedonia, autism spectrum disorder and eating disorders. In addition, it outlines how the PVS domain has also enriched the clinical perspective of traditional psychopathology and stimulated the development of new behavioral measurement instruments. Finally, the limitations and potential future developments of the framework are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Neurociência Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recompensa , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
8.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 183: 1-26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389113

RESUMO

Emotions can be defined as states elicited by rewards or punishments, and indeed the neurology of emotional disorders can be understood in terms of this foundation. The orbitofrontal cortex in humans and other primates is a critical area in emotion processing, determining the value of stimuli and whether they are rewarding or nonrewarding. The cortical processing that occurs before the orbitofrontal cortex primarily involves defining the identity of stimuli, i.e., "what" is present and not reward value. There is evidence that this holds true for taste, visual, somatosensory, and olfactory stimuli. The human medial orbitofrontal cortex is important in processing many different types of reward, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex in processing nonreward and punishment. Humans with damage to the orbitofrontal cortex have an impaired ability to identify facial and voice expressions of emotions, and impaired subjective experience of emotion. They can have an altered personality and be impulsive because they are impaired at processing failures to receive expected rewards and at processing punishments. In humans, the role of the amygdala in the processing of emotions is reduced because of the great evolutionary development of the orbitofrontal cortex: amygdala damage has much less effect on emotion than does orbitofrontal cortex damage. The orbitofrontal cortex projects reward value information to the anterior cingulate cortex, which is involved in learning those actions required to obtain rewards and avoid punishments. The cingulate cortex thus provides an output route for emotional behavior. In depression, the medial orbitofrontal cortex has decreased connectivity and sensitivity to reward, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex has increased connectivity and sensitivity to nonreward. The orbitofrontal cortex has major projections to the anterior cingulate cortex, including its subcommissural region, and the anterior cingulate cortex is also implicated in depression.


Assuntos
Emoções , Recompensa , Animais , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal
9.
Neuropsychologia ; 160: 107981, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332993

RESUMO

Selection and integration of information based on current goals is fundamental for goal-directed behavior. Reward motivation has been shown to improve behavioral performance, yet the neural mechanisms that link motivation and control processes, and in particular its effect on context-dependent information processing, remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 24 human volunteers (13 females) to test whether reward motivation enhances the coding of task-relevant information across the frontoparietal cortex, as would be predicted based on previous experimental evidence and theoretical accounts. In a cued target detection task, participants detected whether an object from a cued visual category was present in a subsequent display. The combination of the cue and the object visual category determined the behavioral status of the objects. To manipulate reward motivation, half of all trials offered the possibility of a monetary reward. We observed an increase with reward in overall univariate activity across the frontoparietal control network when the cue and subsequent object were presented. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) showed that behavioral status information for the objects was conveyed across the network. However, in contrast to our prediction, reward did not increase the discrimination between behavioral status conditions in the stimulus epoch of a trial when object information was processed depending on a current context. In the high-level general-object visual region, the lateral occipital complex, the representation of behavioral status was driven by visual differences and was not modulated by reward. Our study provides useful evidence for the limited effects of reward motivation on task-related neural representations and highlights the necessity to unravel the diverse forms and extent of these effects.


Assuntos
Motivação , Lobo Parietal , Mapeamento Encefálico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa
10.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 584-603, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351185

RESUMO

Long-term memory is sensitive to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, but little is known about the relative influence of these two sources of motivation on memory performance across the adult life span. The study examined the effects of extrinsic motivation, manipulated via monetary reward, and curiosity, a form of intrinsic motivation, on long-term memory in healthy younger and older adults. During the incidental encoding phase on Day 1, 60 younger and 53 older participants viewed high- and low-curiosity trivia items as well as unrelated face stimuli. Half of the participants in each age group received financial rewards for correctly guessing trivia answers. On Day 2, participants completed a trivia recall test and an old-new recognition test for the face stimuli. Both curiosity and reward were associated with enhanced trivia recall, but the effects were interactive, such that only low-curiosity items benefitted from monetary reward. Neither curiosity nor reward affected face recognition performance in either age group. These findings indicate that the individual and joint effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on long-term memory are relatively preserved in healthy aging, a finding that highlights the viability of motivational strategies for memory enhancement into old age. Identifying conditions under which memory for unrelated information benefits from motivational spillover effects in younger and older adults is a priority for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Memória de Longo Prazo , Motivação , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443380

RESUMO

The popular tobacco and e-cigarette chemical flavorant (-)-menthol acts as a nonselective, noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and contributes to multiple physiological effects that exacerbates nicotine addiction-related behavior. Menthol is classically known as a TRPM8 agonist; therefore, some have postulated that TRPM8 antagonists may be potential candidates for novel nicotine cessation pharmacotherapies. Here, we examine a novel class of TRPM8 antagonists for their ability to alter nicotine reward-related behavior in a mouse model of conditioned place preference. We found that these novel ligands enhanced nicotine reward-related behavior in a mouse model of conditioned place preference. To gain an understanding of the potential mechanism, we examined these ligands on mouse α4ß2 nAChRs transiently transfected into neuroblastoma-2a cells. Using calcium flux assays, we determined that these ligands act as positive modulators (PMs) on α4ß2 nAChRs. Due to α4ß2 nAChRs' important role in nicotine dependence, as well as various neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, the identification of these ligands as α4ß2 nAChR PMs is an important finding, and they may serve as novel molecular tools for future nAChR-related investigations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Recompensa , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Behav Neurosci ; 135(4): 550-570, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460275

RESUMO

Reversal learning paradigms are widely used assays of behavioral flexibility with their probabilistic versions being more amenable to studying integration of reward outcomes over time. Prior research suggests differences between initial and reversal learning, including higher learning rates, a greater need for inhibitory control, and more perseveration after reversals. However, it is not well-understood what aspects of stimulus-based reversal learning are unique to reversals, and whether and how observed differences depend on reward probability. Here, we used a visual probabilistic discrimination and reversal learning paradigm where male and female rats selected between a pair of stimuli associated with different reward probabilities. We compared accuracy, rewards collected, omissions, latencies, win-stay/lose-shift strategies, and indices of perseveration across two different reward probability schedules. We found that discrimination and reversal learning are behaviorally more unique than similar: Fit of choice behavior using reinforcement learning models revealed a lower sensitivity to the difference in subjective reward values (greater exploration) and higher learning rates for the reversal phase. We also found latencies to choose the better option were greater in females than males, but only for the reversal phase. Further, animals employed more win-stay strategies during early discrimination and increased perseveration during early reversal learning. Interestingly, a consistent reward probability group difference emerged with a richer environment associated with longer reward collection latencies than a leaner environment. Future studies should systematically compare the neural correlates of fine-grained behavioral measures to reveal possible dissociations in how the circuitry is recruited in each phase. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reversão de Aprendizagem , Recompensa , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Reforço Psicológico
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360984

RESUMO

Dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) function is regulated by membrane/lipid raft-resident protein caveolin-1 (Cav1). We examined whether altered expression of Cav1 in the dorsal striatum would affect self-administration of methamphetamine, an indirect agonist at the D1Rs. A lentiviral construct expressing Cav1 (LV-Cav1) or containing a short hairpin RNA against Cav1 (LV-shCav1) was used to overexpress or knock down Cav1 expression respectively, in the dorsal striatum. Under a fixed-ratio schedule, LV-Cav1 enhanced and LV-shCav1 reduced responding for methamphetamine in an extended access paradigm compared to LV-GFP controls. LV-Cav1 and LV-shCav1 also produced an upward and downward shift in a dose-response paradigm, generating a drug vulnerable/resistant phenotype. LV-Cav1 and LV-shCav1 did not alter responding for sucrose. Under a progressive-ratio schedule, LV-shCav1 generally reduced positive-reinforcing effects of methamphetamine and sucrose as seen by reduced breakpoints. Western blotting confirmed enhanced Cav1 expression in LV-Cav1 rats and reduced Cav1 expression in LV-shCav1 rats. Electrophysiological findings in LV-GFP rats demonstrated an absence of high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dorsal striatum after extended access methamphetamine self-administration, indicating methamphetamine-induced occlusion of plasticity. LV-Cav1 prevented methamphetamine-induced plasticity via increasing phosphorylation of calcium calmodulin kinase II, suggesting a mechanism for addiction vulnerability. LV-shCav1 produced a marked deficit in the ability of HFS to produce LTP and, therefore, extended access methamphetamine was unable to alter striatal plasticity, indicating a mechanism for resistance to addiction-like behavior. Our results demonstrate that Cav1 expression and knockdown driven striatal plasticity assist with modulating addiction to drug and nondrug rewards, and inspire new strategies to reduce psychostimulant addiction.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/metabolismo , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Caveolina 1/genética , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Recompensa
14.
Neuron ; 109(16): 2505-2507, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411537

RESUMO

In this issue of Neuron, Nguyen and colleagues (Nguyen et al., 2021) investigate nicotine's effects on diverse midbrain dopamine neurons. Their findings provide new understanding of the functional role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons and reveal topographically distinct, pathway-specific, and opposite dopaminergic responses to nicotine that likely mediate reward and anxiety, respectively.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Nicotina , Ansiedade , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Recompensa , Área Tegmentar Ventral
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451084

RESUMO

Guiding an aircraft to 4D waypoints at a certain heading is a multi-dimensional goal aircraft guidance problem. [d=Zu]In order to improve the performance and solve this problem, this paper proposes a multi-layer RL approach.To enhance the performance, in the present study, a multi-layer RL approach to solve the multi-dimensional goal aircraft guidance problem is proposed. The approach [d=Zu]enablesassists the autopilot in an ATC simulator to guide an aircraft to 4D waypoints at certain latitude, longitude, altitude, heading, and arrival time, respectively. To be specific, a multi-layer RL [d=Zu]approach is proposedmethod to simplify the neural network structure and reduce the state dimensions. A shaped reward function that involves the potential function and Dubins path method is applied. [d=Zu]Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed approachExperiments are conducted and the simulation results reveal that the proposed method can significantly improve the convergence efficiency and trajectory performance. [d=Zu]FurthermoreFurther, the results indicate possible application prospects in team aircraft guidance tasks, since the aircraft can directly approach a goal without waiting in a specific pattern, thereby overcoming the problem of current ATC simulators.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Reforço Psicológico , Aeronaves , Algoritmos , Recompensa
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4593, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321478

RESUMO

From a gym workout, to deciding whether to persevere at work, many activities require us to persist in deciding that rewards are 'worth the effort' even as we become fatigued. However, studies examining effort-based decisions typically assume that the willingness to work is static. Here, we use computational modelling on two effort-based tasks, one behavioural and one during fMRI. We show that two hidden states of fatigue fluctuate on a moment-to-moment basis on different timescales but both reduce the willingness to exert effort for reward. The value of one state increases after effort but is 'recoverable' by rests, whereas a second 'unrecoverable' state gradually increases with work. The BOLD response in separate medial and lateral frontal sub-regions covaried with these states when making effort-based decisions, while a distinct fronto-striatal system integrated fatigue with value. These results provide a computational framework for understanding the brain mechanisms of persistence and momentary fatigue.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fadiga , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Fadiga/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Recompensa , Estriado Ventral , Adulto Jovem
18.
Behav Neurosci ; 135(3): 443-452, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264694

RESUMO

The evolutionary and neural underpinnings of human prosociality are still being identified. A growing body of evidence suggests that some species find the sight of another individual receiving a reward reinforcing, called vicarious reinforcement, and that this capacity is supported by a network of brain areas including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the amygdala. At the same time, analyses of autonomic arousal have been increasingly used to contextualize and guide neural research, especially for studies of reward processing. Here, we characterized the autonomic pupil response of eight monkeys across two laboratories in two different versions of a vicarious reinforcement paradigm. Monkeys were cued as to whether an upcoming reward would be delivered to them, another monkey, or nobody and could accept or decline the offer. As expected, all monkeys in both laboratories showed a marked preference for juice to the self, together with a reliable prosocial preference for juice to a social partner compared to juice to nobody. However, contrary to our expectations, we found that pupils were widest in anticipation of juice to the self, moderately sized in anticipation of juice to nobody, and narrowest in anticipation of juice to a social partner. This effect was seen across both laboratories and regardless of specific task parameters. The seemingly paradoxical pupil effect can be explained by a model in which pupil size tracks outcome salience, prosocial tendencies track outcome valence, and the relation between salience and valence is U-shaped. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Recompensa , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Giro do Cíngulo , Haplorrinos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
19.
Addict Behav ; 122: 107034, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use research has focused on family history of alcohol use disorders but less on other addictions in biological family members. We examined how parental substance use history relates to reward system functioning, specifically nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and putamen activation at age 9-10 in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. This research hopes to address limitations in prior literature by focusing analyses on a large, substance-naïve sample. METHOD: We included ABCD participants with valid Monetary Incentive Delay task fMRI Baseline data and parent substance use history at project baseline from Data Release 2.0 (N = 10,622). Parent-history-positive (PH+) participants had one or both biological parents with a history of two+problems with alcohol (n = 741; PH+A) and/or other drugs (n = 638; PH+D). Of participants who were parent-history-negative (PH-) for alcohol and/or drugs, a stratified random sample based on six sociodemographic variables was created and matched to the PH+group (PH-A n = 699; PH-D n = 615). The contrast of interest was anticipation of a large reward vs. neutral response. RESULTS: PH+A youth had more activation in the right NAcc during large reward anticipation than PH-A. PH+D youth showed enhanced left putamen activation during large reward anticipation than PH-D youth. Bayesian hypothesis testing showed moderate evidence (BF > 3) in favor of the null hypothesis. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that pre-adolescents whose biological parents had a history of substance-related problems show small differences in reward processing compared to their PH- peers.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Antecipação Psicológica , Teorema de Bayes , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Cognição , Família , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Motivação , Núcleo Accumbens , Pais , Recompensa
20.
Neuropsychologia ; 160: 107957, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271001

RESUMO

Charitable giving depends on individuals' abilities to make altruistic decisions. Previous studies suggest that altruism involves recruitment of neural resources in regions including social processing, reward/reinforcement learning, emotional response, and cognition. Despite evolutionary and social benefits to altruism, we know that humans do not always engage in altruistic behavior, like charitable giving. Understanding the underlying processes leading to decisions to donate is vital to improve prosocial community engagement. The present study examined how characteristics of the charitable giving opportunity influence an individual's decision to give and the neural engagement underlying these features. Twenty-nine participants subjectively rated ten charities on their value, effectiveness, and the subject's personal chance of donating. Participants then completed an fMRI task requiring them to decide to donate to certain charities given the probability of the donation helping, their personal preference for the charity, and whether the donation came at cost to themselves. There was a significant reduction in donating when the probability of helping was low versus high, and subjects were significantly less likely to donate to their lowest-rated charities. Further, probability of a donation being helpful and how much the subject favored a charity moderated PCC and left IFG engagement. Interestingly, reward neurocircuitry did not demonstrate similar sensitivity to these variations. These results may suggest individuals engage motivated reasoning to justify failure to donate, while donations are driven by emotion mentalizing that focuses on the welfare of others. This may provide valuable insight into how to engage individuals in altruistic giving.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Instituições de Caridade , Emoções , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa
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