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1.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205140p1-7501205140p11, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399062

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The most frequently used measures of facial emotion recognition (FER) are insufficiently comprehensive, reliable, valid, and efficient; moreover, the impact of gender on scoring has not been controlled. OBJECTIVE: To develop a computerized adaptive test of FER for adults with schizophrenia. DESIGN: First, we selected photographs from a published database. Second, items that fitted well to a Rasch model were used to form the item bank. Third and last, we determined the best administration mode for prospective users to achieve both high reliability and efficiency. SETTING: Psychiatric hospitals and the community. PARTICIPANTS: Adults living with schizophrenia (n = 351) and adults without diagnosed mental illness (n = 101). RESULTS: After removal of misfit items (infit or outfit ≥1.4), the remaining 165 items were selected to form an item bank. Among them, 39 showed severe gender bias, so the item difficulties were adjusted accordingly. On the basis of the item bank, two administration modes were recommended for prospective users. The reliable mode required approximately 128 items (nearly 20 min) to achieve reliability (.72-.81), similar to that of the entire item bank. The efficient mode required approximately 73 items (approximate 11 min) to provide acceptable reliability (.69-.73) for the seven domain scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our newly developed measure provides comprehensive, valid, and unbiased (to examinees' gender) assessments of FER in adults living with schizophrenia. In addition, the administration modes can be flexibly changed to optimize the reliability or efficiency for prospective users. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This newly developed FER measure can help occupational therapists identify deficits in recognizing specific basic emotions and plan corresponding interventions to manage the impact on their clients' social functions.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sexismo
3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 92: 104277, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Facial emotion recognition (FER) is a component of social cognition and important to interpersonal relations. Therefore, tasks have been developed to assess this skill in different population. Regarding older people, even healthy individuals have a poorer performance compared to rate of correct answers commonly used to assess such tasks. Perform a systematic review to analyze studies addressing the performance of healthy older adults on FER tasks compared to the 70% correct response rate commonly used for the creation of stimulus banks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches were conducted up to May 2019 in the Pubmed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Scopus databases using the keywords ("faces" OR "facial") AND ("recognition" OR "expression" OR "emotional") AND ("elderly" OR "older adults"). RESULTS: Twenty-seven articles were included in the present review. In 16 studies (59.2%), older people had correct response rates on FER lower than 70% on at least one of the emotions evaluated. Among the studies that evaluated each emotion specifically, 62.5% found correct response rates lower than 70% for the emotion fear, 50% for surprise, 50% for sadness, 37.5% for anger, 21.4% for disgust, and 5.9% for happiness. Moreover, the studies that evaluated the level of intensity of the emotions demonstrated a lower rate of correct responses when the intensity of the facial expression was low. CONCLUSION: That studies employ methods and facial stimuli that may not be adequate for measuring this skill in older people. Thus, it is important to create adequate tasks for assessing the skill in this population.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373377

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that child maltreatment is associated with both positive and negative effects on the recognition of facial emotions. Research has provided little evidence of a relation between maltreatment during childhood and young adults' ability to recognize facial displays of emotion in children, an essential skill for a sensitive parental response. In this study, we examined the consequences of different forms of maltreatment experienced in childhood on emotion recognition during parenthood. Participants included sixty-three mothers of children aged 2 to 5 years. Retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment were assessed using the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Emotion recognition was measured using a morphed facial emotion identification task of all six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise). A Path Analysis via Structural Equation Model revealed that a history of physical abuse is related to a decreased ability to recognize both fear and sadness in children, whereas emotional abuse and sexual abuse are related to a decreased ability to recognize anger in children. In addition, emotional neglect is associated with an increased ability to recognize anger, whereas physical neglect is associated with less accuracy in recognizing happiness in children's facial emotional expressions. These findings have important clinical implications and expand current understanding of the consequences of childhood maltreatment on parents' ability to detect children's needs.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351809

RESUMO

Zhang, et al. (2017) established the ecological microexpression recognition test (EMERT), but it only used white models' expressions as microexpressions and backgrounds, and there was no research detecting its relevant brain activity. The current study used white, black and yellow models' expressions as microexpressions and backgrounds to improve the materials ecological validity of EMERT, and it used eyes-closed and eyes-open resting-state fMRI to detect relevant brain activity of EMERT for the first time. The results showed: (1) Two new recapitulative indexes of EMERT were adopted, such as microexpression M and microexpression SD. The participants could effectively identify almost all the microexpressions, and each microexpression type had a significantly background effect. The EMERT had good retest reliability and calibration validity. (2) ALFFs (Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations) in both eyes-closed and eyes-open resting-states and ALFFs-difference could predict microexpression M. The relevant brain areas of microexpression M were some frontal lobes, insula, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala, occipital lobe, fusiform, temporal lobe, cerebellum and vermis. (3) ALFFs in both eyes-closed and eyes-open resting-states and ALFFs-difference could predict microexpression SD, and the ALFFs-difference was more predictive. The relevant brain areas of microexpression SD were some frontal lobes, insula, cingulate cortex, cuneus, amygdala, fusiform, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, precuneus, caudate lobe, putamen lobe, thalamus, temporal lobe, cerebellum and vermis. (4) There were many similarities and some differences in the relevant brain areas between microexpression M and SD. All these brain areas can be trained to enhance ecological microexpression recognition ability.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Testes Psicológicos , Descanso/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243929, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326458

RESUMO

It has been widely accepted that moral violations that involve impurity (such as spitting in public) induce the emotion of disgust, but there has been a debate about whether moral violations that do not involve impurity (such as swearing in public) also induce the same emotion. The answer to this question may have implication for understanding where morality comes from and how people make moral judgments. This study aimed to compared the neural mechanisms underlying two kinds of moral violation by using an affective priming task to test the effect of sentences depicting moral violation behaviors with and without physical impurity on subsequent detection of disgusted faces in a visual search task. After reading each sentence, participants completed the face search task. Behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential, or ERP) indices of affective priming (P2, N400, LPP) and attention allocation (N2pc) were analyzed. Results of behavioral data and ERP data showed that moral violations both with and without impurity promoted the detection of disgusted faces (RT, N2pc); moral violations without impurity impeded the detection of neutral faces (N400). No priming effect was found on P2 and LPP. The results suggest both types of moral violation influenced the processing of disgusted faces and neutral faces, but the neural activity with temporal characteristics was different.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Asco , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Julgamento Moral Retrospectivo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22344, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349645

RESUMO

The unprecedented efforts to minimize the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic introduce a new arena for human face recognition in which faces are partially occluded with masks. Here, we tested the extent to which face masks change the way faces are perceived. To this end, we evaluated face processing abilities for masked and unmasked faces in a large online sample of adult observers (n = 496) using an adapted version of the Cambridge Face Memory Test, a validated measure of face perception abilities in humans. As expected, a substantial decrease in performance was found for masked faces. Importantly, the inclusion of masks also led to a qualitative change in the way masked faces are perceived. In particular, holistic processing, the hallmark of face perception, was disrupted for faces with masks, as suggested by a reduced inversion effect. Similar changes were found whether masks were included during the study or the test phases of the experiment. Together, we provide novel evidence for quantitative and qualitative alterations in the processing of masked faces that could have significant effects on daily activities and social interactions.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382767

RESUMO

Research on face sensitivity is of particular relevance during the rapidly evolving Covid-19 pandemic leading to social isolation, but also calling for intact interaction and sharing. Humans possess high sensitivity even to a coarse face scheme, seeing faces in non-face images where real faces do not exist. The advantage of non-face images is that single components do not trigger face processing. Here by implementing a novel set of Face-n-Thing images, we examined (i) how face tuning alters with changing display orientation, and (ii) whether it is affected by observers' gender. Young females and males were presented with a set of Face-n-Thing images either with canonical upright orientation or inverted 180° in the image plane. Face impression was substantially impeded by display inversion. Furthermore, whereas with upright display orientation, no gender differences were found, with inversion, Face-n-Thing images elicited face impression in females significantly more often. The outcome sheds light on the origins of the face inversion effect in general. Moreover, the findings open a way for examination of face sensitivity and underwriting brain networks in neuropsychiatric conditions related to the current pandemic (such as depression and anxiety), most of which are gender/sex-specific.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Orientação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370980

RESUMO

We illustrate a case of post-traumatic recurrent transient prosopagnosia in a paediatric patient with a right posterior inferior temporal gyrus haemorrhage seen on imaging and interictal electroencephalogram abnormalities in the right posterior quadrant. Face recognition area mapping with magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) was performed to clarify the relationship between the lesion and his prosopagnosia, which showed activation of the right fusiform gyrus that colocalised with the lesion. Lesions adjacent to the right fusiform gyrus can result in seizures presenting as transient prosopagnosia. MEG and fMRI can help to attribute this unique semiology to the lesion.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Prosopagnosia/etiologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/cirurgia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Prosopagnosia/diagnóstico , Prosopagnosia/fisiopatologia , Prosopagnosia/cirurgia , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/cirurgia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 59, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210257

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments around the world now recommend, or require, that their citizens cover the lower half of their face in public. Consequently, many people now wear surgical face masks in public. We investigated whether surgical face masks affected the performance of human observers, and a state-of-the-art face recognition system, on tasks of perceptual face matching. Participants judged whether two simultaneously presented face photographs showed the same person or two different people. We superimposed images of surgical masks over the faces, creating three different mask conditions: control (no masks), mixed (one face wearing a mask), and masked (both faces wearing masks). We found that surgical face masks have a large detrimental effect on human face matching performance, and that the degree of impairment is the same regardless of whether one or both faces in each pair are masked. Surprisingly, this impairment is similar in size for both familiar and unfamiliar faces. When matching masked faces, human observers are biased to reject unfamiliar faces as "mismatches" and to accept familiar faces as "matches". Finally, the face recognition system showed very high classification accuracy for control and masked stimuli, even though it had not been trained to recognise masked faces. However, accuracy fell markedly when one face was masked and the other was not. Our findings demonstrate that surgical face masks impair the ability of humans, and naïve face recognition systems, to perform perceptual face matching tasks. Identification decisions for masked faces should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 871-875, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018123

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with a high rate of comorbidity. The implementation of eye-tracking methodologies has informed behavioral and neurophysiological patterns of visual processing across ASD and comorbid NDDs. In this study, we propose a machine learning method to predict measures of two core ASD characteristics: impaired social interactions and communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests. Our method extracts behavioral features from task performance and eye-tracking data collected during a facial emotion recognition paradigm. We achieved high regression accuracy using a Random Forest regressor trained to predict scores on the SRS-2 and RBS-R assessments; this approach may serve as a classifier for ASD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Reconhecimento Facial , Transtorno de Comunicação Social , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Emoções , Face , Humanos
12.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(9-10): 327-337, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035416

RESUMO

Background and purpose: A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. Methods: 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Results: 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21750, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative neurological disorder of the central nervous system. Cognitive impairment is frequent in MS patients, which not only includes deficits in abilities assessed by traditional neuropsychological batteries, but also often features impairments in social cognition (including theory of mind and facial emotion recognition). Recently, numerous studies have assessed social cognition performance in MS. However, there have been inconsistent findings. Besides, it is not clear how social cognitive abilities are affected in MS subtypes. The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis to characterize social cognition performance in MS and its subtypes (clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting MS, progressive primary MS, and secondary progressive MS). METHODS: Literature sources will be divided into 2 sections: electronic sources and manual sources. A systematic literature search will be performed for eligible studies published up to June 10, 2020 in 3 international databases (Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science). In addition, manual sources will be searched, such as the references of all included studies. Two researchers will independently conduct the work such as article retrieval, screening, quality evaluation, data collection. Meta-analysis will be conducted using Stata 15.0 software. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis will provide a high-quality synthesis from existing evidence for social cognition performance in MS and its subtypes. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070028.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Teoria da Mente , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009036, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941431

RESUMO

The polygenic nature and the contribution of common genetic variation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) allude to a high degree of pleiotropy between ASD and other psychiatric and behavioral traits. In a pleiotropic system, a single genetic variant contributes small effects to several phenotypes or disorders. While analyzed broadly, there is a paucity of research studies investigating the shared genetic information between specific neurodevelopmental domains and ASD. We performed a phenome-wide association study of ASD polygenetic risk score (PRS) against 491 neurodevelopmental subdomains ascertained in 4,309 probands from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) who lack an ASD diagnosis. Our main analysis calculated ASD PRS in 4,309 PNC probands using the per-SNP effects reported in a recent genome-wide association study of ASD in a case-control design. In a high-resolution manner, our main analysis regressed ASD PRS against 491 neurodevelopmental phenotypes with age, sex, and ten principal components of ancestry as covariates. Follow-up analyses included in the regression model PRS derived from brain-related traits genetically correlated with ASD. Our main finding demonstrated that 11-17-year old probands with the highest ASD genetic risk were able to identify angry faces (R2 = 1.06%, p = 1.38 × 10-7, pBonferroni-corrected = 1.9 × 10-3). This ability replicated in older probands (>18 years; R2 = 0.55%, p = 0.036) and persisted after covarying with other psychiatric disorders, brain imaging traits, and educational attainment (R2 = 0.2%, p = 0.019). We also detected several suggestive associations between ASD PRS and emotionality and connectedness with others. These data (i) indicate how genetic liability to ASD may influence neurodevelopment in the general population, (ii) reinforce epidemiological findings of heightened ability of ASD cases to predict certain social psychological events based on increased systemizing skills, and (iii) recapitulate theories of imbalance between empathizing and systemizing in ASD etiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4518, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908146

RESUMO

The human brain is specialized for face processing, yet we sometimes perceive illusory faces in objects. It is unknown whether these natural errors of face detection originate from a rapid process based on visual features or from a slower, cognitive re-interpretation. Here we use a multifaceted approach to understand both the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of illusory face representation in the brain by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography neuroimaging data with model-based analysis. We find that the representation of illusory faces is confined to occipital-temporal face-selective visual cortex. The temporal dynamics reveal a striking evolution in how illusory faces are represented relative to human faces and matched objects. Illusory faces are initially represented more similarly to real faces than matched objects are, but within ~250 ms, the representation transforms, and they become equivalent to ordinary objects. This is consistent with the initial recruitment of a broadly-tuned face detection mechanism which privileges sensitivity over selectivity.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 228-239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between facial affect recognition and criminal justice involvement has been extensively researched, yet there are virtually no data on the capacity for facial affect recognition in post-incar+cerated individuals, and the results of many studies are limited due to a narrow focus on psychopathy rather than offence category. AIMS: To test the first hypothesis that individuals reporting a history of a violent offence would show a deficit in facial affect recognition and the second hypothesis that the violent offender's deficit would be exclusive to recognition of negative expressions, not affecting positive or neutral expressions. METHOD: Post-incarcerated individuals (N = 298) were recruited online through Qualtrics and completed questionnaires assessing their criminal justice background and demographics. They completed measures of facial affect recognition, anxiety and depression, and components of aggression. RESULTS: A logistic regression, including sex, ethnicity, age and years of education and depression/anxiety scores, indicated that committing a violent offence was independently associated with lower facial affect recognition scores as well as male gender and a trait-based propensity towards physical aggression, but no other co-variable. These data provided no evidence that this deficit was specific to negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Our study is one of the first to examine facial affect recognition in a post-incarcerated sample. It suggests that deficits in facial affect recognition, already well documented among violent prisoners, persist. While acknowledging that these may be relatively fixed characteristics, this study also suggests that, for these people, nothing happening during their imprisonment was touching this. Improving capacity in facial affect recognition should be considered as a target of intervention for violent offenders, developing or revising in-prison programmes as required.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Voluntários
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23011-23020, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839334

RESUMO

The fusiform face area responds selectively to faces and is causally involved in face perception. How does face-selectivity in the fusiform arise in development, and why does it develop so systematically in the same location across individuals? Preferential cortical responses to faces develop early in infancy, yet evidence is conflicting on the central question of whether visual experience with faces is necessary. Here, we revisit this question by scanning congenitally blind individuals with fMRI while they haptically explored 3D-printed faces and other stimuli. We found robust face-selective responses in the lateral fusiform gyrus of individual blind participants during haptic exploration of stimuli, indicating that neither visual experience with faces nor fovea-biased inputs is necessary for face-selectivity to arise in the lateral fusiform gyrus. Our results instead suggest a role for long-range connectivity in specifying the location of face-selectivity in the human brain.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237855, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822441

RESUMO

In face recognition applications, humans often team with algorithms, reviewing algorithm results to make an identity decision. However, few studies have explicitly measured how algorithms influence human face matching performance. One study that did examine this interaction found a concerning deterioration of human accuracy in the presence of algorithm errors. We conducted an experiment to examine how prior face identity decisions influence subsequent human judgements about face similarity. 376 volunteers were asked to rate the similarity of face pairs along a scale. Volunteers performing the task were told that they were reviewing identity decisions made by different sources, either a computer or human, or were told to make their own judgement without prior information. Replicating past results, we found that prior identity decisions, presented as labels, influenced volunteers' own identity judgements. We extend these results as follows. First, we show that the influence of identity decision labels was independent of indicated decision source (human or computer) despite volunteers' greater distrust of human identification ability. Second, applying a signal detection theory framework, we show that prior identity decision labels did not reduce volunteers' attention to the face pair. Discrimination performance was the same with and without the labels. Instead, prior identity decision labels altered volunteers' internal criterion used to judge a face pair as "matching" or "non-matching". This shifted volunteers' face pair similarity judgements by a full step along the response scale. Our work shows how human face matching is affected by prior identity decision labels and we discuss how this may limit the total accuracy of human-algorithm teams performing face matching tasks.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tomada de Decisões , Reconhecimento Facial , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3380, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665586

RESUMO

Eyewitness misidentification accounts for 70% of verified erroneous convictions. To address this alarming phenomenon, research has focused on factors that influence likelihood of correct identification, such as the manner in which a lineup is conducted. Traditional lineups rely on overt eyewitness responses that confound two covert factors: strength of recognition memory and the criterion for deciding what memory strength is sufficient for identification. Here we describe a lineup that permits estimation of memory strength independent of decision criterion. Our procedure employs powerful techniques developed in studies of perception and memory: perceptual scaling and signal detection analysis. Using these tools, we scale memory strengths elicited by lineup faces, and quantify performance of a binary classifier tasked with distinguishing perpetrator from innocent suspect. This approach reveals structure of memory inaccessible using traditional lineups and renders accurate identifications uninfluenced by decision bias. The approach furthermore yields a quantitative index of individual eyewitness performance.


Assuntos
Crime , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
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