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1.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(6): e22522, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967122

RESUMO

Witnessing emotional expressions in others triggers physiological arousal in humans. The current study focused on pupil responses to emotional expressions in a community sample as a physiological index of arousal and attention. We explored the associations between parents' and offspring's responses to dynamic facial expressions of emotion, as well as the links between pupil responses and anxiety/depression. Children (N = 90, MAge = 10.13, range = 7.21-12.94, 47 girls) participated in this lab study with one of their parents (47 mothers). Pupil responses were assessed in a computer task with dynamic happy, angry, fearful, and sad expressions, while participants verbally labeled the emotion displayed on the screen as quickly as possible. Parents and children reported anxiety and depression symptoms in questionnaires. Both parents and children showed stronger pupillary responses to negative versus positive expressions, and children's responses were overall stronger than those of parents. We also found links between the pupil responses of parents and children to negative, especially to angry faces. Child pupil responses were related to their own and their parents' anxiety levels and to their parents' (but not their own) depression. We conclude that child pupils are sensitive to individual differences in parents' pupils and emotional dispositions in community samples.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Pais , Pupila , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Criança , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Pupila/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia
2.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(7)2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990517

RESUMO

Aberrations in non-verbal social cognition have been reported to coincide with major depressive disorder. Yet little is known about the role of the eyes. To fill this gap, the present study explores whether and, if so, how reading language of the eyes is altered in depression. For this purpose, patients and person-by-person matched typically developing individuals were administered the Emotions in Masked Faces task and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, modified, both of which contained a comparable amount of visual information available. For achieving group homogeneity, we set a focus on females as major depressive disorder displays a gender-specific profile. The findings show that facial masks selectively affect inferring emotions: recognition of sadness and anger are more heavily compromised in major depressive disorder as compared with typically developing controls, whereas the recognition of fear, happiness, and neutral expressions remains unhindered. Disgust, the forgotten emotion of psychiatry, is the least recognizable emotion in both groups. On the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test patients exhibit lower accuracy on positive expressions than their typically developing peers, but do not differ on negative items. In both depressive and typically developing individuals, the ability to recognize emotions behind a mask and performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test are linked to each other in processing speed, but not recognition accuracy. The outcome provides a blueprint for understanding the complexities of reading language of the eyes within and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/psicologia , Leitura
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15473, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969734

RESUMO

The face serves as a crucial cue for self-identification, while the sense of agency plays a significant role in determining our influence through actions in the environment. The current study investigates how self-identification through facial recognition may influence the perception of control via motion. We propose that self-identification might engender a belief in having control over one's own face, leading to a more acute detection and greater emphasis on discrepancies between their actions and the sensory feedback in control judgments. We refer to the condition governed by the belief in having control as the exploitation mode. Conversely, when manipulating another individual's face, the belief in personal control is absent. In such cases, individuals are likely to rely on the regularity between actions and sensory input for control judgments, exhibiting behaviors that are exploratory in nature to glean such information. This condition is termed the explorative mode. The study utilized a face-motion mixing paradigm, employing a deep generative model to enable participants to interact with either their own or another person's face through facial and head movements. During the experiment, participants observed either their own face or someone else's face (self-face vs. other-face) on the screen. The motion of the face was driven either purely by their own facial and head motion or by an average of the participant's and the experimenter's motion (full control vs. partial control). The results showed that participants reported a higher sense of agency over the other-face than the self-face, while their self-identification rating was significantly higher for the self-face. More importantly, controlling someone else's face resulted in more movement diversity than controlling one's own face. These findings support our exploration-exploitation theory: When participants had a strong belief in control triggered by the self-face, they became highly sensitive to any sensorimotor prediction errors, leading to a lower sense of agency. In contrast, when the belief of control was absent, the exploration mode triggered more explorative behaviors, allowing participants to efficiently gather information to establish a sense of agency.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Face
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(30): e2405334121, 2024 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008667

RESUMO

Our given name is a social tag associated with us early in life. This study investigates the possibility of a self-fulfilling prophecy effect wherein individuals' facial appearance develops over time to resemble the social stereotypes associated with given names. Leveraging the face-name matching effect, which demonstrates an ability to match adults' names to their faces, we hypothesized that individuals would resemble their social stereotype (name) in adulthood but not in childhood. To test this hypothesis, children and adults were asked to match faces and names of children and adults. Results revealed that both adults and children correctly matched adult faces to their corresponding names, significantly above the chance level. However, when it came to children's faces and names, participants were unable to make accurate associations. Complementing our lab studies, we employed a machine-learning framework to process facial image data and found that facial representations of adults with the same name were more similar to each other than to those of adults with different names. This pattern of similarity was absent among the facial representations of children, thereby strengthening the case for the self-fulfilling prophecy hypothesis. Furthermore, the face-name matching effect was evident for adults but not for children's faces that were artificially aged to resemble adults, supporting the conjectured role of social development in this effect. Together, these findings suggest that even our facial appearance can be influenced by a social factor such as our name, confirming the potent impact of social expectations.


Assuntos
Face , Nomes , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Adulto , Face/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Estereotipagem
6.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0301940, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39018294

RESUMO

Insula damage results in substantial impairments in facial emotion recognition. In particular, left hemispheric damage appears to be associated with poorer recognition of aversively rated facial expressions. Functional imaging can provide information on differences in the processing of these stimuli in patients with insula lesions when compared to healthy matched controls (HCs). We therefore investigated 17 patients with insula lesions in the chronic stage following stroke and 13 HCs using a passive-viewing task with pictures of facial expressions testing the blood oxygenation dependent (BOLD) effect in predefined regions of interest (ROIs). We expected a decrease in functional activation in an area modulating emotional response (left ventral striatum) but not in the facial recognition areas in the left inferior fusiform gyrus. Quantification of BOLD-response in ROIs but also voxel-based statistics confirmed this hypothesis. The voxel-based analysis demonstrated that the decrease in BOLD in the left ventral striatum was driven by left hemispheric damaged patients (n = 10). In our patient group, insula activation was strongly associated with the intensity rating of facial expressions. In conclusion, the combination of performance testing and functional imaging in patients following circumscribed brain damage is a challenging method for understanding emotion processing in the human brain.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estriado Ventral , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Emoções/fisiologia , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estriado Ventral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Córtex Insular/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Insular/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia
7.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 888, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39033247

RESUMO

Functional neuroimaging has contributed substantially to understanding brain function but is dominated by group analyses that index only a fraction of the variation in these data. It is increasingly clear that parsing the underlying heterogeneity is crucial to understand individual differences and the impact of different task manipulations. We estimate large-scale (N = 7728) normative models of task-evoked activation during the Emotional Face Matching Task, which enables us to bind heterogeneous datasets to a common reference and dissect heterogeneity underlying group-level analyses. We apply this model to a heterogenous patient cohort, to map individual differences between patients with one or more mental health diagnoses relative to the reference cohort and determine multivariate associations with transdiagnostic symptom domains. For the face>shapes contrast, patients have a higher frequency of extreme deviations which are spatially heterogeneous. In contrast, normative models for faces>baseline have greater predictive value for individuals' transdiagnostic functioning. Taken together, we demonstrate that normative modelling of fMRI task-activation can be used to illustrate the influence of different task choices and map replicable individual differences, and we encourage its application to other neuroimaging tasks in future studies.


Assuntos
Emoções , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(13)2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39001147

RESUMO

With the development of data mining technology, the analysis of event-related potential (ERP) data has evolved from statistical analysis of time-domain features to data-driven techniques based on supervised and unsupervised learning. However, there are still many challenges in understanding the relationship between ERP components and the representation of familiar and unfamiliar faces. To address this, this paper proposes a model based on Dynamic Multi-Scale Convolution for group recognition of familiar and unfamiliar faces. This approach uses generated weight masks for cross-subject familiar/unfamiliar face recognition using a multi-scale model. The model employs a variable-length filter generator to dynamically determine the optimal filter length for time-series samples, thereby capturing features at different time scales. Comparative experiments are conducted to evaluate the model's performance against SOTA models. The results demonstrate that our model achieves impressive outcomes, with a balanced accuracy rate of 93.20% and an F1 score of 88.54%, outperforming the methods used for comparison. The ERP data extracted from different time regions in the model can also provide data-driven technical support for research based on the representation of different ERP components.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Reconhecimento Facial , Humanos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Algoritmos , Face/fisiologia
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1908): 20230248, 2024 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39005042

RESUMO

We present novel research on the cortical dynamics of atypical perceptual and emotional processing in people with symptoms of depersonalization-derealization disorder (DP-DR). We used electroencephalography (EEG)/event-related potentials (ERPs) to delineate the early perceptual mechanisms underlying emotional face recognition and mirror touch in adults with low and high levels of DP-DR symptoms (low-DP and high-DP groups). Face-sensitive visual N170 showed markedly less differentiation for emotional versus neutral face-voice stimuli in the high- than in the low-DP group. This effect was related to self-reported bodily symptoms like disembodiment. Emotional face-voice primes altered mirror touch at somatosensory cortical components P45 and P100 differently in the two groups. In the high-DP group, mirror touch occurred only when seeing touch after being confronted with angry face-voice primes. Mirror touch in the low-DP group, however, was unaffected by preceding emotions. Modulation of mirror touch following angry others was related to symptoms of self-other confusion. Results suggest that others' negative emotions affect somatosensory processes in those with an altered sense of bodily self. Our findings are in line with the idea that disconnecting from one's body and self (core symptom of DP-DR) may be a defence mechanism to protect from the threat of negative feelings, which may be exacerbated through self-other confusion. This article is part of the theme issue 'Sensing and feeling: an integrative approach to sensory processing and emotional experience'.


Assuntos
Despersonalização , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Emoções/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Despersonalização/psicologia , Despersonalização/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16193, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003314

RESUMO

Facial expression recognition (FER) is crucial for understanding the emotional state of others during human social interactions. It has been assumed that humans share universal visual sampling strategies to achieve this task. However, recent studies in face identification have revealed striking idiosyncratic fixation patterns, questioning the universality of face processing. More importantly, very little is known about whether such idiosyncrasies extend to the biological relevant recognition of static and dynamic facial expressions of emotion (FEEs). To clarify this issue, we tracked observers' eye movements categorizing static and ecologically valid dynamic faces displaying the six basic FEEs, all normalized for time presentation (1 s), contrast and global luminance across exposure time. We then used robust data-driven analyses combining statistical fixation maps with hidden Markov Models to explore eye-movements across FEEs and stimulus modalities. Our data revealed three spatially and temporally distinct equally occurring face scanning strategies during FER. Crucially, such visual sampling strategies were mostly comparably effective in FER and highly consistent across FEEs and modalities. Our findings show that spatiotemporal idiosyncratic gaze strategies also occur for the biologically relevant recognition of FEEs, further questioning the universality of FER and, more generally, face processing.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
11.
Rev Neurol ; 79(3): 71-76, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39007858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease is characterised by the presence of motor symptoms including hypomimia, and by non-motor symptoms including alterations in facial recognition of basic emotions. Few studies have investigated this alteration and its relationship to the severity of hypomimia. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to study the relationship between hypomimia and the facial recognition of basic emotions in subjects with Parkinson's disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients and 29 controls were evaluated with the test battery for basic emotion facial recognition. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the intensity of their hypomimia. RESULTS: The comparison in battery test performance between the minimal/mild hypomimia and moderate/severe hypomimia groups was statistically significant in favour of the former group. CONCLUSIONS: This finding shows a close relationship between expression and facial recognition of emotions, which could be explained through the mechanism of motor simulation.


TITLE: Relación entre la gravedad de la hipomimia y el reconocimiento de emociones básicas en la enfermedad de Parkinson.Introducción. La enfermedad de Parkinson se caracteriza por la presencia de síntomas motores, entre los que es significativa la presencia de hipomimia, y por síntomas no motores, en los que se destaca la alteración en el reconocimiento facial de emociones básicas. Son pocos los estudios que investiguen dicha alteración relacionada con la gravedad de la hipomimia. Objetivo. El objetivo es estudiar la relación entre la hipomimia y el reconocimiento facial de emociones básicas en sujetos con enfermedad de Parkinson. Sujetos y métodos. Se evaluó a 23 pacientes y 29 controles con la batería de reconocimiento facial de emociones básicas. El grupo de pacientes se dividió en dos subgrupos según la intensidad de la hipomimia. Resultados. La comparación en el rendimiento de las pruebas de la batería entre el grupo de hipomimia mínima/leve e hipomimia moderada/grave resultó estadísticamente significativa a favor del primer grupo. Conclusiones. Este hallazgo evidencia una estrecha relación entre la expresión y el reconocimiento facial de emociones, que podría explicarse a través del mecanismo de simulación motora.


Assuntos
Emoções , Reconhecimento Facial , Doença de Parkinson , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Expressão Facial
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(28): e2321346121, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954551

RESUMO

How does the brain process the faces of familiar people? Neuropsychological studies have argued for an area of the temporal pole (TP) linking faces with person identities, but magnetic susceptibility artifacts in this region have hampered its study with fMRI. Using data acquisition and analysis methods optimized to overcome this artifact, we identify a familiar face response in TP, reliably observed in individual brains. This area responds strongly to visual images of familiar faces over unfamiliar faces, objects, and scenes. However, TP did not just respond to images of faces, but also to a variety of high-level social cognitive tasks, including semantic, episodic, and theory of mind tasks. The response profile of TP contrasted with a nearby region of the perirhinal cortex that responded specifically to faces, but not to social cognition tasks. TP was functionally connected with a distributed network in the association cortex associated with social cognition, while PR was functionally connected with face-preferring areas of the ventral visual cortex. This work identifies a missing link in the human face processing system that specifically processes familiar faces, and is well placed to integrate visual information about faces with higher-order conceptual information about other people. The results suggest that separate streams for person and face processing reach anterior temporal areas positioned at the top of the cortical hierarchy.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Temporal , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304669, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985745

RESUMO

Against the backdrop of increasingly mature intelligent driving assistance systems, effective monitoring of driver alertness during long-distance driving becomes especially crucial. This study introduces a novel method for driver fatigue detection aimed at enhancing the safety and reliability of intelligent driving assistance systems. The core of this method lies in the integration of advanced facial recognition technology using deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), particularly suited for varying lighting conditions in real-world scenarios, significantly improving the robustness of fatigue detection. Innovatively, the method incorporates emotion state analysis, providing a multi-dimensional perspective for assessing driver fatigue. It adeptly identifies subtle signs of fatigue in rapidly changing lighting and other complex environmental conditions, thereby strengthening traditional facial recognition techniques. Validation on two independent experimental datasets, specifically the Yawn and YawDDR datasets, reveals that our proposed method achieves a higher detection accuracy, with an impressive 95.3% on the YawDDR dataset, compared to 90.1% without the implementation of Algorithm 2. Additionally, our analysis highlights the method's adaptability to varying brightness levels, improving detection accuracy by up to 0.05% in optimal lighting conditions. Such results underscore the effectiveness of our advanced data preprocessing and dynamic brightness adaptation techniques in enhancing the accuracy and computational efficiency of fatigue detection systems. These achievements not only showcase the potential application of advanced facial recognition technology combined with emotional analysis in autonomous driving systems but also pave new avenues for enhancing road safety and driver welfare.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Fadiga , Iluminação , Humanos , Iluminação/métodos , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Algoritmos
14.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(6): e22521, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952248

RESUMO

Infants rely on developing attention skills to identify relevant stimuli in their environments. Although caregivers are socially rewarding and a critical source of information, they are also one of many stimuli that compete for infants' attention. Young infants preferentially hold attention on caregiver faces, but it is unknown whether they also preferentially orient to caregivers and the extent to which these attention biases reflect reward-based attention mechanisms. To address these questions, we measured 4- to 10-month-old infants' (N = 64) frequency of orienting and duration of looking to caregiver and stranger faces within multi-item arrays. We also assessed whether infants' attention to these faces related to individual differences in Surgency, an indirect index of reward sensitivity. Although infants did not show biased attention to caregiver versus stranger faces at the group level, infants were increasingly biased to orient to stranger faces with age and infants with higher Surgency scores showed more robust attention orienting and attention holding biases to caregiver faces. These effects varied based on the selective attention demands of the task, suggesting that infants' attention biases to caregiver faces may reflect both developing attention control skills and reward-based attention mechanisms.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Cuidadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Reconhecimento Facial , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Lactente , Feminino , Cuidadores/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia
15.
J Vis ; 24(6): 16, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38913016

RESUMO

Humans saccade to faces in their periphery faster than to other types of objects. Previous research has highlighted the potential importance of the upper face region in this phenomenon, but it remains unclear whether this is driven by the eye region. Similarly, it remains unclear whether such rapid saccades are exclusive to faces or generalize to other semantically salient stimuli. Furthermore, it is unknown whether individuals differ in their face-specific saccadic reaction times and, if so, whether such differences could be linked to differences in face fixations during free viewing. To explore these open questions, we invited 77 participants to perform a saccadic choice task in which we contrasted faces as well as other salient objects, particularly isolated face features and text, with cars. Additionally, participants freely viewed 700 images of complex natural scenes in a separate session, which allowed us to determine the individual proportion of first fixations falling on faces. For the saccadic choice task, we found advantages for all categories of interest over cars. However, this effect was most pronounced for images of full faces. Full faces also elicited faster saccades compared with eyes, showing that isolated eye regions are not sufficient to elicit face-like responses. Additionally, we found consistent individual differences in saccadic reaction times toward faces that weakly correlated with face salience during free viewing. Our results suggest a link between semantic salience and rapid detection, but underscore the unique status of faces. Further research is needed to resolve the mechanisms underlying rapid face saccades.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Individualidade , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Movimentos Sacádicos , Humanos , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Adolescente
16.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 9(1): 41, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902539

RESUMO

The human face is commonly used for identity verification. While this task was once exclusively performed by humans, technological advancements have seen automated facial recognition systems (AFRS) integrated into many identification scenarios. Although many state-of-the-art AFRS are exceptionally accurate, they often require human oversight or involvement, such that a human operator actions the final decision. Previously, we have shown that on average, humans assisted by a simulated AFRS (sAFRS) failed to reach the level of accuracy achieved by the same sAFRS alone, due to overturning the system's correct decisions and/or failing to correct sAFRS errors. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether participants' trust in automation was related to their performance on a one-to-one face matching task when assisted by a sAFRS. Participants (n = 160) completed a standard face matching task in two phases: an unassisted baseline phase, and an assisted phase where they were shown the identification decision (95% accurate) made by a sAFRS prior to submitting their own decision. While most participants improved with sAFRS assistance, those with greater relative trust in automation achieved larger gains in performance. However, the average aided performance of participants still failed to reach that of the sAFRS alone, regardless of trust status. Nonetheless, further analysis revealed a small sample of participants who achieved 100% accuracy when aided by the sAFRS. Our results speak to the importance of considering individual differences when selecting employees for roles requiring human-algorithm interaction, including identity verification tasks that incorporate facial recognition technologies.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial Automatizado , Automação , Confiança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Algoritmos
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14038, 2024 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890406

RESUMO

Face-processing timing differences may underlie visual social attention differences between autistic and non-autistic people, and males and females. This study investigates the timing of the effects of neurotype and sex on face-processing, and their dependence on age. We analysed EEG data during upright and inverted photographs of faces from 492 participants from the Longitudinal European Autism Project (141 neurotypical males, 76 neurotypical females, 202 autistic males, 73 autistic females; age 6-30 years). We detected timings of sex/diagnosis effects on event-related potential amplitudes at the posterior-temporal channel P8 with Bootstrapped Cluster-based Permutation Analysis and conducted Growth Curve Analysis (GCA) to investigate the timecourse and dependence on age of neural signals. The periods of influence of neurotype and sex overlapped but differed in onset (respectively, 260 and 310 ms post-stimulus), with sex effects lasting longer. GCA revealed a smaller and later amplitude peak in autistic female children compared to non-autistic female children; this difference decreased in adolescence and was not significant in adulthood. No age-dependent neurotype difference was significant in males. These findings indicate that sex and neurotype influence longer latency face processing and implicates cognitive rather than perceptual processing. Sex may have more overarching effects than neurotype on configural face processing.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 9(1): 36, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856867

RESUMO

Facial features are important sources of information about perceived trustworthiness. Masks and protective clothing diminish the visibility of facial cues by either partially concealing the mouth and nose or covering the entire face. During the pandemic, the use of personal protective equipment affected and redefined who trusts whom in society. This study used the classical investment game of interpersonal trust with Chinese participants to explore the impact of occlusion on interpersonal trust. Faces with moderate initial trustworthiness were occluded by a mask or protective clothing in Experiment 1 and were digitally occluded by a square in Experiment 2, and faces with three levels of initial trustworthiness were occluded by a mask in Experiment 3. Results showed that both undergraduates (Experiment 1a) and non-student adults (Experiment 1b) perceived the faces with protective clothing as more trustworthy than faces wearing standard masks and faces not wearing masks. Faces with the top halves showing were perceived as trustworthy as full faces, while faces with the bottom halves showing were perceived as less trustworthy. The effect of masks is weak and complex. Masks reduced participants' trust in faces with high initial trustworthiness, had no effect on faces with low and moderate initial trustworthiness, and only slightly increased the trust of undergraduates in faces with moderate initial trustworthiness. Our findings indicate that the lack of information caused by occlusion and the social significance associated with occlusion collectively affect people's trust behavior in Chinese society. We believe the findings of this study will be useful in elucidating the effects of personal protective equipment usage on perceptions of trustworthiness.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Máscaras , Roupa de Proteção , Percepção Social , Confiança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , China , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Roupa de Proteção/normas , Adolescente , Jogos Experimentais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , População do Leste Asiático
20.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 9(1): 43, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935222

RESUMO

The presence of face masks can significantly impact processes related to trait impressions from faces. In the present research, we focused on trait impressions from faces either wearing a mask or not by addressing how contextual factors may shape such inferences. In Study 1, we compared trait impressions from faces in a phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in which wearing masks was a normative behavior (T1) with those assessed one year later when wearing masks was far less common (T2). Results at T2 showed a reduced positivity in the trait impressions elicited by faces covered by a mask. In Study 2, it was found that trait impressions from faces were modulated by the background visual context in which the target face was embedded so that faces wearing a mask elicited more positive traits when superimposed on an indoor rather than outdoor visual context. Overall, the present studies indicate that wearing face masks may affect trait impressions from faces, but also that such impressions are highly flexible and can significantly fluctuate across time and space.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Reconhecimento Facial , Máscaras , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Expressão Facial
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