Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.458
Filtrar
1.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 69(5): 207-209, 1 sept., 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184458

RESUMO

El reconocimiento facial de emociones hace referencia a la interpretación de una persona sobre los rasgos faciales de otra para identificar un determinado estado emocional. Es esencial en la evolución humana y abarca distintas redes neuronales. A pesar de que el reconocimiento facial de emociones se ve alterado en la mayoría de las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, la bibliografía sólo se centra en patologías neurológicas individuales o en limitadas comparaciones con patologías psiquiátricas. Se desconoce si existe un patrón común de alteración entre las patologías o si el reconocimiento facial de emociones cambia según el trastorno subyacente. Esta revisión describe su desarrollo en población sana y sintetiza los estudios de reconocimiento facial de emociones en relación con las enfermedades neurológicas más comunes, así como los hallazgos más relevantes de neuroimagen y los tratamientos actuales. El reconocimiento facial de emociones, especialmente en emociones negativas, está alterado en todas las enfermedades neurodegenerativas descritas y podría constituir en algunos casos un marcador temprano de deterioro cognitivo


Facial emotion recognition refers to a person’s interpretation of facial features of another to identify a particular emotional state. It is essential in human evolution and encompasses distinct neural networks. Facial emotion recognition is altered in most neurodegenerative diseases, but literature just focus on single neurological pathologies or limited comparison with psychiatric pathologies. It is unknown if a common pattern of affection through pathologies exists or if facial emotion recognition changes according to the underlying pathology. This review discusses its development in healthy population, synthesizes facial emotion recognition studies regarding most common neurological diseases, as well as most relevant findings in neuroimaging and current treatments. Facial emotion recognition, especially negative emotions, is altered in all described neurodegenerative diseases and could constitutes an early marker of cognitive deterioration


Assuntos
Humanos , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia
2.
J Vis ; 19(9): 7, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426085

RESUMO

Despite extensive investigation, the causes and nature of developmental prosopagnosia (DP)-a severe face identification impairment in the absence of acquired brain injury-remain poorly understood. Drawing on previous work showing that individuals identified as being neurotypical (NT) show robust individual differences in where they fixate on faces, and recognize faces best when the faces are presented at this location, we defined and tested four novel hypotheses for how atypical face-looking behavior and/or retinotopic face encoding could impair face recognition in DP: (a) fixating regions of poor information, (b) inconsistent saccadic targeting, (c) weak retinotopic tuning, and (d) fixating locations not matched to the individual's own face tuning. We found no support for the first three hypotheses, with NTs and DPs consistently fixating similar locations and showing similar retinotopic tuning of their face perception performance. However, in testing the fourth hypothesis, we found preliminary evidence for two distinct phenotypes of DP: (a) Subjects characterized by impaired face memory, typical face perception, and a preference to look high on the face, and (b) Subjects characterized by profound impairments to both face memory and perception and a preference to look very low on the face. Further, while all NTs and upper-looking DPs performed best when faces were presented near their preferred fixation location, this was not true for lower-looking DPs. These results suggest that face recognition deficits in a substantial proportion of people with DP may arise not from aberrant face gaze or compromised retinotopic tuning, but from the suboptimal matching of gaze to tuning.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prosopagnosia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimentos Sacádicos
3.
Hum Nat ; 30(3): 341-369, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368014

RESUMO

Recent studies reveal that violence significantly contributes to explaining individual's facial preferences. Women who feel at higher risk of violence prefer less-masculine male faces. Given the importance of violence, we explore its influence on people's preferences for a different physical trait. Masculinity correlates positively with male strength and weight or body mass index (BMI). In fact, masculinity and BMI tend to load on the same component of trait perception. Therefore we predicted that individuals' perceptions of danger from violence will relate to preferences for facial cues to low-BMI. In two studies in Colombia, men and women from Bogota, Medellin, and surrounding communities were shown pairs of faces transformed to epitomize the shape correlates of men with high or low-BMI. The images were of European, Salvadoran, or Colombian men. Participants were asked to choose the face they considered most attractive. Subsequently, participants answered a survey about their health (e.g., frequency of illnesses the past year), media access (e.g., frequency of Internet use), education level (e.g., graduating from high school), and experiences/perceptions of violence in study 1 and about specific types of violence (public and domestic) in study 2. Results from both studies showed that women who experienced/perceived higher levels of violence preferred faces of low-BMI Salvadoran men. Preferences for low-BMI facial cues were significantly explained by violence (public or domestic), even after controlling for all other variables (including age, education, health, and media access). These results may reflect women's strategy to avoid male partners capable of inflicting harm.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Masculinidade , Percepção Social , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(6): 622-632, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318244

RESUMO

Psychopathy is characteristically associated with impairments in recognizing others' facial expressions of emotion, and there is some evidence that these difficulties are specific to the callousness features of the disorder. However, it remains unclear whether these difficulties are accompanied by reductions in autonomic reactivity when viewing others' emotional expressions, and whether these impairments are particular to expressions showing another's distress or are more pervasive across different emotional expressions. In this study, 73 adult male prisoners with histories of serious sexual or violent offenses-who ranged across the psychopathy continuum-completed a facial emotion recognition task. For the first time in a convicted offender sample, we used pupillometry techniques to measure changes in the pupil dilation response, a measure of sympathetic autonomic arousal to affective stimuli. We found that the callousness features of psychopathy were related to impaired recognition of fearful faces. Strikingly, we also showed that increasing callousness was associated with a reduction in the pupil dilation response and that this was pervasive across different emotional expressions. Our results highlight a potential role of the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline system in the pathophysiology of psychopathy and demonstrate the potential of the pupillary response as a technique for understanding attention-emotion interactions in psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Criminosos , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Violência , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros , Adulto Jovem
6.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(6): 1767-1780, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290132

RESUMO

Holistic processing, a hallmark of expert processing, has been shown for written words, signaled by the word composite effect, similar to the face composite effect: fluent readers find it difficult to focus on just one half of a written word while ignoring the other half, especially when the two word halves are aligned rather than misaligned. This effect is signaled by a significant interaction between alignment and congruency of the two word parts. Face and visual word recognition, however, involve different neural mechanisms with an opposite hemispheric lateralization. It is then possible that faces and words can both involve holistic processing in their own separate face and word processing systems, but by using different mechanisms. In the present study, we replicated with words a previous study done with faces (Richler, Bukach, & Gauthier, 2009, Experiment 3). In a first experiment we showed that in a composite task with aligned artificial objects, no congruency effects are found. In a second experiment, using an interleaved task, a congruency effect for Ziggerins was induced in trials in which a word was first encoded, but more strongly when it was aligned. However, in a stricter test, we found no differences between the congruency effect for Ziggerins induced by aligned words versus pseudowords. Our results demonstrate that different mechanisms can underlie holistic processing in different expertise domains.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Leitura , Semântica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(8): 1386-1406, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259600

RESUMO

Voluminous research supports holistic processing of faces. However, little is known about how holistic processing affects recognition of newly learned faces, a question of importance for improving performance in police lineups and other real-world tasks. Drawing on cognitive and neuropsychological research, we suggest that holistic processing facilitates the formation of unitized representations that support discrimination between old and new faces-including new faces that contain old parts-through a unidimensional familiarity signal. In the absence of holistic processing, face recognition is based on relational representations that are relatively difficult to encode, but which allow flexible recognition decisions based on match-mismatch detection to be made. Unlike unitized representations, relational representations can support judgments that newly encountered faces match previously experienced faces in some respects (e.g., some of their features) and yet not in others (e.g., other features, global configuration). Four experiments clarified the relationship of holistic processing to the formation of unitized and relational representations of faces. By manipulating the extent of holistic processing while controlling for the overall level of recognition performance, we demonstrate qualitative effects of holistic processing on how recognition decisions are made with faces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
8.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(6): 657-665, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216026

RESUMO

Physical exercise has positive effects on mood and it reduces clinical depression and states of anxiety. While previous work mostly used subjective measures to study the effect of exercise upon emotions, this study for the first time employed blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to unravel associated neuronal changes of the emotional face-processing network in response to acute exercise. A total of 25 male athletes underwent fitness assessments to define two standardized 30 min exercise interventions (low and high intensity). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was completed pre- and post-exercise and neuronal responses to neutral, happy and fearful facial expressions were determined using an fMRI-based face-matching paradigm. Complete data sets were acquired in 21 participants (mean age, 27.2 ± 4.2 years). Both exercise interventions induced significant increases of the PANAS positive affect scale. Modulations of brain activation patterns following acute exercise were found only for fearful facial stimuli vs forms: reduced brain activation in posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus for the low condition and reduced activity in caudate nucleus and ventral anterior putamen for the high condition. In conclusion, this study provides first in vivo evidence that acute strenuous exercise interferes with emotional face-processing brain regions in an emotion type-specific manner.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Exercício/psicologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(6): 2167-2181, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168738

RESUMO

With the objective to investigate the role of the insula in recognizing emotion, we performed direct electrical stimulation over the anterior insular cortex during awake surgery while simultaneously delivering an emotional sensitivity task. We registered 18 consecutive patients with brain tumors associated with the insular lobe, who were undergoing tumor resection. An emotional sensitivity task was employed to measure the patients' ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions before, during, and after awake surgery. Furthermore, we performed voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to identify the association between relevant brain lesions and emotion recognition. When we performed direct electrical stimulation over the anterior insular cortex during awake surgery, the results showed that the ability to recognize anger was significantly enhanced with the presence of anterior insular stimulation (p < 0.05). Comparing the performance in the emotional sensitivity task before and after surgery, the performance in the anger condition became worse (p < 0.01), but became better in the sadness condition after surgery (p < 0.01). In the case of anger recognition, lower scores in the correct response index were associated with lesions involving the left insula in the VLSM study. Direct electrical stimulation over the anterior insular cortex enhanced anger recognition in patients with insular tumors. In contrast, accuracy of anger recognition was significantly reduced, and sadness was improved, when the performance of emotional sensitivity was compared pre- and post-surgery. Our findings suggest that the insular cortex is involved in changes in emotion recognition, including anger and sadness recognition by modulating arousal level that is closely connected with interoception.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/cirurgia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(5): 1220-1227, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152373

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that learning to categorize faces along a new dimension changes the perceptual representation of that dimension, but little is known about how the representation of specific face identities changes after such category learning. Here, we trained participants to categorize faces that varied along two morphing dimensions. One dimension was relevant to the categorization task and the other was irrelevant. We used reverse correlation to estimate the internal templates used to identify the two faces at the extremes of the relevant dimension, both before and after training, and at two different levels of the irrelevant dimension. Categorization training changed the internal templates used for face identification, even though identification and categorization tasks impose different demands on the observers. After categorization training, the internal templates became more invariant across changes in the irrelevant dimension. These results suggest that the representation of face identity can be modified by categorization experience.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101790, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146320

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that migraine is associated with enhanced perception and altered cerebral processing of sensory stimuli. More recently, it has been suggested that this sensory hypersensitivity might reflect a more general enhanced response to aversive emotional stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and emotional face stimuli (fearful, happy and sad faces), we compared whole-brain activation between 41 migraine patients without aura in interictal period and 49 healthy controls. Migraine patients showed increased neural activation to fearful faces compared to neutral faces in the right middle frontal gyrus and frontal pole relative to healthy controls. We also found that higher attack frequency in migraine patients was related to increased activation mainly in the right primary somatosensory cortex (corresponding to the face area) to fearful expressions and in the right dorsal striatal regions to happy faces. In both analyses, activation differences remained significant after controlling for anxiety and depressive symptoms. These findings indicate that enhanced response to emotional stimuli might explain the migraine trigger effect of psychosocial stressors that gradually leads to increased somatosensory response to emotional clues and thus contributes to the progression or chronification of migraine.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Enxaqueca sem Aura/fisiopatologia , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Percepção Social , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Enxaqueca sem Aura/diagnóstico por imagem , Enxaqueca sem Aura/etiologia , Neostriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Somatossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto Jovem
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102862, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226535

RESUMO

Evidence for the importance of bodily cues for emotion recognition has grown over the last two decades. Despite this growing literature, it is underspecified how observers view whole bodies for body expression recognition. Here we investigate to which extent body-viewing is face- and context-specific when participants are categorizing whole body expressions in static (Experiment 1) and dynamic displays (Experiment 2). Eye-movement recordings showed that observers viewed the face exclusively when visible in dynamic displays, whereas viewing was distributed over head, torso and arms in static displays and in dynamic displays with faces not visible. The strong face bias in dynamic face-visible expressions suggests that viewing of the body responds flexibly to the informativeness of facial cues for emotion categorisation. However, when facial expressions are static or not visible, observers adopt a viewing strategy that includes all upper body regions. This viewing strategy is further influenced by subtle viewing biases directed towards emotion-specific body postures and movements to optimise recruitment of diagnostic information for emotion categorisation.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Movimentos Oculares , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Postura , Campos Visuais
14.
Vision Res ; 157: 142-158, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230664

RESUMO

Typical human adults recognize numerous individuals from their faces accurately, rapidly and automatically, reaching a level of expertise at individual face recognition that is important for the quality of their social interactions. A non-human species of primates, the rhesus monkey, has been used for decades as a model of human face processing, in particular for understanding the neural basis of individual face recognition. However, despite responding specifically to faces behaviourally and neurally, this species, as well as other Old World and New World monkeys, is remarkably poor at individuating faces of conspecifics. Following extensive conditioning, monkeys only achieve moderate performance at individual face matching tasks where image-based cues are available. Contrary to humans, monkeys do not show a systematic inversion effect in such tasks, or an advantage for matching face pictures of familiar versus unfamiliar individuals, indicating that they do not rely on qualitatively similar individual face recognition processes as humans. These observations concur with the characteristics of the rhesus monkey cortical face processing system, which lacks two critical aspects for human expertise at individual face recognition: a distinct ventral face-selective pathway and a right hemispheric specialization. While the rhesus monkey brain is undoubtedly an informative non-human model for studying the neural basis of social behaviour and visual cognition, it does not provide an adequate model of human individual face recognition. More generally, this review urges for caution when drawing direct inferences across species without sufficient homologies in behaviour and anatomico-functional landmarks.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , /fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
15.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(8): 1015-1030, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144854

RESUMO

Direct gaze-someone gazing at you-is an important social cue that might be expected to capture visual attention, even in the presence of other faces. Consistent with this, direct gazing eyes are often detected more rapidly in arrays of averted gazing eyes, than vice versa; a search asymmetry termed the stare-in-the-crowd effect (SITCE). Here, we examine top-down influences on the SITCE by manipulating observers' knowledge of the target's gaze prior to the search display. Our findings revealed two dissociable components of the SITCE. The first, which scaled with set size but was unaffected by prior knowledge, was attributed to noisy, parallel gaze processing that guides attention toward direct gaze (Process 1). The second, an overall response time advantage for direct versus averted gaze targets, irrespective of set size, was attributed to criteria for determining target presence versus absence (Process 2). Prior knowledge of the target's gaze direction increased the direct gaze advantage, rather than speeding up responses for both target types (typically expected for 100% valid cues). This unusual pattern suggests that top-down gaze-related influences may comprise an obligatory bias toward direct gaze. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurosci Lett ; 705: 167-171, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051221

RESUMO

In the present study we examined the influence of spatial filtering on the N170 elicited by own-race and other-race faces, a relatively early face-selective ERP difference associated with face detection. It was found that BB (broad band) faces elicited larger N170 than did LSF (low spatial frequency) faces and the latter larger than HSF (high spatial frequency) condition. Faces' races significantly modulated the N170 amplitudes, showing larger N170 for other-race than own-race faces for both BB and HSF conditions but not for LSF condition. For own-race faces, the N170 did not differ between BB and LSF conditions, whereas other-race faces elicited larger N170 for BB than LSF conditions. The present data provided new electrophysiological evidence for race perception of faces.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 196: 118-128, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054376

RESUMO

Being observed when completing physical and mental tasks alters how successful people are at completing them. This has been explained in terms of evaluation apprehension, drive theory, and due to the effects of stress caused by being observed. In three experiments, we explore how being observed affects participants' ability to recognise faces as it relates to the aforementioned theories - easier face recognition tasks should be completed with more success under observation relative to harder tasks. In Experiment 1, we found that being observed during the learning phase of an old/new recognition paradigm caused participants to be less accurate during the test phase than not being observed. Being observed at test did not affect accuracy. We replicated these findings in an line-up type task in Experiment 2. Finally, in Experiment 3, we assessed whether these effects were due to the difficulty of the task or due to the physiological stress being observed caused. We found that while observation caused physiological stress, it did not relate to accuracy. Moderately difficult tasks (upright unfamiliar face recognition and inverted familiar face recognition) were detrimentally affected by being observed, whereas easy (upright familiar face recognition) and difficult tasks (inverted unfamiliar face recognition) were unaffected by this manipulation. We explain these results in terms of the direct effects being observed has on task performance for moderately difficult tasks and discuss the implications of these results to cognitive psychological experimentation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(5): 863-889, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070440

RESUMO

The pain of Black Americans is systematically underdiagnosed and undertreated, compared to the pain of their White counterparts. Extensive research has examined the psychological factors that might account for such biases, including status judgments, racial prejudice, and stereotypes about biological differences between Blacks and Whites. Across seven experiments, we accumulated evidence that lower-level perceptual processes also uniquely contribute to downstream racial biases in pain recognition. We repeatedly observed that White participants showed more stringent thresholds for perceiving pain on Black faces, compared to White faces. A tendency to see painful expressions on Black faces less readily arose, in part, from a disruption in configural processing associated with other-race faces. Subsequent analyses revealed that this racial bias in pain perception could not be easily attributed to stimulus features (e.g., color, luminance, or contrast), subjective evaluations related to pain tolerance and experience (e.g., masculinity, dominance, etc.), or objective differences in face structure and expression intensity between Black and White faces. Finally, we observed that racial biases in perception facilitated biases in pain treatment decisions, and that this relationship existed over and above biased judgments of status and strength, explicit racial bias, and endorsement of false beliefs regarding biological differences. A meta-analysis across 9 total experiments (N = 1,289) confirmed the robustness and size of these effects. This research establishes a subtle, albeit influential, perceptual pathway to intergroup bias in pain care and treatment. Implications for racial bias, face perception, and medical treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(1): 11-15, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091843

RESUMO

The threshold for conscious perception of stimuli within the environment varies from individual to individual. Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested that insular cortex activity is positively correlated with perceptual awareness. However, few studies have tested the relationship between awareness and structural variability in the insula. The purpose of this study was to examine structural differences in brain morphology related to perceptual awareness of fearful faces. This study hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between insular grey matter volume and scores on the forced-choice awareness check task. The forced-choice awareness check task was designed to assess awareness for the presence and location of backward masked fearful and neutral faces, masked with neutral faces. The participants responded by indicating the side on which the masked fearful face appeared, or whether there were two neutral faces. The task included a total of 60 trials. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected to measure grey matter volumes. Individuals that were more aware of backward masked fearful faces had greater grey matter volume in the insula, middle cingulate, anterior temporal pole, ventral striatum, and hippocampus.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Medo , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Conscientização/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurol Res ; 41(8): 714-721, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092142

RESUMO

Objectives: We investigated the neural mechanism of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of post-stroke depression (PSD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Methods: Twenty-six patients with PSD were randomly divided into an experimental group receiving tDCS and a control group receiving sham stimulation. The anode and cathode were placed on the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Patients underwent fNIRS before and after treatment, combined with an emotional face sex judgment task and a '1-back' working memory task to assess reaction times and relative concentration changes of oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) in the PFC. Results: Reaction times for faces showing positive emotions decreased after treatment in the experimental group (P < 0.05). For faces showing negative emotions, relative Oxy-Hb concentration changes in the PFC were higher after treatment (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the experimental and the control group. Reaction times during the working memory task in the experimental group were shorter after treatment (P < 0.05), and there was a significant difference between the groups (P < 0.05). Relative Oxy-Hb concentration changes in the left PFC were significantly higher after treatment in the experimental group (P < 0.05), and concentration changes in the right PFC after treatment were significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group (P < 0.05). Discussion: tDCS may improve the processing of negative emotions and working memory in patients with PSD by enhancing aerobic metabolism in the PFC, thereby improving depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA