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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4518, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908146

RESUMO

The human brain is specialized for face processing, yet we sometimes perceive illusory faces in objects. It is unknown whether these natural errors of face detection originate from a rapid process based on visual features or from a slower, cognitive re-interpretation. Here we use a multifaceted approach to understand both the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of illusory face representation in the brain by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography neuroimaging data with model-based analysis. We find that the representation of illusory faces is confined to occipital-temporal face-selective visual cortex. The temporal dynamics reveal a striking evolution in how illusory faces are represented relative to human faces and matched objects. Illusory faces are initially represented more similarly to real faces than matched objects are, but within ~250 ms, the representation transforms, and they become equivalent to ordinary objects. This is consistent with the initial recruitment of a broadly-tuned face detection mechanism which privileges sensitivity over selectivity.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009036, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941431

RESUMO

The polygenic nature and the contribution of common genetic variation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) allude to a high degree of pleiotropy between ASD and other psychiatric and behavioral traits. In a pleiotropic system, a single genetic variant contributes small effects to several phenotypes or disorders. While analyzed broadly, there is a paucity of research studies investigating the shared genetic information between specific neurodevelopmental domains and ASD. We performed a phenome-wide association study of ASD polygenetic risk score (PRS) against 491 neurodevelopmental subdomains ascertained in 4,309 probands from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) who lack an ASD diagnosis. Our main analysis calculated ASD PRS in 4,309 PNC probands using the per-SNP effects reported in a recent genome-wide association study of ASD in a case-control design. In a high-resolution manner, our main analysis regressed ASD PRS against 491 neurodevelopmental phenotypes with age, sex, and ten principal components of ancestry as covariates. Follow-up analyses included in the regression model PRS derived from brain-related traits genetically correlated with ASD. Our main finding demonstrated that 11-17-year old probands with the highest ASD genetic risk were able to identify angry faces (R2 = 1.06%, p = 1.38 × 10-7, pBonferroni-corrected = 1.9 × 10-3). This ability replicated in older probands (>18 years; R2 = 0.55%, p = 0.036) and persisted after covarying with other psychiatric disorders, brain imaging traits, and educational attainment (R2 = 0.2%, p = 0.019). We also detected several suggestive associations between ASD PRS and emotionality and connectedness with others. These data (i) indicate how genetic liability to ASD may influence neurodevelopment in the general population, (ii) reinforce epidemiological findings of heightened ability of ASD cases to predict certain social psychological events based on increased systemizing skills, and (iii) recapitulate theories of imbalance between empathizing and systemizing in ASD etiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 228-239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between facial affect recognition and criminal justice involvement has been extensively researched, yet there are virtually no data on the capacity for facial affect recognition in post-incar+cerated individuals, and the results of many studies are limited due to a narrow focus on psychopathy rather than offence category. AIMS: To test the first hypothesis that individuals reporting a history of a violent offence would show a deficit in facial affect recognition and the second hypothesis that the violent offender's deficit would be exclusive to recognition of negative expressions, not affecting positive or neutral expressions. METHOD: Post-incarcerated individuals (N = 298) were recruited online through Qualtrics and completed questionnaires assessing their criminal justice background and demographics. They completed measures of facial affect recognition, anxiety and depression, and components of aggression. RESULTS: A logistic regression, including sex, ethnicity, age and years of education and depression/anxiety scores, indicated that committing a violent offence was independently associated with lower facial affect recognition scores as well as male gender and a trait-based propensity towards physical aggression, but no other co-variable. These data provided no evidence that this deficit was specific to negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Our study is one of the first to examine facial affect recognition in a post-incarcerated sample. It suggests that deficits in facial affect recognition, already well documented among violent prisoners, persist. While acknowledging that these may be relatively fixed characteristics, this study also suggests that, for these people, nothing happening during their imprisonment was touching this. Improving capacity in facial affect recognition should be considered as a target of intervention for violent offenders, developing or revising in-prison programmes as required.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Voluntários
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23011-23020, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839334

RESUMO

The fusiform face area responds selectively to faces and is causally involved in face perception. How does face-selectivity in the fusiform arise in development, and why does it develop so systematically in the same location across individuals? Preferential cortical responses to faces develop early in infancy, yet evidence is conflicting on the central question of whether visual experience with faces is necessary. Here, we revisit this question by scanning congenitally blind individuals with fMRI while they haptically explored 3D-printed faces and other stimuli. We found robust face-selective responses in the lateral fusiform gyrus of individual blind participants during haptic exploration of stimuli, indicating that neither visual experience with faces nor fovea-biased inputs is necessary for face-selectivity to arise in the lateral fusiform gyrus. Our results instead suggest a role for long-range connectivity in specifying the location of face-selectivity in the human brain.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3380, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665586

RESUMO

Eyewitness misidentification accounts for 70% of verified erroneous convictions. To address this alarming phenomenon, research has focused on factors that influence likelihood of correct identification, such as the manner in which a lineup is conducted. Traditional lineups rely on overt eyewitness responses that confound two covert factors: strength of recognition memory and the criterion for deciding what memory strength is sufficient for identification. Here we describe a lineup that permits estimation of memory strength independent of decision criterion. Our procedure employs powerful techniques developed in studies of perception and memory: perceptual scaling and signal detection analysis. Using these tools, we scale memory strengths elicited by lineup faces, and quantify performance of a binary classifier tasked with distinguishing perpetrator from innocent suspect. This approach reveals structure of memory inaccessible using traditional lineups and renders accurate identifications uninfluenced by decision bias. The approach furthermore yields a quantitative index of individual eyewitness performance.


Assuntos
Crime , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645034

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that we rapidly and effortlessly associate neutral information with the self, leading to subsequent prioritization of this information in perception. However, the exact underlying processes behind these effects are not fully known. Here, we focus specifically on top-down and bottom-up processes involved in self-prioritization, and report results from three experiments involving face detection, using a sequential match-non-match task. Across the three experiments we asked participants to associate an unfamiliar face with the self (Experiment 1), to associate one's face with a stranger's name (Experiment 2), and to establish both associations simultaneously (Experiment 3). We found that while participants showed evidence of bottom-up prioritization of their real faces, they did not show such an effect for self-associated strangers' faces. However, the participants showed a robust self-related top-down effect; when presented with a self-related cue, they were later faster at classifying both subsequent correct and incorrect targets. Together, our results suggest that self-prioritization is underpinned by distinct top-down and bottom-up processes. We discuss our findings in the context of the proposal that the self acts as an "integrative glue", and suggest an interpretation of our results within the framework of predictive coding.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adulto , Associação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Autoimagem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232059, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374738

RESUMO

The present investigation tests: (i) whether the perception of an human infant's eyes, relative to other facial features, especially strongly elicits "parental" responses (e.g., appraisals of cuteness and vulnerability); (ii) if, so, whether effects of the visual perception of eyes may be partially attributable to eye contact; (iii) whether the perception of non-human animals' (puppy dogs') eyes also especially strongly influence appraisals of their cuteness and vulnerability; and (iv) whether individual differences in caregiving motives moderate effects. Results from 5 experiments (total N = 1458 parents and non-parents) provided empirical evidence to evaluate these hypotheses: Appraisals of human infants were influenced especially strongly by the visual perception of human infants' eyes (compared to other facial features); these effects do not appear to be attributable to eye contact; the visual perception of eyes influenced appraisals of puppy dogs, but not exactly in the same way that it influenced appraisals of human infants; and there was no consistent evidence of moderation by individual differences in caregiving motives. These results make novel contributions to several psychological literatures, including literatures on the motivational psychology of parental care and on person perception.


Assuntos
Olho , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Pais , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/psicologia , Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Cães , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Percepção Social
8.
Exp Psychol ; 67(1): 14-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394814

RESUMO

In this experiment, we replicated the effect of muscle engagement on perception such that the recognition of another's facial expressions was biased by the observer's facial muscular activity (Blaesi & Wilson, 2010). We extended this replication to show that such a modulatory effect is also observed for the recognition of dynamic bodily expressions. Via a multilab and within-subjects approach, we investigated the emotion recognition of point-light biological walkers, along with that of morphed face stimuli, while subjects were or were not holding a pen in their teeth. Under the "pen-in-the-teeth" condition, participants tended to lower their threshold of perception of happy expressions in facial stimuli compared to the "no-pen" condition, thus replicating the experiment by Blaesi and Wilson (2010). A similar effect was found for the biological motion stimuli such that participants lowered their threshold to perceive happy walkers in the pen-in-the-teeth condition compared to the no-pen condition. This pattern of results was also found in a second experiment in which the no-pen condition was replaced by a situation in which participants held a pen in their lips ("pen-in-lips" condition). These results suggested that facial muscular activity alters the recognition of not only facial expressions but also bodily expressions.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 217: 1-9, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360859

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This report examines the relationship between glaucomatous macular damage and facial recognition. In addition, it assesses the role of contrast sensitivity (CS) as an intermediary step in the causal pathway between macular damage and impairment of facial recognition. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted in a single tertiary care center. The study population included 144 eyes of 72 participants with a diagnosis of open angle glaucoma in one or both eyes and a visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye. The presence or absence of macular damage was determined by comparing corresponding regions of the retinal nerve fiber layer and the retinal ganglion cell layer with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with the 10-2 visual field (VF). Better and worse eye was determined by 10-2 VF mean deviations (MDs). Interventions were 1) macular function as measured by 10-2 VF and 2) CS as measured by the Freiburg Visual Acuity and Contrast Test (FrACT). The primary outcome measure was the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) score. RESULTS: Regardless of eye, there was a significant correlation between facial recognition and 10-2 VF MD (P < .0001 better, worse eye). The 10-2 VF MD remained a significant predictor of facial recognition after adjusting for potential confounders including glaucoma severity, CS, age, and visual acuity (P = .004 better eye, P = .019 worse eye). CONCLUSIONS: Even with good central visual acuity, patients with glaucomatous macular damage exhibit diminished facial recognition, which is partly mediated through diminished CS.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Macula Lutea/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Glaucoma/complicações , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Disco Óptico/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Campos Visuais
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10218-10224, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341163

RESUMO

People evaluate a stranger's trustworthiness from their facial features in a fraction of a second, despite common advice "not to judge a book by its cover." Evaluations of trustworthiness have critical and widespread social impact, predicting financial lending, mate selection, and even criminal justice outcomes. Consequently, understanding how people perceive trustworthiness from faces has been a major focus of scientific inquiry, and detailed models explain how consensus impressions of trustworthiness are driven by facial attributes. However, facial impression models do not consider variation between observers. Here, we develop a sensitive test of trustworthiness evaluation and use it to document substantial, stable individual differences in trustworthiness impressions. Via a twin study, we show that these individual differences are largely shaped by variation in personal experience, rather than genes or shared environments. Finally, using multivariate twin modeling, we show that variation in trustworthiness evaluation is specific, dissociating from other key facial evaluations of dominance and attractiveness. Our finding that variation in facial trustworthiness evaluation is driven mostly by personal experience represents a rare example of a core social perceptual capacity being predominantly shaped by a person's unique environment. Notably, it stands in sharp contrast to variation in facial recognition ability, which is driven mostly by genes. Our study provides insights into the development of the social brain, offers a different perspective on disagreement in trust in wider society, and motivates new research into the origins and potential malleability of face evaluation, a critical aspect of human social cognition.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Individualidade , Confiança/psicologia , Gêmeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 206: 103041, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268258

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to explore the processing features of the multi-social categories and their mechanisms of interaction. Adopting the Inhibition Paradigm in experiment 1, this study investigated whether the race and gender information obtained from images of face would influence the judgment of name category under the different perceptual load levels. The results of two sub-experiments showed that facial features contained strong, intuitive clues for race category. When the perceptual load level was low, it was automatically processed whether it was related to the task or not; when the perceptual load level was high, the automated process did not occur. The gender category utilized top-down flexible processing, which could be affected easily by the intent of the task. It was not processed when it was irrelevant to the task. Experiment 2 further proved that the different levels of difficulty would not have impact on the results of experiment 1. In summary, this study suggests that the race category is an automatic process from the bottom to up, which affects the processing of irrelevant primitive social categories; and that gender processing is regulated by the task intention, exhibiting top-down processing characteristics without affecting the processing of irrelevant primary social categories. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is an asymmetry in the interaction of the primary social categories.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Intenção , Julgamento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 206: 103077, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330690

RESUMO

An item-method directed forgetting task was used in three studies to present photographs of happy, neutral and sad faces to participants who had been induced to adopt a happy, neutral or sad mood. At test remember, forget or new judgments of old and new photographs of happy, neutral or sad faces were collected. According to the affect-as-cognitive-feedback hypothesis positively valenced stimuli serve as 'go signals' validating the use of currently accessible cognitions to process task demands whereas negatively valenced stimuli serve as 'stop signals' inhibiting or reversing the use of those cognitions. Since directed forgetting tasks entail the cognitions (among others) that some stimuli should be remembered and others should be forgotten, happy faces should facilitate task demands whereas sad faces should not. As predicted, directed forgetting effects were found for happy but not sad faces in Experiments 1 and 3, and directed forgetting effects were found neutral valenced faces in Experiment 2. Across all three studies mood state did not influence directed forgetting. Findings are discussed in terms of the effects of facial valence cues on directed forgetting and some directions for future research.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(6): 1757-1767, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123973

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Individuals with music performance anxiety (MPA) present physical, behavioral, and cognitive manifestations of anxiety, in addition to information processing deficits, especially in facial emotion recognition (FER). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a single dose of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) on FER in a sample of musicians with high and low MPA (primary outcome), as well as indicators of mood/anxiety and self-assessed performance (secondary outcomes). METHODS: Crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 43 male musicians with different levels of MPA. Participants completed a static facial emotion recognition task and self-rated mood and performance scales. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 2 × 0 for crossover trials and the Omnibus test (measure of separability between intervention and carryover effects). RESULTS: Only musicians with high MPA treated with oxytocin had a higher accuracy in the recognition of happiness (p < 0.03; d > 0.72). No effects of oxytocin were found on mood indicators or on self-perceived performance, regardless of MPA level. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate possible benefits of the acute treatment with oxytocin in MPA, which may improve the management of this common and disabling condition that affects professional musicians. The appropriate perception of positive feedback may increase confidence and feelings of social acceptance, reducing symptoms associated with the condition. The lack of effects on mood/anxiety and cognition may be explained by the context-dependent characteristic of the effects of oxytocin, since the experiment did not represent an actual situation of social threat. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos): No. RBR-9cph2q.


Assuntos
Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Reconhecimento Facial/efeitos dos fármacos , Música/psicologia , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade de Desempenho/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade de Desempenho/psicologia , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Ansiedade de Desempenho/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6163-6169, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123077

RESUMO

It is well established that the adult brain contains a mosaic of domain-specific networks. But how do these domain-specific networks develop? Here we tested the hypothesis that the brain comes prewired with connections that precede the development of domain-specific function. Using resting-state fMRI in the youngest sample of newborn humans tested to date, we indeed found that cortical networks that will later develop strong face selectivity (including the "proto" occipital face area and fusiform face area) and scene selectivity (including the "proto" parahippocampal place area and retrosplenial complex) by adulthood, already show domain-specific patterns of functional connectivity as early as 27 d of age (beginning as early as 6 d of age). Furthermore, we asked how these networks are functionally connected to early visual cortex and found that the proto face network shows biased functional connectivity with foveal V1, while the proto scene network shows biased functional connectivity with peripheral V1. Given that faces are almost always experienced at the fovea, while scenes always extend across the entire periphery, these differential inputs may serve to facilitate domain-specific processing in each network after that function develops, or even guide the development of domain-specific function in each network in the first place. Taken together, these findings reveal domain-specific and eccentricity-biased connectivity in the earliest days of life, placing new constraints on our understanding of the origins of domain-specific cortical networks.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Evol Psychol ; 18(1): 1474704920910403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124644

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that manipulating the pitch of a face (tilting the face upward or downward) affects the perceived femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and dominance of the given face. However, previous research has not considered the influence of direct eye gaze on dominance perceptions or the ambiguity surrounding the proposed social signals sent from a static face. The current research used 94 participants across two studies (women = 63%, age: M = 31). Stimuli varied in head pitch angle, eye gaze, and motion/static appearance. Participants rated the stimuli for levels of masculinity, femininity, attractiveness, and dominance. Both studies confirmed that pitching the face upward at incrementally increasing angles resulted in a linear increase in ratings of masculinity, physical dominance, and social dominance and a linear decrease in ratings of femininity, physical attractiveness, and behavioral allure. Study 2 showed that these effects can be dependent on either the perceived structural change of the face or the actual movement of the face, and these are different for each rating category. The perceived dimorphism, attractiveness, and dominance of a face will change dependent on the angle of pitch it is presented but also whether it is moving or not, where it is moving in space, and what direction it is moving.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Beleza , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Predomínio Social
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(5)2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131494

RESUMO

Face recognition functions are today exploited through biometric sensors in many applications, from extended security systems to inclusion devices; deep neural network methods are reaching in this field stunning performances. The main limitation of the deep learning approach is an inconvenient relation between the accuracy of the results and the needed computing power. When a personal device is employed, in particular, many algorithms require a cloud computing approach to achieve the expected performances; other algorithms adopt models that are simple by design. A third viable option consists of model (oracle) distillation. This is the most intriguing among the compression techniques since it permits to devise of the minimal structure that will enforce the same I/O relation as the original model. In this paper, a distillation technique is applied to a complex model, enabling the introduction of fast state-of-the-art recognition capabilities on a low-end hardware face recognition sensor module. Two distilled models are presented in this contribution: the former can be directly used in place of the original oracle, while the latter incarnates better the end-to-end approach, removing the need for a separate alignment procedure. The presented biometric systems are examined on the two problems of face verification and face recognition in an open set by using well-agreed training/testing methodologies and datasets.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Biometria/métodos , Confidencialidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Destilação , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012169

RESUMO

Individuals who engage in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) often report significant interpersonal difficulties, with studies lending support to the idea of impaired social interactions. Perceptual processing deficits of facial expressions have also been associated with interpersonal difficulties, yet little research has assessed how individuals with a history of NSSI (HNSSI) process facial emotions. This study used an ideal observer analysis to assess emotion processing capabilities of these individuals. A total of 30 HNSSI and 31 controls were presented with static images of various facial expressions (fear, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise) at three intensity levels (50%, 75% and 100% emotion expressivity). Recognition of emotions were measured by signal-proportion thresholds, efficiency scores, and unbiased hit rate. Error responses were also recorded to investigate errors biases made by each group. No significant differences between HNSSI and controls were found in signal-proportion thresholds or efficiency scores. Decreased accuracy of HNSSI participants for recognizing fearful expressions was observed. An increased likelihood of mistaking angry for happy expressions and a decreased likelihood of mistaking sad for surprised expressions were recorded for the HNSSI group compared to controls. These findings provide support to the literature reporting deficits in accurate emotion identification for those engaged in NSSI behaviours.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Fractais , Humanos , Masculino , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Neurosci ; 40(11): 2305-2313, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001610

RESUMO

Humans actively sample their environment with saccadic eye movements to bring relevant information into high-acuity foveal vision. Despite being lower in resolution, peripheral information is also available before each saccade. How the pre-saccadic extrafoveal preview of a visual object influences its post-saccadic processing is still an unanswered question. The current study investigated this question by simultaneously recording behavior and fixation-related brain potentials while human subjects made saccades to face stimuli. We manipulated the relationship between pre-saccadic "previews" and post-saccadic images to explicitly isolate the influences of the former. Subjects performed a gender discrimination task on a newly foveated face under three preview conditions: scrambled face, incongruent face (different identity from the foveated face), and congruent face (same identity). As expected, reaction times were faster after a congruent-face preview compared with a scrambled-face preview. Importantly, intact face previews (either incongruent or congruent) resulted in a massive reduction of post-saccadic neural responses. Specifically, we analyzed the classic face-selective N170 component at occipitotemporal electroencephalogram electrodes, which was still present in our experiments with active looking. However, the post-saccadic N170 was strongly attenuated following intact-face previews compared with the scrambled condition. This large and long-lasting decrease in evoked activity is consistent with a trans-saccadic mechanism of prediction that influences category-specific neural processing at the start of a new fixation. These findings constrain theories of visual stability and show that the extrafoveal preview methodology can be a useful tool to investigate its underlying mechanisms.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural correlates of object recognition have traditionally been studied by flashing stimuli to the central visual field. This procedure differs in fundamental ways from natural vision, where viewers actively sample the environment with eye movements and also obtain a low-resolution preview of soon-to-be-fixated objects. Here we show that the N170, a classic electrophysiological marker of the structural encoding of faces, also occurs during a more natural viewing condition but is strongly reduced due to extrafoveal preprocessing (preview benefit). Our results therefore highlight the importance of peripheral vision during trans-saccadic processing in building a coherent and stable representation of the world around us.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto , Cor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Eletroencefalografia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(2): 626-636, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043216

RESUMO

Finding a face in a crowd is a real-world analog to visual search, but extending the visual search method to such complex social stimuli is rife with potential pitfalls. We need look no further than the well-cited notion that angry faces "pop out" of crowds to find evidence that stimulus confounds can lead to incorrect inferences. Indeed, long before the recent replication crisis in social psychology, stimulus confounds led to repeated demonstrations of spurious effects that were misattributed to adaptive cognitive design. We will first discuss how researchers refuted these errors with systematic "face in the crowd" experiments. We will then contend that these more careful studies revealed something that may actually be adaptive, but at the level of the signal: Happy facial expressions seem designed to be detected efficiently. We will close by suggesting that participant-level manipulations can be leveraged to reveal strategic shifts in performance in the visual search for complex stimuli such as faces. Because stimulus-level effects are held constant across such manipulations, the technique affords strong inferences about the psychological underpinnings of searching for a face in the crowd.


Assuntos
Aglomeração , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira , Emoções , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
20.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 8, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unfamiliar face processing is an ability that varies considerably between individuals. Numerous studies have aimed to identify its underlying determinants using controlled experimental procedures. While such tests can isolate variables that influence face processing, they usually involve somewhat unrealistic situations and optimized face images as stimulus material. As a consequence, the extent to which the performance observed under laboratory settings is informative for predicting real-life proficiency remains unclear. RESULTS: We present normative data for two ecologically valid but underused tests of face matching: the Yearbook Test (YBT) and the Facial Identity Card Sorting Test (FICST). The YBT (n = 252) measures identity matching across substantial age-related changes in facial appearance, while the FICST (n = 218) assesses the ability to process unfamiliar facial identity despite superficial image variations. To determine the predictive value of both tests, a subsample of our cohort (n = 181) also completed a commonly used test of face recognition and two tests of face perception (the long form of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT+), the Expertise in Facial Comparison Test (EFCT) and the Person Identification Challenge Test (PICT)). CONCLUSIONS: Focusing on the top performers identified independently per test, we made two important observations: 1) YBT and FICST performance can predict CFMT+ scores and vice versa; and 2) EFCT and PICT scores neither reliably predict superior performance in ecologically meaningful and challenging tests of face matching, nor in the most commonly used test of face recognition. These findings emphasize the necessity for using challenging and ecologically relevant, and thus highly sensitive, tasks of unfamiliar face processing to identify high-performing individuals in the normal population.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
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