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1.
Behav Processes ; 184: 104320, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460726

RESUMO

Novelty recognition helps organisms identify changes over time. Studies to date have usually involved mammals, particularly rodents. We explored leopard geckos' (Eublepharis macularius; Experiment 1) and tiger salamanders' (Ambystoma tigrinum, Experiment 2) sensitivity to spatial and object novelty. We used an exploratory paradigm adapted from rodents where time spent near objects in an open-field box was compared. Subjects first habituated to three objects. To evaluate spatial novelty recognition, one object was moved to a new location. Subjects again habituated to the objects' locations. To evaluate object novelty recognition, one object that had not been moved earlier was replaced with an unfamiliar object. Results indicated when one object was moved to a new location, geckos and salamanders spent more time near that spatially-displaced object. Additionally, when a familiar object was replaced with a new object, geckos and salamanders spent more time near the substituted object. These results suggest geckos and salamanders recognized changes in objects' identities and locations. Geckos and salamanders acted differentially depending on familiarity in both spatial and object domains. These results support attempts to include lesser-studied species in our efforts to characterize cognition.


Assuntos
Ambystoma , Lagartos , Animais , Cognição , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Percepção Visual
2.
Neurology ; 96(5): e709-e718, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and cognitive impairment 15 years after pregnancy, we measured cognitive performance in 115 women with a history of HDP and in 481 women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. METHODS: This was a nested cohort study embedded in a population-based prospective cohort from early pregnancy onwards. Cognitive function was assessed with cognitive tests 15 years after the index pregnancy (median 14.7 years, 90% range [13.9-16.1]). Cognitive performance was measured in different cognitive domains: executive function, processing speed, verbal memory, motor function, and visuospatial ability. A global cognition factor (g-factor) was derived from principal component analysis. RESULTS: Of the women with HDP, 80 (69.6%) had gestational hypertension (GH) and 35 (30.4%) had preeclampsia. Women with HDP had a lower g-factor than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy (mean -0.22, 90% range [-2.06-1.29]). HDP was negatively associated with the 15-word learning test: immediate recall (-0.25, 95% CI [-0.44 to -0.06]) and delayed recall (-0.30, 95% CI [-0.50 to -0.10]). Women with GH perform significantly worse on their 15-word learning test than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. CONCLUSION: A history of HDP is independently associated with poorer working memory and verbal learning 15 years after pregnancy. This association is mainly driven by women with GH. Clinicians and women who experienced HDP should be aware of this risk.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Memória , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Processamento Espacial , Teste de Stroop
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373377

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that child maltreatment is associated with both positive and negative effects on the recognition of facial emotions. Research has provided little evidence of a relation between maltreatment during childhood and young adults' ability to recognize facial displays of emotion in children, an essential skill for a sensitive parental response. In this study, we examined the consequences of different forms of maltreatment experienced in childhood on emotion recognition during parenthood. Participants included sixty-three mothers of children aged 2 to 5 years. Retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment were assessed using the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Emotion recognition was measured using a morphed facial emotion identification task of all six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise). A Path Analysis via Structural Equation Model revealed that a history of physical abuse is related to a decreased ability to recognize both fear and sadness in children, whereas emotional abuse and sexual abuse are related to a decreased ability to recognize anger in children. In addition, emotional neglect is associated with an increased ability to recognize anger, whereas physical neglect is associated with less accuracy in recognizing happiness in children's facial emotional expressions. These findings have important clinical implications and expand current understanding of the consequences of childhood maltreatment on parents' ability to detect children's needs.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22344, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349645

RESUMO

The unprecedented efforts to minimize the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic introduce a new arena for human face recognition in which faces are partially occluded with masks. Here, we tested the extent to which face masks change the way faces are perceived. To this end, we evaluated face processing abilities for masked and unmasked faces in a large online sample of adult observers (n = 496) using an adapted version of the Cambridge Face Memory Test, a validated measure of face perception abilities in humans. As expected, a substantial decrease in performance was found for masked faces. Importantly, the inclusion of masks also led to a qualitative change in the way masked faces are perceived. In particular, holistic processing, the hallmark of face perception, was disrupted for faces with masks, as suggested by a reduced inversion effect. Similar changes were found whether masks were included during the study or the test phases of the experiment. Together, we provide novel evidence for quantitative and qualitative alterations in the processing of masked faces that could have significant effects on daily activities and social interactions.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 59, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210257

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments around the world now recommend, or require, that their citizens cover the lower half of their face in public. Consequently, many people now wear surgical face masks in public. We investigated whether surgical face masks affected the performance of human observers, and a state-of-the-art face recognition system, on tasks of perceptual face matching. Participants judged whether two simultaneously presented face photographs showed the same person or two different people. We superimposed images of surgical masks over the faces, creating three different mask conditions: control (no masks), mixed (one face wearing a mask), and masked (both faces wearing masks). We found that surgical face masks have a large detrimental effect on human face matching performance, and that the degree of impairment is the same regardless of whether one or both faces in each pair are masked. Surprisingly, this impairment is similar in size for both familiar and unfamiliar faces. When matching masked faces, human observers are biased to reject unfamiliar faces as "mismatches" and to accept familiar faces as "matches". Finally, the face recognition system showed very high classification accuracy for control and masked stimuli, even though it had not been trained to recognise masked faces. However, accuracy fell markedly when one face was masked and the other was not. Our findings demonstrate that surgical face masks impair the ability of humans, and naïve face recognition systems, to perform perceptual face matching tasks. Identification decisions for masked faces should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 155-160, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087606

RESUMO

Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is becoming a significant issue in modern times and directly impact the field of mobile health. Therefore, it is essential the designing of systems which are capable of recognizing properly the activities conducted by the individuals. In this work, we developed a system using the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning technologies in order to monitor and assist individuals in their daily life. We compared the data collected using a mobile application and a wearable device with built-in sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope) with the data of a publicly available dataset. By this way, we were able to validate our results and also investigate the functionality and applicability of the wearable device that we choose for the Human Activity Recognition problem. The classification results for the different types of activities presented using our dataset (99%) outperforms the results from the publicly database (97%).


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Reconhecimento Psicológico
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22888, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120834

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between social support, self-efficacy, coping style, and psychological stress in children with malignant tumors during the treatment, and to clarify the mediating effects.From May 2019 to August 2019, selected by convenience sampling method, 141 children with malignant tumors in the treatment period were evaluated using the Social Support Questionnaire, General Self-efficacy Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale.The results of correlation analysis showed that depression was negatively correlated with coping style, self-efficacy, affirmation and support, satisfaction, company, and intimacy, but positively correlated with conflict and punishment; both anxiety and stress were significantly negatively correlated with coping style, self-efficacy, affirmation and support, company, and intimacy. The results of the model indicated that gender, social support, self-efficacy, and coping style could directly predict the psychological stress of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period, social support and self-efficacy could indirectly predict the psychological stress of children with malignant tumors, and the total effect of self-efficacy on the psychological stress of children was the largest. Through 2000 bootstrap tests of mediating effect, it not only confirmed the mediating effect of self-efficacy and coping style but also had a chain-mediating effect.Appropriate social support can improve the self-efficacy of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period and encourage them to take a positive response to the disease, thereby effectively preventing or reducing the occurrence of psychological stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Exp Psychol ; 67(4): 255-275, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111659

RESUMO

Presenting items multiple times on a study list increases their memorability, a process known as item strengthening. The list-strength effect (LSE) refers to the finding that, compared to unstrengthened (pure) lists, lists for which a subset of the items have been strengthened produce enhanced memory for the strengthened items and depressed memory for the unstrengthened items. Although the LSE is found in free recall (Tulving & Hastie, 1972), it does not occur in recognition (Ratcliff et al., 1990). In free recall, the LSE in mixed lists is attributed to a sampling bias promoting priority recall of strong items and consequent output interference affecting weak items. We suggest that, in recognition, the disruption of this pattern through the randomization of test probes is responsible for the null LSE. We present several pilot experiments consistent with this account; however, the registered experiment, which had more statistical power, did not support this account.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Humanos
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2776-2779, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018582

RESUMO

This document presents a new complete standalone system for a recognition of sleep apnea using signals from the pressure sensors placed under the mattress. The developed hardware part of the system is tuned to filter and to amplify the signal. Its software part performs more accurate signal filtering and identification of apnea events. The overall achieved accuracy of the recognition of apnea occurrence is 91%, with the average measured recognition delay of about 15 seconds, which confirms the suitability of the proposed method for future employment. The main aim of the presented approach is the support of the healthcare system with the cost-efficient tool for recognition of sleep apnea in the home environment.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Humanos , Polissonografia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2959-2962, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018627

RESUMO

Attention is the foundation of a person's cognitive function. The attention level can be measured and quantified from the electroencephalogram (EEG). For the study of attention detection and quantification, we researchers usually ask the subjects to perform a cognitive test with distinct attentional and inattentional mental states. Different attention tasks are available in the literature, but there is no empirical evaluation to quantitatively compare the attention detection performance among the tasks. We designed an experiment with three typical cognitive tests: Stroop, Eriksen Flanker, and Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), which are arranged in a random order in multiple trials. Data were collected from ten subjects. We used six standard band power features to classify the attention levels in four evaluation scenarios for both subject-specific and subject-independent cases. With cross-validation for the subject-independent case, we achieved a classification accuracy of 61.6%, 63.7% and 65.9% for PVT, Stroop and Flanker tasks respectively. We achieved the highest accuracy of 74.1% and 65.9% for the Flanker test in the subject-dependent and subject-independent cases respectively. Our evaluation shows no statistically significant differences in classification accuracy among the three distinct cognitive tasks. Our study highlights that EEG-based attention recognition can generalize across subjects and cognitive tasks.


Assuntos
Atenção , Eletroencefalografia , Cognição , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Vigília
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5584-5587, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019243

RESUMO

Quantitative assessment of pain is vital progress in treatment choosing and distress relief for patients. However, previous approaches based on self-report fail to provide objective and accurate assessments. For impartial pain classification based on physiological signals, a number of methods have been introduced using elaborately designed handcrafted features. In this study, we enriched the methods of physiological-signal-based pain classification by introducing deep Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based hybrid classifiers which combines auto-extracted features with human-experience enabled handcrafted features. A bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory network (biLSTM) was applied on time series of pre-processed signals to automatically learn temporal dynamic characteristics from them. The handcrafted features were extracted to fuse with RNN-generated features. Finely selected features from biLSTM layer output and handcrafted features trained an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify the pain intensity. The handcrafted features enhance the RNN classification performance by complementing RNN-generated features. With our accuracy reaching 83.3%, comparison results on an open dataset with other methods show that the proposed algorithm outperforms all of the previous researches with higher classification accuracy. Therefore, this research is a good demonstration of introducing hybrid features for pain assessment.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Dor
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5851-5855, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019304

RESUMO

Speech analysis could help develop clinical tools for automatic detection of Alzheimer's disease and monitoring of its progression. However, datasets containing both clinical information and spontaneous speech suitable for statistical learning are relatively scarce. In addition, speech data are often collected under different conditions, such as monologue and dialogue recording protocols. Therefore, there is a need for methods to allow the combination of these scarce resources. In this paper, we propose two feature extraction and representation models, based on neural networks and trained on monologue and dialogue data recorded in clinical settings. These models are evaluated not only for AD recognition, but also with respect to their potential to generalise across both datasets. They provide good results when trained and tested on the same data set (72.56% UAR for monologue data and 85.21% for dialogue). A decrease in UAR is observed in transfer training, where feature extraction models trained on dialogues provide better average UAR on monologues (63.72%) than the other way around (58.94%). When the choice of classifiers is independent of feature extraction, transfer from monologue models to dialogues result in a maximum UAR of 81.04% and transfer from dialogue features to monologue achieve a maximum UAR of 70.73%, evidencing the generalisability of the feature model.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fala , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Psicológico
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017929

RESUMO

While machine learning algorithms are able to detect subtle patterns of interest in data, expert knowledge may contain crucial information that is not easily extracted from a given dataset, especially when the latter is small or noisy. In this paper we investigate the suitability of Gaussian Process Classification (GPC) as an effective model to implement the domain knowledge in an algorithm's training phase. Building on their Bayesian nature, we proceed by injecting problem- specific domain knowledge in the form of an a-priori distribution on the GPC latent function. We do this by extracting handcrafted features from the input data, and correlating them to the logits of the classification problem through fitting a prior function informed by the physiology of the problem. The physiologically-informed prior of the GPC is then updated through the Bayes formula using the available dataset. We apply the methods discussed here to a two-class classification problem associated to a dataset comprising Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Electrodermal Activity (EDA) signals collected from 26 subjects who were exposed to a physical stressor aimed at altering their autonomic nervous systems dynamics. We provide comparative computational experiments on the selection of appropriate physiologically-inspired GPC prior functions. We find that the recognition of the presence of the physical stressor is significantly enhanced when the physiologically-inspired prior knowledge is injected into the GPC model.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Distribuição Normal
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 649-652, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018071

RESUMO

Recently, the subject-specific surface electromyography (sEMG)-based gesture classification with deep learning algorithms has been widely researched. However, it is not practical to obtain the training data by requiring a user to perform hand gestures many times in real life. This problem can be alleviated to a certain extent if sEMG from many other subjects could be used to train the classifier. In this paper, we propose a normalisation approach that allows implementing real-time subject-independent sEMG based hand gesture classification without training the deep learning algorithm subject specifically. We hypothesed that the amplitude ranges of sEMG across channels between forearm muscle contractions for a hand gesture recorded in the same condition do not vary significantly within each individual. Therefore, the min-max normalisation is applied to source domain data but the new maximum and minimum values of each channel used to restrict the amplitude range are calculated from a trial cycle of a new user (target domain) and assigned by the class label. A convolutional neural network (ConvNet) trained with the normalised data achieved an average 87.03% accuracy on our G. dataset (12 gestures) and 94.53% on M. dataset (7 gestures) by using the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation.


Assuntos
Gestos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 682-685, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018079

RESUMO

Surface electromyography has become one of the popular methods for recognizing hand gestures. In this paper, the performance of four classification methods on sEMG signals have been investigated. These methods are developed by combinations of two feature extraction methods, including Mean Absolute Value and Short-Time Fourier Transform, and two classifiers, including Support Vector Machine and Convolutional Neural Network. These classification methods achieved an accuracy over 97 % on the NinaPro dataset 1. In addition, a new dataset, which includes the Activities of Daily Living, was proposed and an accuracy over 98 % was obtained by applying the presented classification methods.This methodology can provide the basis for a robust quantitative technique to evaluate hand grasps of stroke patients in performing activities of daily living that in turn can lead to a more efficient rehabilitation regimen.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Gestos , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Psicológico
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1783-1786, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018344

RESUMO

Children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs face limitations in their access technology (AT) usage. Speech recognition software and conventional ATs (e.g., mechanical switches) can be insufficient for those with speech impairment and limited control of voluntary motion. Automatic recognition of head movements represents a promising pathway. Previous studies have shown the robustness of head pose estimation algorithms on adult participants, but further research is needed to use these methods with children. An algorithm for head movement recognition was implemented and evaluated on videos recorded in a naturalistic environment when children were playing a videogame. A face-tracking algorithm was used to detect the main facial landmarks. Head poses were then estimated using the Pose from Orthography and Scaling with Iterations (POSIT) algorithm and three head movements were classified through Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Preliminary classification results obtained from the analysis of videos of five typically developing children showed an accuracy of up to 95.6% in predicting head movements.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Cabeça , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Face , Humanos , Interface para o Reconhecimento da Fala
18.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899861

RESUMO

Perceived stress affects emotional eating and food choices. However, the extent to which stress associates with food choice motives is not completely understood. This study assessed whether emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress levels and food choice motives (i.e., health, mood, convenience, natural content, price, sensory appeal, familiarities, weight control, and ethical concerns) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. A total of 800 respondents were surveyed in the United States in June 2020. Their perceived stress, emotional eating, and food choice motives were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and Food Choice Questionnaire, respectively. Moderate to high levels of perceived stress were experienced by the majority (73.6%) of respondents. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with emotional eating (r = 0.26) as well as five out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.32), convenience (r = 0.28), natural content (r = -0.14), price (r = 0.27), and familiarity (r = 0.15). Emotional eating was significantly correlated with four out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.27), convenience (r = 0.23), price (r = 0.16), and familiarity (r = 0.16). The mediation analyses showed that emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress and five food choices motives: mood, convenience, sensory appeal, price, and familiarity. Findings were interpreted using theories and concepts from the humanities, specifically, folklore studies, ritual studies, and symbolic anthropology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emoções , Feminino , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877440

RESUMO

In eyewitness research the frequent use of video playback presented on a computer screen (i.e., 2D videos) in laboratory-based research is problematic due to the low realism of this method when presenting, for example, threatening (and non-threatening) first-person (and third-person) scenarios. However, in contrast to 2D videos, 360-degree videos presented in virtual reality (VR) presents the opportunity of achieving more realistic and immersive scenarios that might be better suited to mimic real-life incidents, as for example, in the case of a threatening first-person robbery. In the present study, we asked 37 participants to watch eight pre-recorded threatening or non-threatening 2D and VR videos, viewed from either a first- or third-person perspective. After each video, participants assessed the observed target's appearance and were then presented with either a target present (TP) or target absent (TA) six-person photograph line-up. We expected that VR would result in higher degrees of accuracy in both TP and TA line-ups compared with 2D and that the differences between manipulations would be more pronounced within VR compared with 2D. We found that TP (but not TA) accuracy was higher in 2D compared with VR videos (91 vs. 66%), that there was no main effect of perspective, and that threatening scenes increased TP (but not TA) accuracy compared to non-threatening scenes (86 vs. 70%). Furthermore, in VR (but not in 2D), threatening scenes increased TP (but not TA) accuracy compared with non-threatening scenes (85 vs. 40%). The results go against the expected increased accuracy in VR (vs. 2D) videos but support the notion that threatening (vs. non-threatening) scenes can increase identification accuracy in VR but not necessarily in 2D.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Violência/psicologia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877450

RESUMO

AIMS: This study is based on two experiments, the first, with an exploratory character. The aim of which is to assess the capacity of native vs international pop songs (NAT vs INT) from two consecutive life stages, Reminiscence bump (RB) and the immediately subsequent period (No reminiscence bump, NORB) to elicit positive emotions and autobiographical memories. METHOD: A total of 15 middle-aged adults and 15 older adults participated in Experiment 1 (E1). Emotionality, song familiarity and associated autobiographical memories were assessed. Each participant was exposed to 20 randomly selected age-specific songs. Pre-and post-test measures of mood state were also included. Experiment 2 (E2) focused on late adulthood, using a sample of 35 persons. The experimental design was similar to that used in E1. However, this second experiment also included an analysis of the types of autobiographical memories generated by the experimental task and a study of their relationship with the characteristics of the songs, their familiarity and the emotions they produced, and the number of trials. The aim was to delve into the effects that influence the effectiveness of the induction procedure, particularly as regards emotional positivity and memory specificity. RESULTS: Regarding age effect, E1 results varied: under some conditions, emotionality showed no difference between groups, others showed positive older adult bias. In E2, the analysis of the relationships between memory types and the selected variables suggests the latter are not useful predictors of differences between memory types. The study design yielded a relatively high level of memory specificity and emotional positivity. CONCLUSION: The findings question positivity bias in the elderly. RB music produces different effects depending on age. Enculturation can be an important mediating factor in emotionality and memory. Finally, experimental design improves specific memory and positivity.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Comportamento Social
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