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1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 59, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210257

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments around the world now recommend, or require, that their citizens cover the lower half of their face in public. Consequently, many people now wear surgical face masks in public. We investigated whether surgical face masks affected the performance of human observers, and a state-of-the-art face recognition system, on tasks of perceptual face matching. Participants judged whether two simultaneously presented face photographs showed the same person or two different people. We superimposed images of surgical masks over the faces, creating three different mask conditions: control (no masks), mixed (one face wearing a mask), and masked (both faces wearing masks). We found that surgical face masks have a large detrimental effect on human face matching performance, and that the degree of impairment is the same regardless of whether one or both faces in each pair are masked. Surprisingly, this impairment is similar in size for both familiar and unfamiliar faces. When matching masked faces, human observers are biased to reject unfamiliar faces as "mismatches" and to accept familiar faces as "matches". Finally, the face recognition system showed very high classification accuracy for control and masked stimuli, even though it had not been trained to recognise masked faces. However, accuracy fell markedly when one face was masked and the other was not. Our findings demonstrate that surgical face masks impair the ability of humans, and naïve face recognition systems, to perform perceptual face matching tasks. Identification decisions for masked faces should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22888, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120834

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between social support, self-efficacy, coping style, and psychological stress in children with malignant tumors during the treatment, and to clarify the mediating effects.From May 2019 to August 2019, selected by convenience sampling method, 141 children with malignant tumors in the treatment period were evaluated using the Social Support Questionnaire, General Self-efficacy Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale.The results of correlation analysis showed that depression was negatively correlated with coping style, self-efficacy, affirmation and support, satisfaction, company, and intimacy, but positively correlated with conflict and punishment; both anxiety and stress were significantly negatively correlated with coping style, self-efficacy, affirmation and support, company, and intimacy. The results of the model indicated that gender, social support, self-efficacy, and coping style could directly predict the psychological stress of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period, social support and self-efficacy could indirectly predict the psychological stress of children with malignant tumors, and the total effect of self-efficacy on the psychological stress of children was the largest. Through 2000 bootstrap tests of mediating effect, it not only confirmed the mediating effect of self-efficacy and coping style but also had a chain-mediating effect.Appropriate social support can improve the self-efficacy of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period and encourage them to take a positive response to the disease, thereby effectively preventing or reducing the occurrence of psychological stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Exp Psychol ; 67(4): 255-275, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111659

RESUMO

Presenting items multiple times on a study list increases their memorability, a process known as item strengthening. The list-strength effect (LSE) refers to the finding that, compared to unstrengthened (pure) lists, lists for which a subset of the items have been strengthened produce enhanced memory for the strengthened items and depressed memory for the unstrengthened items. Although the LSE is found in free recall (Tulving & Hastie, 1972), it does not occur in recognition (Ratcliff et al., 1990). In free recall, the LSE in mixed lists is attributed to a sampling bias promoting priority recall of strong items and consequent output interference affecting weak items. We suggest that, in recognition, the disruption of this pattern through the randomization of test probes is responsible for the null LSE. We present several pilot experiments consistent with this account; however, the registered experiment, which had more statistical power, did not support this account.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Humanos
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009036, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941431

RESUMO

The polygenic nature and the contribution of common genetic variation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) allude to a high degree of pleiotropy between ASD and other psychiatric and behavioral traits. In a pleiotropic system, a single genetic variant contributes small effects to several phenotypes or disorders. While analyzed broadly, there is a paucity of research studies investigating the shared genetic information between specific neurodevelopmental domains and ASD. We performed a phenome-wide association study of ASD polygenetic risk score (PRS) against 491 neurodevelopmental subdomains ascertained in 4,309 probands from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) who lack an ASD diagnosis. Our main analysis calculated ASD PRS in 4,309 PNC probands using the per-SNP effects reported in a recent genome-wide association study of ASD in a case-control design. In a high-resolution manner, our main analysis regressed ASD PRS against 491 neurodevelopmental phenotypes with age, sex, and ten principal components of ancestry as covariates. Follow-up analyses included in the regression model PRS derived from brain-related traits genetically correlated with ASD. Our main finding demonstrated that 11-17-year old probands with the highest ASD genetic risk were able to identify angry faces (R2 = 1.06%, p = 1.38 × 10-7, pBonferroni-corrected = 1.9 × 10-3). This ability replicated in older probands (>18 years; R2 = 0.55%, p = 0.036) and persisted after covarying with other psychiatric disorders, brain imaging traits, and educational attainment (R2 = 0.2%, p = 0.019). We also detected several suggestive associations between ASD PRS and emotionality and connectedness with others. These data (i) indicate how genetic liability to ASD may influence neurodevelopment in the general population, (ii) reinforce epidemiological findings of heightened ability of ASD cases to predict certain social psychological events based on increased systemizing skills, and (iii) recapitulate theories of imbalance between empathizing and systemizing in ASD etiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 639-653, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744847

RESUMO

Sometimes, we intentionally evaluate stimuli to assess whether we recognize them, whereas, at other times, stimuli automatically elicit recognition despite our efforts to ignore them. If multiple stimuli are encountered in the same environment, intentional recognition judgments can be biased by unintentional recognition of to-be-ignored stimuli. Aging is associated with increased distractibility and impaired intentional retrieval processes, which can make older adults more susceptible to distraction-induced recognition biases. We measured recognition memory performance, event-related potentials (ERPs), and electroencephalography oscillations in old (age range = 60-74) and young (age range = 18-24) adults to investigate how aging affects unintentional and intentional memory processes, and how these processes interact over time to produce distraction-induced recognition biases. Older participants had poorer intentional recognition memory, but the biasing effect of unintentional distractor recognition was similar across age groups. ERP effects related to intentional and unintentional recognition that were strongly expressed in the younger group were reduced or absent in the older group. Furthermore, the older group showed qualitatively different ERP activity during intentional recognition compared with the younger group. However, similar patterns of theta and alpha oscillations were found in both age groups, who showed theta power increases for both intentional and unintentional recognition, whereas alpha power was enhanced for intentional recognition but reduced for unintentional recognition. Overall, the findings show that unintentional and intentional recognition involve multiple dissociable memory processes that have different time-courses and functional characteristics and are differentially affected by aging. Whereas aging has strong effects on the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying intentional recognition memory, unintentional recognition mechanisms are less affected. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23011-23020, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839334

RESUMO

The fusiform face area responds selectively to faces and is causally involved in face perception. How does face-selectivity in the fusiform arise in development, and why does it develop so systematically in the same location across individuals? Preferential cortical responses to faces develop early in infancy, yet evidence is conflicting on the central question of whether visual experience with faces is necessary. Here, we revisit this question by scanning congenitally blind individuals with fMRI while they haptically explored 3D-printed faces and other stimuli. We found robust face-selective responses in the lateral fusiform gyrus of individual blind participants during haptic exploration of stimuli, indicating that neither visual experience with faces nor fovea-biased inputs is necessary for face-selectivity to arise in the lateral fusiform gyrus. Our results instead suggest a role for long-range connectivity in specifying the location of face-selectivity in the human brain.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21230-21234, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817508

RESUMO

A foundation of human cognition is the flexibility with which we can represent any object as either a unique individual (my dog Fred) or a member of an object category (dog, animal). This conceptual flexibility is supported by language; the way we name an object is instrumental to our construal of that object as an individual or a category member. Evidence from a new recognition memory task reveals that infants are sensitive to this principled link between naming and object representation by age 12 mo. During training, all infants (n = 77) viewed four distinct objects from the same object category, each introduced in conjunction with either the same novel noun (Consistent Name condition), a distinct novel noun for each object (Distinct Names condition), or the same sine-wave tone sequence (Consistent Tone condition). At test, infants saw each training object again, presented in silence along with a new object from the same category. Infants in the Consistent Name condition showed poor recognition memory at test, suggesting that consistently applied names focused them primarily on commonalities among the named objects at the expense of distinctions among them. Infants in the Distinct Names condition recognized three of the four objects, suggesting that applying distinct names enhanced infants' encoding of the distinctions among the objects. Infants in the control Consistent Tone condition recognized only the object they had most recently seen. Thus, even for infants just beginning to speak their first words, the way in which an object is named guides infants' encoding, representation, and memory for that object.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Masculino , Nomes , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Tempo
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22760-22770, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859755

RESUMO

Memory is typically thought of as enabling reminiscence about past experiences. However, memory also informs and guides processing of future experiences. These two functions of memory are often at odds: Remembering specific experiences from the past requires storing idiosyncratic properties that define particular moments in space and time, but by definition such properties will not be shared with similar situations in the future and thus may not be applicable to future situations. We discovered that, when faced with this conflict, the brain prioritizes prediction over encoding. Behavioral tests of recognition and source recall showed that items allowing for prediction of what will appear next based on learned regularities were less likely to be encoded into memory. Brain imaging revealed that the hippocampus was responsible for this interference between statistical learning and episodic memory. The more that the hippocampus predicted the category of an upcoming item, the worse the current item was encoded. This competition may serve an adaptive purpose, focusing encoding on experiences for which we do not yet have a predictive model.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3380, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665586

RESUMO

Eyewitness misidentification accounts for 70% of verified erroneous convictions. To address this alarming phenomenon, research has focused on factors that influence likelihood of correct identification, such as the manner in which a lineup is conducted. Traditional lineups rely on overt eyewitness responses that confound two covert factors: strength of recognition memory and the criterion for deciding what memory strength is sufficient for identification. Here we describe a lineup that permits estimation of memory strength independent of decision criterion. Our procedure employs powerful techniques developed in studies of perception and memory: perceptual scaling and signal detection analysis. Using these tools, we scale memory strengths elicited by lineup faces, and quantify performance of a binary classifier tasked with distinguishing perpetrator from innocent suspect. This approach reveals structure of memory inaccessible using traditional lineups and renders accurate identifications uninfluenced by decision bias. The approach furthermore yields a quantitative index of individual eyewitness performance.


Assuntos
Crime , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Exp Psychol ; 67(3): 169-177, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552545

RESUMO

Abstract. A large literature suggests that the way we process information is influenced by the categories that we have learned. We examined whether, when we try to uniquely encode items in working memory, the information encoded depends on the other stimuli being simultaneously learned. Participants were required to memorize unknown aliens, presented one at the time, for immediate recognition of their features. Some aliens, called twins, were organized into pairs that shared every feature (nondiscriminative feature) except one (discriminative feature), while some other aliens, called hermits, did not share feature. We reasoned that if people develop unsupervised categories by creating a category for a pair of aliens, we should observe better feature identification performance for nondiscriminative features compared to hermit features, but not compared to discriminative features. On the contrary, if distinguishing features draw attention, we should observe better performance when a discriminative rather than nondiscriminative feature was probed. Overall, our results suggest that when items share features, people code items in working memory by focusing on similarities between items, establishing clusters of items in an unsupervised fashion not requiring feedback on cluster membership.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Science ; 368(6498)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586990

RESUMO

Decision-making in complex environments relies on flexibly using prior experience. This process depends on the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and the medial temporal lobe, but it remains unknown how these structures implement selective memory retrieval. We recorded single neurons in the MFC, amygdala, and hippocampus while human subjects switched between making recognition memory-based and categorization-based decisions. The MFC rapidly implemented changing task demands by using different subspaces of neural activity and by representing the currently relevant task goal. Choices requiring memory retrieval selectively engaged phase-locking of MFC neurons to amygdala and hippocampus field potentials, thereby enabling the routing of memories. These findings reveal a mechanism for flexibly and selectively engaging memory retrieval and show that memory-based choices are preferentially represented in the frontal cortex when required.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia
12.
Exp Psychol ; 67(1): 14-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394814

RESUMO

In this experiment, we replicated the effect of muscle engagement on perception such that the recognition of another's facial expressions was biased by the observer's facial muscular activity (Blaesi & Wilson, 2010). We extended this replication to show that such a modulatory effect is also observed for the recognition of dynamic bodily expressions. Via a multilab and within-subjects approach, we investigated the emotion recognition of point-light biological walkers, along with that of morphed face stimuli, while subjects were or were not holding a pen in their teeth. Under the "pen-in-the-teeth" condition, participants tended to lower their threshold of perception of happy expressions in facial stimuli compared to the "no-pen" condition, thus replicating the experiment by Blaesi and Wilson (2010). A similar effect was found for the biological motion stimuli such that participants lowered their threshold to perceive happy walkers in the pen-in-the-teeth condition compared to the no-pen condition. This pattern of results was also found in a second experiment in which the no-pen condition was replaced by a situation in which participants held a pen in their lips ("pen-in-lips" condition). These results suggested that facial muscular activity alters the recognition of not only facial expressions but also bodily expressions.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11788-11798, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393630

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common form of intellectual disability. The cognitive alterations in DS are thought to depend on brain regions critical for learning and memory such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus (HPC). Neuroimaging studies suggest that increased brain connectivity correlates with lower intelligence quotients (IQ) in individuals with DS; however, its contribution to cognitive impairment is unresolved. We recorded neural activity in the PFC and HPC of the trisomic Ts65Dn mouse model of DS during quiet wakefulness, natural sleep, and the performance of a memory test. During rest, trisomic mice showed increased theta oscillations and cross-frequency coupling in the PFC and HPC while prefrontal-hippocampal synchronization was strengthened, suggesting hypersynchronous local and cross-regional processing. During sleep, slow waves were reduced, and gamma oscillations amplified in Ts65Dn mice, likely reflecting prolonged light sleep. Moreover, hippocampal sharp-wave ripples were disrupted, which may have further contributed to deficient memory consolidation. Memory performance in euploid mice correlated strongly with functional connectivity measures that indicated a hippocampal control over memory acquisition and retrieval at theta and gamma frequencies, respectively. By contrast, trisomic mice exhibited poor memory abilities and disordered prefrontal-hippocampal functional connectivity. Memory performance and key neurophysiological alterations were rescued after 1 month of chronic administration of a green tea extract containing epigallocatequin-3-gallate (EGCG), which improves executive function in young adults with DS and Ts65Dn mice. Our findings suggest that abnormal prefrontal-hippocampal circuit dynamics are candidate neural mechanisms for memory impairment in DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Animais , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8458, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439964

RESUMO

Shared attention experiments examine the potential differences in function or behavior when stimuli are experienced alone or in the presence of others, and when simultaneous attention of the participants to the same stimulus or set is involved. Previous work has found enhanced reactions to emotional stimuli in social situations, yet these changes might represent enhanced communicative or motivational purposes. This study examines whether viewing emotional stimuli in the presence of another person influences attention to or memory for the stimulus. Participants passively viewed emotionally-valenced stimuli while completing another task (counting flowers). Each participant performed this task both alone and in a shared attention condition (simultaneously with another person in the same room) while EEG signals were measured. Recognition of the emotional pictures was later measured. A significant shared attention behavioral effect was found in the attention task but not in the recognition task. Compared to event-related potential responses for neutral pictures, we found higher P3b response for task relevant stimuli (flowers), and higher Late Positive Potential (LPP) responses for emotional stimuli. However, no main effect was found for shared attention between presence conditions. To conclude, shared attention may therefore have a more limited effect on cognitive processes than previously suggested.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330160

RESUMO

Our visual system extracts the emotional meaning of human facial expressions rapidly and automatically. Novel paradigms using fast periodic stimulations have provided insights into the electrophysiological processes underlying emotional content extraction: the regular occurrence of specific identities and/or emotional expressions alone can drive diagnostic brain responses. Consistent with a processing advantage for social cues of threat, we expected angry facial expressions to drive larger responses than neutral expressions. In a series of four EEG experiments, we studied the potential boundary conditions of such an effect: (i) we piloted emotional cue extraction using 9 facial identities and a fast presentation rate of 15 Hz (N = 16); (ii) we reduced the facial identities from 9 to 2, to assess whether (low or high) variability across emotional expressions would modulate brain responses (N = 16); (iii) we slowed the presentation rate from 15 Hz to 6 Hz (N = 31), the optimal presentation rate for facial feature extraction; (iv) we tested whether passive viewing instead of a concurrent task at fixation would play a role (N = 30). We consistently observed neural responses reflecting the rate of regularly presented emotional expressions (5 Hz and 2 Hz at presentation rates of 15 Hz and 6 Hz, respectively). Intriguingly, neutral expressions consistently produced stronger responses than angry expressions, contrary to the predicted processing advantage for threat-related stimuli. Our findings highlight the influence of physical differences across facial identities and emotional expressions.


Assuntos
Ira , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neural Netw ; 126: 262-274, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272430

RESUMO

Object recognition is a primary function of the human visual system. It has recently been claimed that the highly successful ability to recognise objects in a set of emergent computer vision systems-Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs)-can form a useful guide to recognition in humans. To test this assertion, we systematically evaluated visual crowding, a dramatic breakdown of recognition in clutter, in DCNNs and compared their performance to extant research in humans. We examined crowding in three architectures of DCNNs with the same methodology as that used among humans. We manipulated multiple stimulus factors including inter-letter spacing, letter colour, size, and flanker location to assess the extent and shape of crowding in DCNNs. We found that crowding followed a predictable pattern across architectures that was different from that in humans. Some characteristic hallmarks of human crowding, such as invariance to size, the effect of target-flanker similarity, and confusions between target and flanker identities, were completely missing, minimised or even reversed. These data show that DCNNs, while proficient in object recognition, likely achieve this competence through a set of mechanisms that are distinct from those in humans. They are not necessarily equivalent models of human or primate object recognition and caution must be exercised when inferring mechanisms derived from their operation.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Aglomeração , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3999, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132602

RESUMO

Efficient action prediction is of central importance for the fluent workflow between humans and equally so for human-robot interaction. To achieve prediction, actions can be algorithmically encoded by a series of events, where every event corresponds to a change in a (static or dynamic) relation between some of the objects in the scene. These structures are similar to a context-free grammar and, importantly, within this framework the actual objects are irrelevant for prediction, only their relational changes matter. Manipulation actions and others can be uniquely encoded this way. Using a virtual reality setup and testing several different manipulation actions, here we show that humans predict actions in an event-based manner following the sequence of relational changes. Testing this with chained actions, we measure the percentage predictive temporal gain for humans and compare it to action-chains performed by robots showing that the gain is approximately equal. Event-based and, thus, object independent action recognition and prediction may be important for cognitively deducing properties of unknown objects seen in action, helping to address bootstrapping of object knowledge especially in infants.


Assuntos
Linguística , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino
18.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1464(1): 222-241, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112444

RESUMO

Visual perception involves the rapid formation of a coarse image representation at the onset of visual processing, which is iteratively refined by late computational processes. These early versus late time windows approximately map onto feedforward and feedback processes, respectively. State-of-the-art convolutional neural networks, the main engine behind recent machine vision successes, are feedforward architectures. Their successes and limitations provide critical information regarding which visual tasks can be solved by purely feedforward processes and which require feedback mechanisms. We provide an overview of recent work in cognitive neuroscience and machine vision that highlights the possible role of feedback processes for both visual recognition and beyond. We conclude by discussing important open questions for future research.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estimulação Luminosa
19.
Psychol Bull ; 146(5): 377-410, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191044

RESUMO

To address inconsistencies in the literature on memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we report the first ever meta-analysis of short-term memory (STM) and episodic long-term memory (LTM) in ASD, evaluating the effects of type of material, type of retrieval and the role of interitem relations. Analysis of 64 studies comparing individuals with ASD and typical development (TD) showed greater difficulties in ASD compared with TD individuals in STM (Hedges' g = -0.53, 95% CI [-0.90, -0.16], p = .005, I² = 96%) compared with LTM (g = -0.30, 95% CI [-0.42, -0.17], p < .00001, I² = 24%), a small difficulty in verbal LTM (g = -0.21, p = .01), contrasting with a medium difficulty for visual LTM (g = -0.41, p = .0002) in ASD compared with TD individuals. We also found a general diminution in free recall compared with cued recall and recognition (LTM, free recall: g = -0.38, p < .00001, cued recall: g = -0.08, p = .58, recognition: g = -0.15, p = .16; STM, free recall: g = -0.59, p = .004, recognition: g = -0.33, p = .07). We discuss these results in terms of their relation to semantic memory. The limited diminution in verbal LTM and preserved overall recognition and cued recall (supported retrieval) may result from a greater overlap of these tasks with semantic long-term representations which are overall preserved in ASD. By contrast, difficulties in STM or free recall may result from less overlap with the semantic system or may involve additional cognitive operations and executive demands. These findings highlight the need to support STM functioning in ASD and acknowledge the potential benefit of using verbal materials at encoding and broader forms of memory support at retrieval to enhance performance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Humanos
20.
Pain Physician ; 23(2): E231-E240, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the reliability of pain drawings (PDs) has been confirmed in people with chronic pain, there is a lack of evidence about the validity of the PD, that is, does the PD accurately represent the pain experience of the patient? OBJECTIVES: We investigate whether people with chronic neck pain (CNP) can recognize their own PD to support the validity of the PD in reporting the experience of pain. Moreover, we examined the association between their ability to recognize their own PD with their levels of pain intensity and disability and extent of psychosocial and somatic features. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. SETTING: University Laboratory. METHODS: Individuals with CNP completed their PD on a digital body chart, which was then automatically modified with specific dimensions using a novel software, providing an objective range of distortion and eliminating errors, which could potentially occur in manually controlled visual-subjective based methods. Following a 10-minute break listening to music, a series of 20 PDs were presented to each patient in a random order, with only 2 being their original PD. For each PD, the patients rated its likeliness to their own original PD on a scale from 0 to 100, with 100 representing "this is my pain." RESULTS: Overall, the patients rated their original PD with a median score of 92% similarity, followed by 91.8% and 89.5% similarity when presented with a PD scaled down to 75% and scaled up by 150% of the original size, respectively; these scores were not significantly different to the ratings given for their original PD. The PD with horizontal translation by 40 pixels (8%) and vertical translation by 70 pixels (12.8%) were rated as the most dissimilar to their original PD; these scores were significantly different to their original PD scores. The Spearman correlation coefficient revealed a significant negative association between their ability to recognize their original PD and their Modified Somatic Perceptions Questionnaire scores. LIMITATIONS: The patients in the study presented with relatively mild CNP, and the results may not be generalized to those with more severe symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: People with CNP are generally able to identify their own PD but that their ability to recognize their original PD is negatively correlated with the extent of somatic awareness. KEY WORDS: Chronic pain, perception, pain drawings, somatic awareness.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Cervicalgia/diagnóstico , Cervicalgia/psicologia , Medição da Dor/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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