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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(9): 1127-1144, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545237

RESUMO

Human visual perception carves a scene at its physical joints, decomposing the world into objects, which are selectively attended, tracked and predicted as we engage our surroundings. Object representations emancipate perception from the sensory input, enabling us to keep in mind that which is out of sight and to use perceptual content as a basis for action and symbolic cognition. Human behavioural studies have documented how object representations emerge through grouping, amodal completion, proto-objects and object files. By contrast, deep neural network models of visual object recognition remain largely tethered to sensory input, despite achieving human-level performance at labelling objects. Here, we review related work in both fields and examine how these fields can help each other. The cognitive literature provides a starting point for the development of new experimental tasks that reveal mechanisms of human object perception and serve as benchmarks driving the development of deep neural network models that will put the object into object recognition.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Vias Visuais/fisiologia
2.
Neuropsychologia ; 161: 108017, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487736

RESUMO

Object and scene recognition both require mapping of incoming sensory information to existing conceptual knowledge about the world. A notable finding in brain-damaged patients is that they may show differentially impaired performance for specific categories, such as for "living exemplars". While numerous patients with category-specific impairments have been reported, the explanations for these deficits remain controversial. In the current study, we investigate the ability of a brain injured patient with a well-established category-specific impairment of semantic memory to perform two categorization experiments: 'natural' vs. 'manmade' scenes (experiment 1) and objects (experiment 2). Our findings show that the pattern of categorical impairment does not respect the natural versus manmade distinction. This suggests that the impairments may be better explained by differences in visual features, rather than by category membership. Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) as 'artificial animal models' we further explored this idea. Results indicated that DCNNs with 'lesions' in higher order layers showed similar response patterns, with decreased relative performance for manmade scenes (experiment 1) and natural objects (experiment 2), even though they have no semantic category knowledge, apart from a mapping between pictures and labels. Collectively, these results suggest that the direction of category-effects to a large extent depends, at least in MS' case, on the degree of perceptual differentiation called for, and not semantic knowledge.


Assuntos
Agnosia , Lesões Encefálicas , Animais , Encéfalo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Semântica
3.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103375, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333278

RESUMO

Subsequent search misses (SSM) refer to the decrease in accuracy of second target detection in dual-target visual search. One of the theoretical explanations of SSM errors is similarity bias - the tendency to search for similar targets and to miss the dissimilar ones. The current study focuses on both perceptual and categorical similarity and their individual roles in SSM. Five experiments investigated the role of perceptual and categorical similarity in subsequent search misses, wherein perceptual and categorical similarities were manipulated separately, and task relevance was controlled. The role of both perceptual and categorical similarity was revealed, however, the categorical similarity had greater impact on second target detection. The findings of this research suggest the revision of the traditional perceptual set hypothesis that mainly focuses on perceptual target similarity in multiple target visual search.


Assuntos
Atenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Viés , Humanos , Percepção Visual
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103394, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390930

RESUMO

As target-background similarity increases, search performance declines, but this pattern can be attenuated with training. In the present study we (1) characterized training and transfer effects in visual search for camouflaged targets in naturalistic scenes, (2) evaluated whether transfer effects are preserved 3 months after training, (3) tested the suitability of the perceptual learning hypothesis (i.e., using learned scene statistics to aid camouflaged target detection) for explaining camouflage search improvements over training, and (4) provide guidance for camouflage detection training in practice. Participants were assigned to one of three training groups: adaptive camouflage (difficulty varied by performance), massed camouflage (difficulty increased over time), or an active control (no camouflage), and trained over 14 sessions. Additional sessions measured transfer (immediately post training) and retention of training benefits (10 days and 3 months post training). Both the adaptive and massed training groups showed improved camouflaged target detection up to 3 months following training, relative to the control. These benefits were observed only with backgrounds and targets that were similar to those experienced during training and are broadly consistent with the perceptual learning hypothesis. In practice, training interventions should utilize stimuli similar to the operational environment in which detection is expected to occur.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Humanos
5.
Neuroscience ; 472: 138-156, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333061

RESUMO

Establishing consistent relationships between neural activity and behavior is a challenge in human cognitive neuroscience research. We addressed this issue using variable time constraints in an oddball frequency-sweep design for visual discrimination of complex images (face exemplars). Sixteen participants viewed sequences of ascending presentation durations, from 25 to 333 ms (40-3 Hz stimulation rate) while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Throughout each sequence, the same unfamiliar face picture was repeated with variable size and luminance changes while different unfamiliar facial identities appeared every 1 s (1 Hz). A neural face individuation response, tagged at 1 Hz and its unique harmonics, emerged over the occipito-temporal cortex at 50 ms stimulus duration (25-100 ms across individuals), with an optimal response reached at 170 ms stimulus duration. In a subsequent experiment, identity changes appeared non-periodically within fixed-frequency sequences while the same participants performed an explicit face individuation task. The behavioral face individuation response also emerged at 50 ms presentation time, and behavioral accuracy correlated with individual participants' neural response amplitude in a weighted middle stimulus duration range (50-125 ms). Moreover, the latency of the neural response peaking between 180 and 200 ms correlated strongly with individuals' behavioral accuracy in this middle duration range, as measured independently. These observations point to the minimal (50 ms) and optimal (170 ms) stimulus durations for human face individuation and provide novel evidence that inter-individual differences in the magnitude and latency of early, high-level neural responses are predictive of behavioral differences in performance at this function.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Discriminação Psicológica , Eletroencefalografia , Face , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Estimulação Luminosa
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4745, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362883

RESUMO

Spatial processing by receptive fields is a core property of the visual system. However, it is unknown how spatial processing in high-level regions contributes to recognition behavior. As face inversion is thought to disrupt typical holistic processing of information in faces, we mapped population receptive fields (pRFs) with upright and inverted faces in the human visual system. Here we show that in face-selective regions, but not primary visual cortex, pRFs and overall visual field coverage are smaller and shifted downward in response to face inversion. From these measurements, we successfully predict the relative behavioral detriment of face inversion at different positions in the visual field. This correspondence between neural measurements and behavior demonstrates how spatial processing in face-selective regions may enable holistic perception. These results not only show that spatial processing in high-level visual regions is dynamically used towards recognition, but also suggest a powerful approach for bridging neural computations by receptive fields to behavior.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cogn Sci ; 45(8): e13021, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379331

RESUMO

What role does experience play in the development of face recognition? A growing body of evidence indicates that newborn brains need slowly changing visual experiences to develop accurate visual recognition abilities. All of the work supporting this "slowness constraint" on visual development comes from studies testing basic-level object recognition. Here, we present the results of controlled-rearing experiments that provide evidence for a slowness constraint on the development of face recognition, a prototypical subordinate-level object recognition task. We found that (1) newborn chicks can rapidly develop view-invariant face recognition and (2) the development of this ability relies on experience with slowly moving faces. When chicks were reared with quickly moving faces, they built distorted face representations that largely lacked invariance to viewpoint changes, effectively "breaking" their face recognition abilities. These results provide causal evidence that slowly changing visual experiences play a critical role in the development of face recognition, akin to basic-level object recognition. Thus, face recognition is not a hardwired property of vision but is learned rapidly as the visual system adapts to the temporal structure of the animal's visual environment.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Percepção Visual
8.
Cogn Sci ; 45(8): e13025, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379345

RESUMO

The paper addresses the capabilities and limitations of extrafoveal processing during a categorical visual search. Previous research has established that a target could be identified from the very first or without any saccade, suggesting that extrafoveal perception is necessarily involved. However, the limits in complexity defining the processed information are still not clear. We performed four experiments with a gradual increase of stimuli complexity to determine the role of extrafoveal processing in searching for the categorically defined geometric shape. The series of experiments demonstrated a significant role of extrafoveal processing while searching for simple two-dimensional shapes and its gradual decrease in a condition with more complicated three-dimensional shapes. The factors of objects' spatial orientation and distractor homogeneity significantly influenced both reaction time and the number of saccades required to identify a categorically defined target. An analysis of the individual p-value distributions revealed pronounced individual differences in using extrafoveal analysis and allowed examination of the performance of each particular participant. The condition with the forced prohibition of eye movements enabled us to investigate the efficacy of covert attention in the condition with complicated shapes. Our results indicate that both foveal and extrafoveal processing are simultaneously involved during a categorical search, and the specificity of their interaction is determined by the spatial orientation of objects, type of distractors, the prohibition to use overt attention, and individual characteristics of the participants.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Movimentos Sacádicos , Atenção , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
9.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(7): 2937-2954, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386883

RESUMO

Simultaneous face matching to verify identity is key to security and policing. However, matching is error-prone, particularly when target-item prevalence is low. Two experiments examined whether superior face recognition ability and the use of internal or external facial feature guidance scales would reduce low prevalence effects. In Experiment 1, super-recognisers (n = 317) significantly outperformed typical-ability controls (n = 452), while internal feature guidance enhanced accuracy across all prevalence conditions. However, an unexpected effect in controls revealed higher accuracy in low prevalence conditions, probably because no low-match or low-mismatch prevalence information was provided. In Experiment 2, top-end-of-typical range ability participants (n = 841) were informed of their low prevalence condition and demonstrated the expected low-prevalence effects. Findings and implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Face , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Prevalência
10.
Neuropsychologia ; 161: 107999, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425146

RESUMO

Categorical perception (CP) is the phenomenon by which observers view linear changes that occur across a continuum as distinct categories. Although categorical perception is a perceptual phenomenon, it may be subserved by mnemonic processes such as pattern separation. To examine this hypothesis, following standard CP tasks, we assessed younger and older participants' abilities to identify and discriminate between members of pairs of famous or non-famous faces. We hypothesized that if CP is dependent upon neural pattern separation, which declines with aging, discrimination ability as indexed by CP would be compromised in older adults, as was found in our study. Since familiarity promotes pattern separation, CP should be enhanced for famous, as compared to non-famous faces, even in older adults. We found that all participants benefited from familiarity, but younger adults outperformed older adults overall. We next examined the effects of face inversion on CP for both famous and non-famous faces. If pattern separation, and CP, is determined solely by the similarity across physical features, then CP should be similar for upright and inverted faces since these features are perceptually invariant across orientation. If, however, pattern separation, and CP, depends on how stimuli are represented, then orientation may matter as upright and inverted faces are represented holistically or part-based, respectively. We found that inversion disrupted CP in younger adults whereas older adults performed similarly across both conditions, suggesting that face-representation is more part-based in older adults.


Assuntos
Face , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
11.
Neuropsychologia ; 161: 108010, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454940

RESUMO

Human observers are remarkably adept at perceiving and interacting with visual stimuli around them. Compared to visual stimuli like objects or faces, scenes are unique in that they provide enclosures for observers. An observer looks at a scene by being physically inside the scene. The current research explored this unique observer-scene relationship by studying the neural representation of scenes' spatial boundaries. Previous studies hypothesized that scenes' boundaries were processed in sets of high-level visual cortices. Notably, the parahippocampal place area (PPA), exhibited neural sensitivity to scenes that had closed vs. open spatial boundaries (Kravitz et al., 2011; Park et al., 2011). We asked whether this sensitivity reflected the openness of landscape (e.g., forest vs. beach), or the openness of the environment immediately surrounding the observer (i.e., whether a scene was viewed from inside vs. outside a room). Across two human fMRI experiments, we found that the PPA, as well as another well-known navigation-processing area, the occipital place area (OPA), processed scenes' boundaries according to the observer's space rather than the landscape. Moreover, we found that the PPA's activation pattern was susceptible to manipulations involving mid-level perceptual properties of scenes (e.g., rectilinear pattern of window frames), while the OPA's response was not. Our results have important implications for research in visual scene processing and suggest an important role of an observer's location in representing the spatial boundary, beyond the low-level visual input of a landscape.


Assuntos
Córtex Visual , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Visual
12.
Elife ; 102021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374647

RESUMO

Objects can be recognized based on their intrinsic features, including shape, color, and texture. In daily life, however, such features are often not clearly visible, for example when objects appear in the periphery, in clutter, or at a distance. Interestingly, object recognition can still be highly accurate under these conditions when objects are seen within their typical scene context. What are the neural mechanisms of context-based object recognition? According to parallel processing accounts, context-based object recognition is supported by the parallel processing of object and scene information in separate pathways. Output of these pathways is then combined in downstream regions, leading to contextual benefits in object recognition. Alternatively, according to feedback accounts, context-based object recognition is supported by (direct or indirect) feedback from scene-selective to object-selective regions. Here, in three pre-registered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiments, we tested a key prediction of the feedback hypothesis: that scene-selective cortex causally and selectively supports context-based object recognition before object-selective cortex does. Early visual cortex (EVC), object-selective lateral occipital cortex (LOC), and scene-selective occipital place area (OPA) were stimulated at three time points relative to stimulus onset while participants categorized degraded objects in scenes and intact objects in isolation, in different trials. Results confirmed our predictions: relative to isolated object recognition, context-based object recognition was selectively and causally supported by OPA at 160-200 ms after onset, followed by LOC at 260-300 ms after onset. These results indicate that context-based expectations facilitate object recognition by disambiguating object representations in the visual cortex.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biol Psychol ; 164: 108143, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229004

RESUMO

Perceiving the environment automatically informs how we can interact with it through affordance mechanisms. However, it remains unknown how our knowledge about the environment shapes how it is perceived. In this training study, we evaluated whether motor and function knowledge about novel objects affects visual object processing. Forty-three participants associated a usage or function to a novel object in interactive virtual reality while their EEG was recorded. Both usage and function influenced the mu-band (8-12 Hz) rhythms, suggesting that motor and function object information influence motor processing during object recognition. Learning the usage also prevented the reduction of the theta-band (4-8 Hz) rhythms recorded over the posterior cortical areas, suggesting a predominant top-down influence of tool use information on visuo-motor pathways. The modulation being specifically induced by learning an object usage, the results support further the embodied cognition approach rather than the reasoning-based approach of object processing.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Cognição , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Percepção Visual
14.
Neuropsychologia ; 159: 107956, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265343

RESUMO

The left half of a centrally-viewed face contributes more strongly to recognition performance than the right. This left visual field (LVF) advantage is typically attributed to an untested assumption that face-selective cortex in the right hemisphere (RH) exhibits a contralateral bias, even for centrally-viewed faces. We tested the validity of this assumption using a behavioral measure of the LVF advantage and an fMRI experiment that measured laterality of face-selective cortex and neural contralateral bias. In the behavioral experiment, participants performed a chimeric face-matching task (Harrison and Strother, 2019). In the fMRI experiment, participants viewed chimeric faces comprised of face halves that either repeated or changed simultaneously in both hemifields, or repeated in one hemifield and changed in the other. This enabled us to measure lateralization of fMRI face-repetition suppression and hemifield-specific half-face sensitivity in face-selective cortex. We found that LVF bias in the fusiform face area (FFA) and right-lateralization of the FFA for changing versus repeated faces were both positively correlated with a behavioral measure of the LVF advantage for upright (but not inverted) faces. Results from regression analyses showed that LVF bias in the right FFA and FFA laterality make separable contributions to the prediction of our behavioral measure of the LVF bias for upright faces. Our results confirm a ubiquitous but previously untested assumption that RH superiority combined with contralateral bias in face-selective cortex explains the LVF advantage in face recognition. Specifically, our results show that neural LVF bias in the right FFA is sufficient to explain the relationship between FFA laterality and the perceptual LVF bias for centrally-viewed faces.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Campos Visuais , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Face , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
15.
Neuropsychologia ; 160: 107963, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284039

RESUMO

Face recognition depends on the ability of the face processing system to extract facial features that define the identity of a face. In a recent study we discovered that altering a subset of facial features changed the identity of the face, indicating that they are critical for face identification. Changing another set of features did not change the identity of a face, indicating that they are not critical for face identification. In the current study, we assessed whether developmental prosopagnosics (DPs) and super recognizers (SRs) also rely more heavily on these critical features than non-critical features for face identification. To that end, we presented to DPs and SRs faces in which either the critical or the non-critical features were manipulated. In Study 1, we presented SRs with a famous face recognition task. We found that overall SRs recognized famous faces that differ in either critical or non-critical features better than controls. Similar to controls, changes in critical features had a larger effect on SRs' face recognition than changes in non-critical features. In Study 2, we presented an identity matching task to DPs and SRs. Similar to controls, DPs and SRs perceived faces that differed in critical features as more different than faces that differed in non-critical features. Taken together, our results indicate that SRs and DPs use the same critical features for face identification as normal individuals. These findings emphasize the fundamental role of this subset of features for face identification.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Prosopagnosia , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
16.
Neuropsychologia ; 160: 107967, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303717

RESUMO

Human faces and bodies are environmental stimuli of special importance that the brain processes with selective attention and a highly specialized visual system. It has been shown recently that the human brain also has dedicated networks for perception of pluralities of human bodies in synchronous motion or in face-to-face interaction. Here we show that a plurality of human bodies that are merely in close spatial proximity are automatically integrated into a coherent perceptual unit. We used an EEG frequency tagging technique allowing the dissociation of the brain activity related to the component parts of an image from the activity related to the global image configuration. We presented to participants images of two silhouettes flickering at different frequencies (5.88 vs. 7.14 Hz). Clear response at these stimulation frequencies reflected response to each part of the dyad. An emerging intermodulation component (7.14 + 5.88 = 13.02 Hz), a nonlinear response regarded as an objective signature of holistic representation, was significantly enhanced in the (typical) upright relative to an (altered) inverted position. Moreover, the inversion effect was significant for the intermodulation component but not for the stimulation frequencies, suggesting a trade-off between the processing of the global dyad configuration and that of the structural properties of the dyad elements. Our results show that when presented with two humans merely in close proximity the perceptual visual system will bind them. Hence the perception of the human form might be of a fundamentally different nature when it is part of a plurality.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Atenção , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Percepção , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Visual
17.
Neuropsychologia ; 160: 107968, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310972

RESUMO

Racial categorization of faces has a notable impact on human behavior, but its neural underpinnings remain unresolved. Previous electroencephalography (EEG) research focused on contributions of phase-locked neural activities to racial categorization of faces. We investigated functional roles of non-phase-locked neural oscillations in spontaneous racial categorization of faces by recording EEG from Chinese adults who performed an individuation task on Asian/White faces in Experiment 1 and on Asian/Black faces in Experiment 2. We quantified neural processes involved in spontaneous racial categorization of faces by examining repetition suppression of non-phase-locked neural oscillations when participants viewed faces of one race presented repeatedly in the same block of trials (repetition condition), or faces of two races presented alternately in the same block of trials (alternating condition). We found decreased power of alpha (9-13 Hz) oscillations in the repetition than alternating conditions at 80-240 ms over frontal-central electrodes induced by White/Black (but not Asian) faces. Moreover, larger repetition suppression of alpha oscillations in response to White/Black (vs. Asian) faces predicted greater implicit negative attitudes toward White/Black faces across individuals. Our findings suggest that non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are engaged in spontaneous racial categorization of faces and are associated with implicit negative attitudes toward other-race faces.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Individuação
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4597, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321483

RESUMO

Sensory processing necessitates discarding some information in service of preserving and reformatting more behaviorally relevant information. Sensory neurons seem to achieve this by responding selectively to particular combinations of features in their inputs, while averaging over or ignoring irrelevant combinations. Here, we expose the perceptual implications of this tradeoff between selectivity and invariance, using stimuli and tasks that explicitly reveal their opposing effects on discrimination performance. We generate texture stimuli with statistics derived from natural photographs, and ask observers to perform two different tasks: Discrimination between images drawn from families with different statistics, and discrimination between image samples with identical statistics. For both tasks, the performance of an ideal observer improves with stimulus size. In contrast, humans become better at family discrimination but worse at sample discrimination. We demonstrate through simulations that these behaviors arise naturally in an observer model that relies on a common set of physiologically plausible local statistical measurements for both tasks.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica
19.
Neurosci Bull ; 37(10): 1454-1468, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215969

RESUMO

Visual object recognition in humans and nonhuman primates is achieved by the ventral visual pathway (ventral occipital-temporal cortex, VOTC), which shows a well-documented object domain structure. An on-going question is what type of information is processed in the higher-order VOTC that underlies such observations, with recent evidence suggesting effects of certain visual features. Combining computational vision models, fMRI experiment using a parametric-modulation approach, and natural image statistics of common objects, we depicted the neural distribution of a comprehensive set of visual features in the VOTC, identifying voxel sensitivities with specific feature sets across geometry/shape, Fourier power, and color. The visual feature combination pattern in the VOTC is significantly explained by their relationships to different types of response-action computation (fight-or-flight, navigation, and manipulation), as derived from behavioral ratings and natural image statistics. These results offer a comprehensive visual feature map in the VOTC and a plausible theoretical explanation as a mapping onto different types of downstream response-action systems.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Vias Visuais , Animais , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Occipital , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Estimulação Luminosa , Lobo Temporal , Vias Visuais/diagnóstico por imagem , Percepção Visual
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14448, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262075

RESUMO

Faces hold a substantial value for effective social interactions and sharing. Covering faces with masks, due to COVID-19 regulations, may lead to difficulties in using social signals, in particular, in individuals with neurodevelopmental conditions. Daily-life social participation of individuals who were born preterm is of immense importance for their quality of life. Here we examined face tuning in individuals (aged 12.79 ± 1.89 years) who were born preterm and exhibited signs of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a dominant form of brain injury in preterm birth survivors. For assessing the face sensitivity in this population, we implemented a recently developed experimental tool, a set of Face-n-Food images bordering on the style of Giuseppe Arcimboldo. The key benefit of these images is that single components do not trigger face processing. Although a coarse face schema is thought to be hardwired in the brain, former preterms exhibit substantial shortages in the face tuning not only compared with typically developing controls but also with individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. The lack of correlations between the face sensitivity and other cognitive abilities indicates that these deficits are domain-specific. This underscores impact of preterm birth sequelae for social functioning at large. Comparison of the findings with data in individuals with other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions provides novel insights into the origins of deficient face processing.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Nascimento Prematuro , Cognição Social , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , COVID-19 , Criança , Cognição , Neurociência Cognitiva , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Leucomalácia Periventricular , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
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