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1.
J Neurosci ; 43(4): 621-634, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639892

RESUMO

Humans can label and categorize objects in a visual scene with high accuracy and speed, a capacity well characterized with studies using static images. However, motion is another cue that could be used by the visual system to classify objects. To determine how motion-defined object category information is processed by the brain in the absence of luminance-defined form information, we created a novel stimulus set of "object kinematograms" to isolate motion-defined signals from other sources of visual information. Object kinematograms were generated by extracting motion information from videos of 6 object categories and applying the motion to limited-lifetime random dot patterns. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 15, 40% women), we investigated whether category information from the object kinematograms could be decoded within the occipitotemporal and parietal cortex and evaluated whether the information overlapped with category responses to static images from the original videos. We decoded object category for both stimulus formats in all higher-order regions of interest (ROIs). More posterior occipitotemporal and ventral regions showed higher accuracy in the static condition, while more anterior occipitotemporal and dorsal regions showed higher accuracy in the dynamic condition. Further, decoding across the two stimulus formats was possible in all regions. These results demonstrate that motion cues can elicit widespread and robust category responses on par with those elicited by static luminance cues, even in ventral regions of visual cortex that have traditionally been associated with primarily image-defined form processing.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Much research on visual object recognition has focused on recognizing objects in static images. However, motion is a rich source of information that humans might also use to categorize objects. Here, we present the first study to compare neural representations of several animate and inanimate objects when category information is presented in two formats: static cues or isolated dynamic motion cues. Our study shows that, while higher-order brain regions differentially process object categories depending on format, they also contain robust, abstract category representations that generalize across format. These results expand our previous understanding of motion-derived animate and inanimate object category processing and provide useful tools for future research on object category processing driven by multiple sources of visual information.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Córtex Visual , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estimulação Luminosa
2.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 59: 101190, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549147

RESUMO

Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study investigated how the brains of Chinese children of different ages extract and encode relational patterns contained in orthographic input. Ninety-nine Chinese children in Grades 1-3 performed an artificial orthography statistical learning task that comprised logographic components embedded in characters with high (100%), moderate (80%), and low (60%) positional consistency. The behavioral results indicated that across grades, participants more accurately recognized characters with high rather than low consistency. The neurophysiological results revealed that in each grade, the amplitude of some ERP components differed, with a larger P1 effect in the high consistency condition and a larger N170 and left-lateralized P300 effect in the low consistency condition. A smaller N170 effect occurred in Grade 3 than in Grade 1, and a larger P300 effect occurred in Grade 1 than in either Grade 2 or 3. These findings suggest the dynamic nature of statistical learning by showing that neural adaptation associated with N170, and attention and working memory related to P1 and P300, regulate different types of structural input, and that children's abilities to prioritize these mechanisms vary with context and age.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Humanos , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
3.
Curr Biol ; 33(1): 134-146.e4, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574774

RESUMO

Color-biased regions have been found between face- and place-selective areas in the ventral visual pathway. To investigate the function of the color-biased regions in a pathway responsible for object recognition, we analyzed the natural scenes dataset (NSD), a large 7T fMRI dataset from 8 participants who each viewed up to 30,000 trials of images of colored natural scenes over more than 30 scanning sessions. In a whole-brain analysis, we correlated the average color saturation of the images with voxel responses, revealing color-biased regions that diverge into two streams, beginning in V4 and extending medially and laterally relative to the fusiform face area in both hemispheres. We drew regions of interest (ROIs) for the two streams and found that the images for each ROI that evoked the largest responses had certain characteristics: they contained food, circular objects, warmer hues, and had higher color saturation. Further analyses showed that food images were the strongest predictor of activity in these regions, implying the existence of medial and lateral ventral food streams (VFSs). We found that color also contributed independently to voxel responses, suggesting that the medial and lateral VFSs use both color and form to represent food. Our findings illustrate how high-resolution datasets such as the NSD can be used to disentangle the multifaceted contributions of many visual features to the neural representations of natural scenes.


Assuntos
Vias Visuais , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa
4.
J Neurosci ; 43(3): 484-500, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535769

RESUMO

Drawings offer a simple and efficient way to communicate meaning. While line drawings capture only coarsely how objects look in reality, we still perceive them as resembling real-world objects. Previous work has shown that this perceived similarity is mirrored by shared neural representations for drawings and natural images, which suggests that similar mechanisms underlie the recognition of both. However, other work has proposed that representations of drawings and natural images become similar only after substantial processing has taken place, suggesting distinct mechanisms. To arbitrate between those alternatives, we measured brain responses resolved in space and time using fMRI and MEG, respectively, while human participants (female and male) viewed images of objects depicted as photographs, line drawings, or sketch-like drawings. Using multivariate decoding, we demonstrate that object category information emerged similarly fast and across overlapping regions in occipital, ventral-temporal, and posterior parietal cortex for all types of depiction, yet with smaller effects at higher levels of visual abstraction. In addition, cross-decoding between depiction types revealed strong generalization of object category information from early processing stages on. Finally, by combining fMRI and MEG data using representational similarity analysis, we found that visual information traversed similar processing stages for all types of depiction, yet with an overall stronger representation for photographs. Together, our results demonstrate broad commonalities in the neural dynamics of object recognition across types of depiction, thus providing clear evidence for shared neural mechanisms underlying recognition of natural object images and abstract drawings.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT When we see a line drawing, we effortlessly recognize it as an object in the world despite its simple and abstract style. Here we asked to what extent this correspondence in perception is reflected in the brain. To answer this question, we measured how neural processing of objects depicted as photographs and line drawings with varying levels of detail (from natural images to abstract line drawings) evolves over space and time. We find broad commonalities in the spatiotemporal dynamics and the neural representations underlying the perception of photographs and even abstract drawings. These results indicate a shared basic mechanism supporting recognition of drawings and natural images.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
5.
Cortex ; 158: 96-109, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495732

RESUMO

A fundamental aspect of object detection is assigning a border to one (figure) side but not the other (ground) side. Figures are shaped; grounds appear shapeless near the figure border. Accumulating evidence supports the view that the mechanism of figure assignment is inhibitory competition with the figure perceived on the winning side. Suppression has been observed on the groundside of figure borders. One prediction is that more suppression will be observed when the groundside competes more for figural status. We tested this prediction by assessing BOLD activation on the groundside of two types of stimuli with articulated borders: AEnov and AEfam stimuli. In both stimulus types, multiple image-based priors (symmetry, closure, small area, enclosure by a larger region) favored the inside as the figure. In AEfam but not AEnov stimuli, the figural prior of familiar configuration present on the outside competes for figural status. Observers perceived the insides of both types of stimuli as novel figures and the outsides as shapeless grounds. Previously, we observed lower BOLD activation in early visual areas representing the grounds of AEfam than AEnov stimuli, although unexpectedly, activation was above baseline. With articulated borders, it can be difficult to exclude figure activation from ground ROIs. Here, our ground ROIs better excluded figure activation; we also added straight-edge (SE) control stimuli and increased the sample size. In early visual areas representing the grounds, we observed lower BOLD activation on the groundside of AEfam than AEnov stimuli and below-baseline BOLD activation on the groundside of SE and AEfam stimuli. These results, indicating that greater suppression is applied to groundsides that competed more for figural status but lost the competition, support a Bayesian model of figure assignment in which proto-objects activated at both low and high levels where image features and familiar configurations are represented, respectively, compete for figural status.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma , Humanos , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
6.
J Vis ; 22(13): 9, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580295

RESUMO

Humans show individual differences in neural facial identity discrimination (FID) responses across viewing positions. Critically, these variations have been shown to be reliable over time and to directly relate to observers' idiosyncratic preferences in facial information sampling. This functional signature in facial identity processing might relate to observer-specific diagnostic information processing. Although these individual differences are a valuable source of information for interpreting data, they can also be difficult to isolate when it is not possible to test many conditions. To address this potential issue, we explored whether reducing stimulus size would help decrease these interindividual variations in neural FID. We manipulated the size of face stimuli (covering 3°, 5°, 6.7°, 8.5°, and 12° of visual angle), as well as the fixation location (left eye, right eye, below the nasion, nose, and mouth) while recording electrophysiological responses. Same identity faces were presented with a base frequency of 6 Hz. Different identity faces were periodically inserted within this sequence to trigger an objective index of neural FID. Our data show robust and consistent individual differences in neural face identity discrimination across viewing positions for all face sizes. Nevertheless, FID was optimal for a larger number of observers when faces subtended 6.7° of visual angle and fixation was below the nasion. This condition is the most suited to reduce natural interindividual variations in neural FID patterns, defining an important benchmark to measure neural FID when it is not possible to assess and control for observers' idiosyncrasies.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Face , Humanos , Olho , Estimulação Luminosa , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
7.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1361, 2022 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509841

RESUMO

During visual exploration, eye movements are controlled by multiple stimulus- and goal-driven factors. We recently showed that the dynamics of eye movements -how/when the eye move- during natural scenes' free viewing were similar across individuals and identified two viewing styles: static and dynamic, characterized respectively by longer or shorter fixations. Interestingly, these styles could be revealed at rest, in the absence of any visual stimulus. This result supports a role of intrinsic activity in eye movement dynamics. Here we hypothesize that these two viewing styles correspond to different spontaneous patterns of brain activity. One year after the behavioural experiments, static and dynamic viewers were called back to the lab to record high density EEG activity during eyes open and eyes closed. Static viewers show higher cortical inhibition, slower individual alpha frequency peak, and longer memory of alpha oscillations. The opposite holds for dynamic viewers. We conclude that some properties of spontaneous activity predict exploratory eye movement dynamics during free viewing.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares , Inibição Psicológica , Motivação
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1247, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376446

RESUMO

Distinguishing animate from inanimate things is of great behavioural importance. Despite distinct brain and behavioural responses to animate and inanimate things, it remains unclear which object properties drive these responses. Here, we investigate the importance of five object dimensions related to animacy ("being alive", "looking like an animal", "having agency", "having mobility", and "being unpredictable") in brain (fMRI, EEG) and behaviour (property and similarity judgements) of 19 participants. We used a stimulus set of 128 images, optimized by a genetic algorithm to disentangle these five dimensions. The five dimensions explained much variance in the similarity judgments. Each dimension explained significant variance in the brain representations (except, surprisingly, "being alive"), however, to a lesser extent than in behaviour. Different brain regions sensitive to animacy may represent distinct dimensions, either as accessible perceptual stepping stones toward detecting whether something is alive or because they are of behavioural importance in their own right.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Julgamento/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6787, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351907

RESUMO

Although the presence of face patches in primate inferotemporal (IT) cortex is well established, the functional and causal relationships among these patches remain elusive. In two monkeys, muscimol was infused sequentially into each patch or pair of patches to assess their respective influence on the remaining IT face network and the amygdala, as determined using fMRI. The results revealed that anterior face patches required input from middle face patches for their responses to both faces and objects, while the face selectivity in middle face patches arose, in part, from top-down input from anterior face patches. Moreover, we uncovered a parallel fundal-lateral functional organization in the IT face network, supporting dual routes (dorsal-ventral) in face processing within IT cortex as well as between IT cortex and the amygdala. Our findings of the causal relationship among the face patches demonstrate that the IT face circuit is organized into multiple functional compartments.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Macaca mulatta , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19231, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357416

RESUMO

Visual search is to find targets while ignoring distractors. Previous studies established that a target is more difficult to identify if aligned collinearly with other items, called the collinear search impairment. Since older adults have lower perceptual grouping ability than younger adults, benefits in visual search may occur for older adults for they may be less distracted by the collinear distractors. Three experiments were carried out to compare 45 younger and 45 older healthy adults. Participants were asked to identify a local target either in the column with items collinearly aligned to each other (the overlapping condition) or in the background (the non-overlapping condition), and the response difference between the two conditions is the collinear search impairment. Results showed that both groups showed reliable search impairment specific to collinear distractor regardless of grouping difficulty and task demands, and the impairment strength increased with the grouping strength of the collinear distractor. Further analysis revealed that the response times of older adults increased in a multiplicative manner to that of younger adults, suggesting that longer response of older adults spread to multiple underlying processing including grouping and suppression of collinear distractors. Together, the results suggest that older adults were still distracted in visual search even when grouping was required on a distractor. Our findings also highlight how general slowing may delay suppression processing in visual search.


Assuntos
Atenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Humanos , Idoso , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18081, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302932

RESUMO

We can easily perceive the spatial scale depicted in a picture, regardless of whether it is a small space (e.g., a close-up view of a chair) or a much larger space (e.g., an entire class room). How does the human visual system encode this continuous dimension? Here, we investigated the underlying neural coding of depicted spatial scale, by examining the voxel tuning and topographic organization of brain responses. We created naturalistic yet carefully-controlled stimuli by constructing virtual indoor environments, and rendered a series of snapshots to smoothly sample between a close-up view of the central object and far-scale view of the full environment (object-to-scene continuum). Human brain responses were measured to each position using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We did not find evidence for a smooth topographic mapping for the object-to-scene continuum on the cortex. Instead, we observed large swaths of cortex with opposing ramp-shaped profiles, with highest responses to one end of the object-to-scene continuum or the other, and a small region showing a weak tuning to intermediate scale views. However, when we considered the population code of the entire ventral occipito-temporal cortex, we found smooth and linear representation of the object-to-scene continuum. Our results together suggest that depicted spatial scale information is encoded parametrically in large-scale population codes across the entire ventral occipito-temporal cortex.


Assuntos
Córtex Visual , Humanos , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5592, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151142

RESUMO

Humans and other primates recognize one another in part based on unique structural details of the face, including both local features and their spatial configuration within the head and body. Visual analysis of the face is supported by specialized regions of the primate cerebral cortex, which in macaques are commonly known as face patches. Here we ask whether the responses of neurons in anterior face patches, thought to encode face identity, are more strongly driven by local or holistic facial structure. We created stimuli consisting of recombinant photorealistic images of macaques, where we interchanged the eyes, mouth, head, and body between individuals. Unexpectedly, neurons in the anterior medial (AM) and anterior fundus (AF) face patches were predominantly tuned to local facial features, with minimal neural selectivity for feature combinations. These findings indicate that the high-level structural encoding of face identity rests upon populations of neurons specialized for local features.


Assuntos
Face , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Neurônios/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa
14.
Brain Res ; 1796: 148094, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116487

RESUMO

In a recent study using cross-experiment multivariate classification of EEG patterns, we found evidence for a shared familiarity signal for faces, patterns of neural activity that successfully separate trials for familiar and unfamiliar faces across participants and modes of familiarization. Here, our aim was to expand upon this research to further characterize the spatio-temporal properties of this signal. By utilizing the information content present for incidental exposure to personally familiar and unfamiliar faces, we tested how the information content in the neural signal unfolds over time under different task demands - giving truthful or deceptive responses to photographs of genuinely familiar and unfamiliar individuals. For this goal, we re-analyzed data from two previously published experiments using within-experiment leave-one-subject-out and cross-experiment classification of face familiarity. We observed that the general face familiarity signal, consistent with its previously described spatio-temporal properties, is present for long-term personally familiar faces under passive viewing, as well as for acknowledged and concealed familiarity responses. Also, central-posterior regions contain information related to deception. We propose that signals in the 200-400 ms window are modulated by top-down task-related anticipation, while the patterns in the 400-600 ms window are influenced by conscious effort to deceive. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the representational dynamics of concealed knowledge for faces, using time-resolved multivariate classification.


Assuntos
Amigos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Estado de Consciência , Humanos , Motivação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia
15.
J Vis ; 22(10): 1, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053134

RESUMO

Perceptual history influences current perception, readily revealed by visual priming (the facilitation of responses on repeated presentations of similar stimuli) and by serial dependence (systematic biases toward the previous stimuli). We asked whether the two phenomena shared perceptual mechanisms. We modified the standard "priming of pop-out" paradigm to measure both priming and serial dependence concurrently. The stimulus comprised three grating patches, one or two red, and the other green. Participants identified the color singleton (either red or green), and reproduced its orientation. Trial sequences were designed to maximize serial dependence, and long runs of priming color and position. The results showed strong effects of priming, both on reaction times and accuracy, which accumulated steadily over time, as generally reported in the literature. The serial dependence effects were also strong, but did not depend on previous color, nor on the run length. Reaction times measured under various conditions of repetition or change of priming color or position were reliably correlated with imprecision in orientation reproduction, but reliably uncorrelated with magnitude of serial dependence. The results suggest that visual priming and serial dependence are mediated by different neural mechanisms. We propose that priming affects sensitivity, possibly via attention-like mechanisms, whereas serial dependence affects criteria, two orthogonal dimensions in the signal detection theory.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção de Cores , Atenção/fisiologia , Viés , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
16.
Neural Netw ; 155: 119-143, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054984

RESUMO

The training data distribution is often biased towards objects in certain orientations and illumination conditions. While humans have a remarkable capability of recognizing objects in out-of-distribution (OoD) orientations and illuminations, Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) severely suffer in this case, even when large amounts of training examples are available. Neurons that are invariant to orientations and illuminations have been proposed as a neural mechanism that could facilitate OoD generalization, but it is unclear how to encourage the emergence of such invariant neurons. In this paper, we investigate three different approaches that lead to the emergence of invariant neurons and substantially improve DNNs in recognizing objects in OoD orientations and illuminations. Namely, these approaches are (i) training much longer after convergence of the in-distribution (InD) validation accuracy, i.e., late-stopping, (ii) tuning the momentum parameter of the batch normalization layers, and (iii) enforcing invariance of the neural activity in an intermediate layer to orientation and illumination conditions. Each of these approaches substantially improves the DNN's OoD accuracy (more than 20% in some cases). We report results in four datasets: two datasets are modified from the MNIST and iLab datasets, and the other two are novel (one of 3D rendered cars and another of objects taken from various controlled orientations and illumination conditions). These datasets allow to study the effects of different amounts of bias and are challenging as DNNs perform poorly in OoD conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that even though the three approaches focus on different aspects of DNNs, they all tend to lead to the same underlying neural mechanism to enable OoD accuracy gains - individual neurons in the intermediate layers become invariant to OoD orientations and illuminations. We anticipate this study to be a basis for further improvement of deep neural networks' OoD generalization performance, which is highly demanded to achieve safe and fair AI applications.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Neurônios/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação
17.
eNeuro ; 9(5)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096649

RESUMO

The ability to detect faces in the environment is of utmost ecological importance for human social adaptation. While face categorization is efficient, fast and robust to sensory degradation, it is massively impaired when the facial stimulus does not match the natural contrast statistics of this visual category, i.e., the typically experienced ordered alternation of relatively darker and lighter regions of the face. To clarify this phenomenon, we characterized the contribution of natural contrast statistics to face categorization. Specifically, 31 human adults viewed various natural images of nonface categories at a rate of 12 Hz, with highly variable images of faces occurring every eight stimuli (1.5 Hz). As in previous studies, neural responses at 1.5 Hz as measured with high-density electroencephalography (EEG) provided an objective neural index of face categorization. Here, when face images were shown in their naturally experienced contrast statistics, the 1.5-Hz face categorization response emerged over occipito-temporal electrodes at very low contrast [5.1%, or 0.009 root-mean-square (RMS) contrast], quickly reaching optimal amplitude at 22.6% of contrast (i.e., RMS contrast of 0.041). Despite contrast negation preserving an image's spectral and geometrical properties, negative contrast images required twice as much contrast to trigger a face categorization response, and three times as much to reach optimum. These observations characterize how the internally stored natural contrast statistics of the face category facilitate visual processing for the sake of fast and efficient face categorization.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Visual
18.
Neuropsychologia ; 176: 108370, 2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165826

RESUMO

Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are characterized by severe face recognition deficits, yet it remains unknown how they are hindered in the process of unfamiliar face learning. Here we tracked the changes of neural activation during unfamiliar face repetition in DP with fMRI to reveal their neural deficits in learning unfamiliar faces. At the perceptual level, we found that the bilateral fusiform face area (FFA) in individuals with DP showed attenuated repetition suppression for faces, suggesting an inefficient perceptual analysis for learned faces. At the mnemonic level, individuals with DP showed decreased multi-voxel pattern stability for repeated faces in bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL), suggesting an unstable mnemonic representation for learned faces. In addition, resting-state functional connectivity between the FFA and MTL was also disrupted in individuals with DP. Finally, the MTL's unstable mnemonic representation was associated with the impaired face recognition performance in DP. In sum, our study provides evidence that individuals with DP showed multi-stage neural deficits in unfamiliar face learning and sheds new light on how unfamiliar faces are learned in normal population.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Prosopagnosia , Humanos , Prosopagnosia/complicações , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Memória , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
19.
Brain Struct Funct ; 227(8): 2609-2621, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997831

RESUMO

While parafoveal word processing plays an important role in natural reading, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the neural basis of parafoveal processing during Chinese word reading with the co-registration of eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using fixation-related fMRI analysis. In the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, preview conditions (words that are identical, orthographically similar, and unrelated to target words), pre-target word frequency and target word frequency were manipulated. When fixating the pre-target word, the identical preview condition elicited lower brain activation in the left fusiform gyrus relative to unrelated and orthographically similar preview conditions and there were significant interactions of preview condition and pre-target word frequency on brain activation of the left middle frontal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area. When fixating the target word, there was a significant main effect of preview condition on brain activation of the right fusiform gyrus and a significant interaction of preview condition and pre-target word frequency on brain activation of the left middle frontal gyrus. These results suggest that fixation-related brain activation provides immediate measures and new perspectives to understand the mechanism of parafoveal processing in self-paced reading.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Leitura , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , China
20.
Curr Biol ; 32(19): 4159-4171.e9, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027910

RESUMO

Prior work has identified cortical regions selectively responsive to specific categories of visual stimuli. However, this hypothesis-driven work cannot reveal how prominent these category selectivities are in the overall functional organization of the visual cortex, or what others might exist that scientists have not thought to look for. Furthermore, standard voxel-wise tests cannot detect distinct neural selectivities that coexist within voxels. To overcome these limitations, we used data-driven voxel decomposition methods to identify the main components underlying fMRI responses to thousands of complex photographic images. Our hypothesis-neutral analysis rediscovered components selective for faces, places, bodies, and words, validating our method and showing that these selectivities are dominant features of the ventral visual pathway. The analysis also revealed an unexpected component with a distinct anatomical distribution that responded highly selectively to images of food. Alternative accounts based on low- to mid-level visual features, such as color, shape, or texture, failed to account for the food selectivity of this component. High-throughput testing and control experiments with matched stimuli on a highly accurate computational model of this component confirm its selectivity for food. We registered our methods and hypotheses before replicating them on held-out participants and in a novel dataset. These findings demonstrate the power of data-driven methods and show that the dominant neural responses of the ventral visual pathway include not only selectivities for faces, scenes, bodies, and words but also the visually heterogeneous category of food, thus constraining accounts of when and why functional specialization arises in the cortex.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Visual , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia
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