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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 142236, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039138

RESUMO

The rise of hydraulic fracturing and unconventional oil and gas (UOG) exploration in the United States has increased public concerns for water contamination induced from hydraulic fracturing fluids and associated wastewater spills. Herein, we collected surface and groundwater samples across Garfield County, Colorado, a drilling-dense region, and measured endocrine bioactivities, geochemical tracers of UOG wastewater, UOG-related organic contaminants in surface water, and evaluated UOG drilling production (weighted well scores, nearby well count, reported spills) surrounding sites. Elevated antagonist activities for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors were detected in surface water and associated with nearby shale gas well counts and density. The elevated endocrine activities were observed in surface water associated with medium and high UOG production (weighted UOG well score-based groups). These bioactivities were generally not associated with reported spills nearby, and often did not exhibit geochemical profiles associated with UOG wastewater from this region. Our results suggest the potential for releases of low-saline hydraulic fracturing fluids or chemicals used in other aspects of UOG production, similar to the chemistry of the local water, and dissimilar from defined spills of post-injection wastewater. Notably, water collected from certain medium and high UOG production sites exhibited bioactivities well above the levels known to impact the health of aquatic organisms, suggesting that further research to assess potential endocrine activities of UOG operations is warranted.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Colorado , Gás Natural , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Estados Unidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5184, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056977

RESUMO

The global monsoon is characterised by transitions between pronounced dry and wet seasons, affecting food security for two-thirds of the world's population. Rising atmospheric CO2 influences the terrestrial hydrological cycle through climate-radiative and vegetation-physiological forcings. How these two forcings affect the seasonal intensity and characteristics of monsoonal precipitation and runoff is poorly understood. Here we use four Earth System Models to show that in a CO2-enriched climate, radiative forcing changes drive annual precipitation increases for most monsoon regions. Further, vegetation feedbacks substantially affect annual precipitation in North and South America and Australia monsoon regions. In the dry season, runoff increases over most monsoon regions, due to stomatal closure-driven evapotranspiration reductions and associated atmospheric circulation change. Our results imply that flood risks may amplify in the wet season. However, the lengthening of the monsoon rainfall season and reduced evapotranspiration will shorten the water resources scarcity period for most monsoon regions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Chuva , Recursos Hídricos , Vento , Atmosfera/química , Austrália , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Planeta Terra , Inundações , América do Norte , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Temperatura , Ciclo Hidrológico
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 631, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902699

RESUMO

In recent years, it has been difficult to establish a supply-demand balance between urban growth, increasing population, and existing water resources in many countries. In this study, the Bodrum Peninsula, which is an important tourism center for Turkey, was examined in terms of the relationship between the urban growth of the peninsula, population projections, the need for drinking and potable water, and the availability of the existing water resources. Using the Geographic Information System, it has been determined that the urban growth of the peninsula increased by 11.36% between 1985 and 2010. Urban growth is mostly concentrated in the coastal areas where 2 houses are densely built. The population is expected to increase approximately six times between 2010 and 2060. The amount of drinking and potable water required according to the population projection is 12.38, 26.50, 69.12, and 109.50 hm3/year for 2010, 2030, 2050, and 2060 respectively. The existing water resources of the peninsula will be able to meet the requirements until 2030. In order to meet the water needs of the peninsula until 2055, the Bozalan and Gökçeler dams located nearby as well as the Namnam dam located at mid-range to the peninsular should be built. It is not possible to meet the water needs of the peninsula in 2060 with just the near and medium distance water resources. However, by supplying water from the Akköprü dam located at a further distance, it is possible that 2060 water needs can be met.


Assuntos
Crescimento Demográfico , Recursos Hídricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Turquia , População Urbana , Abastecimento de Água
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 630, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902799

RESUMO

In this paper, we use an integrated approach to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of water quality in the Beni Haroun (BH) dam, the largest surface water resource in Algeria. Several techniques have been employed under the same framework, including the Canadian Council Ministers Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI), principal component analysis and factor analysis (PCA/FA), the K-means clustering, and the ordinary least square (OLS) analysis. A data set of 22 physicochemical parameters has been collected, over a period of 11 years, from three sampling stations: Ain Smara (ST1) and Menia (ST2), both located upstream of "Wadi Rhumel," and BH dam station (ST3), located at the dam site. The PCA/FA enables the identification of seven key factors that influence significantly BH dam water quality. The average values of CCME indices at the BH dam were 17, 40, 42, and 32 for drinking, irrigation, industry, and aquatic life purposes, respectively, which indicate poor water quality, according to the CCME categorization scheme. Besides, the K-means algorithm has been proven to be a very useful machine learning tool to detect that the major source of BH dam pollution is "Wadi Rhumel." Finally, OLS analysis, along with the Mann-Kendall test, highlighted the positive trend of BH dam's water quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Argélia , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Recursos Hídricos
5.
Ambio ; 49(11): 1697-1709, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929619

RESUMO

In the future, the world is expected to rely increasingly on renewable biomass resources for food, fodder, fibre and fuel. The sustainability of this transition to bioeconomy for our water systems depends to a large extent on how we manage our land resources. Changes in land use together with climate change will affect water quantity and quality, which again will have implications for the ecosystem services provided by water resources. These are the main topics of this Ambio special issue on "Environmental effects of a green bio-economy". This paper offers a summary of the eleven papers included in this issue and, at the same time, outlines an approach to quantify and mitigate the impacts of bioeconomy on water resources and their ecosystem services, with indications of useful tools and knowledge needs.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Recursos Hídricos , Biomassa , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
6.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111148, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758915

RESUMO

Mining, although relevant and indispensable for human socioeconomic development, is considered one of the most polluting anthropogenic activities. Water resources are the most vulnerable environmental compartment to the direct impacts of mining, especially in the semi-arid regions. In these regions, mining activity constitutes an important challenge in the management of water resources; since its impacts can be maximized by the adverse meteorological conditions. This study aimed to assess the level of contamination in water resources of three important mining areas in a semi-arid region, where approximately 70,000 people live. The concentrations of eleven heavy metals in sediment, surface and groundwater samples were determined by ICP OES. The results obtained for water samples indicated significant contamination by Cd, Pb, and U, based on the limits established by Brazilian and international regulatory legislation. In the case of sediment samples, higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and V were observed. Pollution indices (PLI, CF and Igeo) revealed moderate to extreme contamination mainly along the Jacaré and Contas rivers. The Pearson correlation, Principal Component, and Hierarchical Cluster analyses were performed to identify patterns in the distribution of elements and common sources of pollution. The results suggested that the concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V were mainly related to mining activities and, to a lesser extent, natural sources. In the case of Cd and Pb, contamination may have an important contribution from fertilizers use, whereas Zn has a mixed source of both lithogenic and anthropogenic origin. On the other hand, the high concentrations of U, specifically in groundwater samples, were associated with geogenic causes. Although the potential ecological risk values indicated a low ecological risk; other sediment quality indices (TEL, PEL, ΣTU, and PEL-Q) revealed that there is 25% of the probability that the content of heavy metals in water resources near the mining areas induces adverse toxic effects on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Recursos Hídricos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111147, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768762

RESUMO

Croplands are heterogeneous in productivity and their sustainable use holds a prominent place in supporting a virtual society-economy-ecology-environment circle. This study developed a model for the evaluation of cropland use sustainability by integrating the revised ecological footprint model with multi-objective optimization. The model enabled to gain insights into changes of the supply-demand balance of cropland use ecologically from a planning perspective, and also enables policy makers to determine the optimal patterns of cropland use in order to reconcile contradictions between multiple dimensions in agroecosystems, such as resource utilization, economy, society, and environment. The model was demonstrated by solving a real-world problem of cropland use management in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China. Results of demonstration were found to be satisfactory for generating sustainable cropland use patterns in promoting the equilibrium of water use efficiency, net economic benefit, land resource allocation equity, and greenhouse gas emissions. Then, whether various cropland use patterns were ecologically safe based on crop ecological footprint and crop ecological carrying capacity were determined. The status and scenario-based trend of cropland use sustainability provided alternatives for policy makers to allocate cropland efficiently and sustainably. The model is applicable for similar planting-centered regions with limited land and water resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recursos Hídricos , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Modelos Teóricos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111010, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778294

RESUMO

Increasing urbanization and rapid depletion of resources have forced authorities to shift from traditional linear system of take-make-use-dispose to circular system of resource conservation. Circular Economy (CE) is a sustainable development approach that works on the waste management strategy of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover. Considerable work has been performed on CE in various sectors such as in electronic sector, construction sector, automotive sector, etc. However, CE in the water sector is gaining rapid attention, because of imbalance in water resources and the prevailing linear approach. The aim of this study is to review the world-wide growth of CE concept in the water sector from an economic, environmental, social, and technical perspective. 98 publications were selected by systematic literature review and categorized in economic, environmental, social, and technical criteria including a combination of multiple criteria. In this study, the world-wide status of CE implementation in the water sector is assessed and strategies to encourage and enhance CE implementation are proposed. The six BS8001:2017 principles and 6Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle, reclaim, recover, restore) of waste management are critically analyzed for deriving recommendations and successful implementation of CE in water sector. Finally, challenges and opportunities to implement CE in the water sector in India are discussed.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Água , Índia , Reciclagem , Recursos Hídricos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110991, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778282

RESUMO

Rapid population growth coupled with climate change has been putting pressure on natural resources worldwide, especially on water resources. The Paracatu basin located in Brazil is a basin which has been showing a reduction in its water availability for many years due to the growing demand for irrigation in the region. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to analyze the trends in the flow and precipitation data for the Paracatu basin and correlate them with land use between the years 1980 and 2019, and thus make a projection of flows through the year 2030 based on these results. The projections of future flows in the fluviometric stations analyzed were obtained using the WEAP model, considering the projected increase in the irrigated area for the region and the future climate data from the IPCC for the RCP 4.5 scenario. The results of the analyzes indicated a tendency towards a reduction in flows in all the analyzed fluviometric stations, both in the monthly and annual series, whereas the total annual precipitation did not show a trend in the analyzed period. Future flows showed a downward trend, as well as flows observed in the period from 1980 to 2019, reinforcing that activities such as irrigated agriculture without planning can negatively affect the sustainability of water resources, intensifying conflicts and tensions which already exist in the basin. This type of analysis proved to have great potential to contribute to the solution of water resource management challenges in several hydrographic basins around the world which are in a situation of scarcity and conflict.


Assuntos
Recursos Hídricos , Água , Agricultura , Brasil , Mudança Climática
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784903

RESUMO

Objectively evaluating the decoupling status of water resources utilization and economic development is an important sign of judging the sustainability of regional economic development. From the perspective of water footprint (WF), this paper expands the scope of water resources accounting by assessing agricultural blue WF, green WF and gray WF. The Tapio decoupling index was used to explore the decoupling status of agricultural WF and economic development in Gansu Province from 2006 to 2015, and the logarithmic mean divisor index (LMDI) decomposition model was used to identify the main driving factors of agricultural WF changes and explore the degree of divergence between agricultural economic development and water resources utilization. The results showed that agricultural economic growth was a main factor for the increase of WF; the improvement of agricultural production technology had a restraining effect, and the population effect and structural effect had a lesser effect. During the research period, the relationship between agricultural WF and economic growth in Gansu Province changed from weak decoupling to strong decoupling, and the contributing factors to decoupling were in descending order: economic, technological, structural and population. Finally, this paper puts forward suggestions on optimizing planting structure, improving agricultural technology and economic development mode to promote the sustainable development of local agriculture.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Recursos Hídricos , Agricultura , Água
12.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111242, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861004

RESUMO

Massive amounts of water embodied in commodities are transferred via interregional trade which increase the water scarcity risk of exporting region. This study proposed an integrated evaluation framework for sectoral physical water use risks and virtual water flow risks in Northeast China. The initial water use risks for different sectors by provinces were first assessed based on sectoral physical water consumption. Then based on the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model, a virtual water trade network was established, and simultaneously the virtual scarce water in sectoral export of intermediate goods and final goods were accounted to investigate the virtual water flow risks by sectors. Finally, interprovincial embodied scarce water transfers between Northeast China and the rest of China were mapped, and by grafting the concept of 'spillover risk' to the virtual water trade, we analyzed the spillover risk difference of virtual water trade between regions. The results showed that the sectors of Agriculture (Ag) and Other manufacturing (OM) presented the highest risk of water use while Nonmetal mining (NmM) belonged to the potential high-risk sectors of water use for Northeast China. The sectors exported more virtual scarce water in intermediate goods also exported more in the final goods; and the sector of Manufacture of food products and tobacco processing (FP) was the largest contributor to the large exporting virtual scarce water for Liaoning and Jilin while Ag in Heilongjiang province was the largest exporter. The cumulative spillover risk index from rest of China to Liaoning province through virtual water trade is the highest; and the main risk spilt provinces to Northeast China were Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Anhui and Hebei province. The proposed risk framework for water utilization and trade may help promote the redistribution of water resources and explore pathways for sustainable management of water resources.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Água , Agricultura , China , Recursos Hídricos
13.
Water Res ; 184: 116163, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758721

RESUMO

The water planetary boundary (PB) has attracted wide academic attention, but empirical water footprint research that accommodates local biophysical boundaries remains scarce. Here we develop two novel quantitative footprint indicators, the water exceedance footprint and the surplus water footprint. The first measures the amount of excessive water withdrawal (exceeded amount of water withdrawn against local water PBs) and the latter evaluates the potential of surplus water that can be sustainably utilised (amount of surplus water available within local water PBs). We quantify the extent to which demand for goods and services in Chinese provinces and cities are driving excessive withdrawal of local and global water resources. We investigate both territorial and consumption-based water withdrawal deficit and surplus against local water withdrawal PBs. We also trace how PB-exceeded water and surplus water are appropriated for producing certain commodities. In 2015, China's domestic water exceedance reaches 101 km3 while the total water exceedance footprint is 92 km3. We find that 47% of domestic excessive water withdrawal is associated with interprovincial trade. Exceeded water transfers were dominated by agricultural trade from the drier North to the wetter South. A revised virtual water trade network informed by exceedance and surplus water footprint metrics could help address sustainability concerns that arise from the trade of water-intensive commodities. Our findings highlight that policy targets need to accommodate PB exceedance of both direct and virtual water use.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Água , China , Cidades , Recursos Hídricos
14.
Water Res ; 184: 116132, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777635

RESUMO

A novel concept for fecal pollution analysis was applied at alluvial water resources to substantially extend the information provided by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). FIB data were linked to river connectivity and genetic microbial source tracking (MST). The concept was demonstrated at the Danube River and its associated backwater area downstream of the city of Vienna, using a comprehensive 3-year data set (10 selected sites, n = 317 samples). Enumeration of Escherichia coli (ISO 16649-2), intestinal enterococci (ISO 7899-2) and Clostridium perfringens (ISO 14189) revealed a patchy distribution for the investigation area. Based on these parameters alone a clear interpretation of the observed fecal contamination patterns was not possible. Comparison of FIB concentrations to river connectivity allowed defining sites with dominating versus rare fecal pollution influence from the River Danube. A strong connectivity gradient at the selected backwater sites became obvious by 2D hydrodynamic surface water modeling, ranging from 278 days (25%) down to 5 days (<1%) of hydraulic connectivity to the River Danube within the 3-year study period. Human sewage pollution could be identified as the dominating fecal source at the highly connected sites by adding information from MST analysis. In contrast, animal fecal pollution proofed to be dominating in areas with low river connectivity. The selection of genetic MST markers was focusing on potentially important pollution sources in the backwater area, using human (BacHum, HF183II), ruminant (BacR) and pig (Pig2Bac) -associated quantitative PCR assays. The presented approach is assumed to be useful to characterize alluvial water resources for water safety management throughout the globe, by allocating fecal pollution to autochthonous, allochthonous, human or animal contamination components. The established river connectivity metric is not limited to bacterial fecal pollution, but can be applied to any type of chemical and microbiological contamination.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Recursos Hídricos , Animais , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Humanos , Rios , Suínos , Poluição da Água/análise
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0234166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797098

RESUMO

Response to simultaneous stressors is an important facet of plant ecology and land management. In a greenhouse trial, we studied how eight plant species responded to single and combined effects of three soil concentrations of the phytotoxic munitions constituent RDX and two levels of water-resourcing. In an outdoor trial, we studied the effects of high RDX soil concentration and two levels of water-resourcing in three plant species. Multiple endpoints related to RDX fate, plant health, and plant survival were evaluated in both trials. Starting RDX concentration was the most frequent factor influencing all endpoints. Water-resourcing also had significant impacts, but in fewer cases. For most endpoints, significant interaction effects between RDX concentration and water-resourcing were observed for some species and treatments. Main and interaction effects were typically variable (significant in one treatment, but not in another; associated with increasing endpoint values for one treatment and/or with decreasing endpoint values in another). This complexity has implications for understanding how RDX and water-availability combine to impact plants, as well as for applications like phytoremediation. As an additional product of these greenhouse and outdoor trials, three plants native or naturalized within the southeastern United States were identified as promising species for further study as in situ phytoremediation resources. Plumbago auriculata exhibited relatively strong and markedly consistent among-treatment mean proportional reductions in soil RDX concentrations (112% and 2.5% of the means of corresponding values observed within other species). Likewise, across all treatments, Salvia coccinea exhibited distinctively low variance in mean leaf chlorophyll content index levels (6.5% of the means of corresponding values observed within other species). Both species also exhibited mean wilting and chlorosis levels that were 66% and 35%, and 67% and 84%, of corresponding values observed in all other plants, respectively. Ruellia caroliniensis exhibited at least 43% higher mean survival across all treatments than any other test species in outdoor trials, despite exhibiting similar RDX uptake and bioconcentration levels.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Acanthaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Acanthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acanthaceae/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Substâncias Explosivas/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Explosivas/farmacocinética , Instalações Militares , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Plumbaginaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Plumbaginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plumbaginaceae/fisiologia , Salvia/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/administração & dosagem , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Recursos Hídricos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 35814-35827, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608007

RESUMO

Water pollution is one of the most important environmental challenges and also one of the main causes of death in the world. Transporting oil products on roads by trucks and their accidents lead to the release of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in water resources pollution. Thus, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the risk assessment of the water resources pollution in the road of Sanandaj to Marivan, Kurdistan province, Iran. Six scenarios for four types of hazardous materials in two seasons of the years were considered. The road was then segmented, and the probability of accidents in each segment was calculated by the Poisson regression method. Two scenarios were selected for analysis since truck accidents had happened mainly in spring (scenario 1) and winter (scenario 4). According to the results, the total risk of water contamination path is 20%very low, 19% low, 29% moderate, 28% high, and 4% very high. Also, according to scenario 1, 14% of the total area of the study area is very low risk, 23% low risk, 15% medium risk, 6% high risk, and 42% are very high risk. Based on scenario 4, 39% of the total area of the study area has a very low risk, 44% low risk, 13% medium risk, 4% high risk. This simply means that this road is not very suitable for transporting hazardous oil products.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Recursos Hídricos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Poluição da Água
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140898, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721677

RESUMO

Contamination of surface and groundwater systems with human and animal faecal matter leads to exposure of reliant populations to disease causing micro-organisms. This exposure route remains a major cause of infection and mortality in developing countries, particularly rural regions. To meet the UN's sustainable development goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all, we need to identify the key controls on faecal contamination across relevant settings. We conducted a high-resolution spatial study of E. coli concentration in catchment drainage waters over 6 months in a mixed land-use catchment in the extensive karst region extending across impoverished southwest China. Using a mixed effects modelling framework, we tested how land-use, karst hydrology, antecedent meteorological conditions, agricultural cycles, hydrochemistry, and position in the catchment system affected E. coli concentrations. Land-use was the best predictor of faecal contamination levels. Sites in urban areas were chronically highly contaminated, but water draining from agricultural land was also consistently contaminated and there was a catchment wide pulse of higher E. coli concentrations, turbidity, and discharge during paddy field drainage. E. coli concentration increased with increasing antecedent rainfall across all land-use types and compartments of the karst hydrological system (underground and surface waters), but decreased with increasing pH. This is interpreted to be a result of processes affecting pH, such as water residence time, rather than the direct effect of pH on E. coli survival. Improved containment and treatment of human waste in areas of higher population density would likely reduce contamination hotspots, and further research is needed to identify the nature and distribution of sources in agricultural land.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Recursos Hídricos , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrologia , Poluição da Água/análise
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 37626-37644, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607999

RESUMO

It is an overwhelming concern that increases in global average temperature lead to serious consequences on the natural environment in the form of deteriorating water resource quality and damaging healthcare sustainability agenda. The sustainable innovation forum (COP21) shows a high concern on climate changes and suggested to reduce global average temperature less than 2 °C. The study brings an idea from the stated theme and analyzed the relationship between climate change and water resource quality in order to redesign economic and environmental policies to improve water quality and healthcare sustainability in the context of Pakistan. The country has serious issues regarding the provision of safe drinking water, improved water resource quality, and healthcare sustainability, which can be achieved by sustainable policies to handle the extreme temperature in Pakistan. The study employed simultaneous generalized method of moments (GMM) technique in order to estimate parameters of the study during the period of 1980-2016. The results show that energy demand and industry value added substantially decrease water resource quality (WRQ), while agriculture value added and per capita income significantly increase WRQ in a country. The other regression apparatus, where health expenditures serve as the response variable, shows that average temperature, industry value added, population growth, and foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows significantly increase healthcare expenditures while WRQ has a negative impact on healthcare expenditures in a country. The final regression model shows that average temperature and per capita income decrease, while WRQ and industrial value added increase mortality rate in a country. The overall results confirm that WRQ affected by climate change, energy demand, and population growth that need sustainable water resource policies in order to achieve long-term sustained growth. The climate actions required more policy instruments to combat environmental challenges that should support healthcare sustainability agenda across the globe.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Recursos Hídricos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Paquistão , Crescimento Demográfico , Temperatura , Qualidade da Água
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3471, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651358

RESUMO

Data and knowledge of the spatial-temporal dynamics of surface water area (SWA) and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in China are critical for sustainable management of water resources but remain very limited. Here we report annual maps of surface water bodies in China during 1989-2016 at 30m spatial resolution. We find that SWA decreases in water-poor northern China but increases in water-rich southern China during 1989-2016. Our results also reveal the spatial-temporal divergence and consistency between TWS and SWA during 2002-2016. In North China, extensive and continued losses of TWS, together with small to moderate changes of SWA, indicate long-term water stress in the region. Approximately 569 million people live in those areas with deceasing SWA or TWS trends in 2015. Our data set and the findings from this study could be used to support the government and the public to address increasing challenges of water resources and security in China.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recursos Hídricos , Algoritmos , China , Clima , Ecologia , Água Doce , Geografia , Água
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235927, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649684

RESUMO

The purpose of the article is to analyze the interaction effect between social network and extension service in farmers' agricultural technology adoption efficiency (TAE). The empirical analysis refers to samples of farmers' water-saving irrigation technology (WSIT) adoption from Minqin, China. The result indicates that social network and extension service can improve farmers' TAE, but they are found to be competitive from the perspective of overall social network. While from the perspective of four dimensions of social network, interaction and trust have positive effects on farmers' TAE, and learning and trust are found to be competitive with extension service. The policy implication describes as follows. First, government should pay attention to farmers' social learning and demonstration effect. And series of measures should be taken to cultivate farmers' social network. Second, extension service should be improved to satisfy farmers' multiple demand on agricultural technology. Third, government should combine the effects of social network and extension service, and make different promotion strategies for different regions. In addition, other influential factors cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Difusão de Inovações , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Rede Social , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Tecnologia , Recursos Hídricos
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