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1.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109782, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072951

RESUMO

The steel industry is the largest consumer of energy in the world among industrial sectors. It is generally acknowledged that energy and environment are intimately related. Steel production is an energy intensive process that has a significant environmental impact. This paper reviews the progress made on energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and water consumption in the steel industry worldwide. The reduction in the availability of fresh water resources combined with the effects of global warming and climate change have increased pressure on industries, especially steel, to reduce its overall pollution, and specifically its water and carbon footprint. The implications of these effects on the value chain is discussed in this review. The contribution of new emerging technologies of iron and steelmaking is also reviewed. Finally, the important issues that contribute to define a sustainable industrial activity such as the recycling of steel and of by-products of steel production are studied. The history of steel industry is full of lessons, one of which is the need to keep the dreams alive. There are indeed expectations to solve problems created by technical progress.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Aço , Pegada de Carbono , Poluição Ambiental , Recursos Hídricos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109626, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072960

RESUMO

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in the social, economic and environmental aspect is widely accepted although still represents a big challenge for its implementation in global, regional and local scales. This is particularly important in the situation of new investments. In the case of already existing hydro-technical facilities, which were built at the end of the nineties of the last century, water management takes into account only the ecological awareness for their design and social participation is limited to acceptance of the local community. The Msciwojów retention reservoir analysed in the article is an example of an object whose project included ecological solutions aimed at ensuring high water quality, and its construction was approved and supported by the local community. At present, the reservoir does not function in accordance with the adopted assumptions, and water management requires the implementation of system solutions that take into account contradicting expectations of users and stakeholders of the reservoir. The current situation can be categorized as a wicked problem. The article presents a proposal to solve the situation on the basis of a participatory approach involving stakeholders through social learning as a part of the reservoir management system. The system approach was developed based on the principles of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and 10 Steps Planning Processing by Wilhite while using the causal loop diagrams (CLD). The result is an organizational model of the reservoir management structure and framework methodology for building solution scenarios. The key assumption of the proposed approach is the cyclicality of activities as part of the management process taking into account changes in the reservoir system and its settings in the social, economic and environmental aspects.


Assuntos
Recursos Hídricos , Água , Ecologia , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
3.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109766, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733479

RESUMO

Water management strategies play an important role in water shortage alleviation. This study evaluates the cost and water ecosystem benefit of 14 water management strategies in Beijing in the future scenarios for 2020 and 2035. In addition, optimal implements of abatement strategies are obtained within the context of legislated targets, with the consideration of interaction among strategies. The result shows that Beijing can meet its commitments for total water use and pollution control by the water management strategies implementation in both 2020 and 2035. For 14 water management strategies analyzed in this study, 5 options with negative abatement cost value achieve 12.2-24.1% of the total water ecosystem benefit in 2020 and 2035. Wastewater reclamation is the most efficient strategy in water ecosystem impact (WEI) reduction, which contributes 38.4% of the total WEI reduction with an abatement cost of 1.6 Yuan/m3 H2O -eq. However, the sequence of optimal strategy implementation rate is not in accordance with the abatement cost of the strategies. The most cost-effective option is the water-efficient shower head, while the highest implementation rate is found for promotion of production technologies. A comparison between water management optimization with and without the consideration of interactions among strategies shows that taking the interaction among strategies into account imposes almost no influence on the total WEI reduction. But it has impacts on optimal implementation rate of each water management option and the cost estimation (+10.8%) of water management implementation. Such a systematic analysis of water management strategies provides general recommendations on sustainable water resource management in water scarce regions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água , Pequim , Águas Residuárias , Recursos Hídricos
4.
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(6): 1053-1062, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799949

RESUMO

Reactive Black 5 and Basic Blue 41 GRL dyeing solutions (dye-to-salt mixture in a 1:10 dye-to-salt mass ratio) were investigated as draw solutions (DS) in a forward osmosis (FO) system with a biomimetic membrane. Synthetic seawater (SSW) and textile wastewater (TWW1 and TWW2) were evaluated as feed solutions (FS) for water reclamation. Reactive Black 5 and Basic Blue 41 GRL were diluted from 0.02 M to concentrations of 0.002 and 0.004 M, respectively. With Reactive Black 5 as DS and SSW as FS, an initial flux of 20.24 L/m2 h and water recovery of 75% was achieved. Using TWW1 and TWW2, initial water fluxes of 19.51 and 13.43 L/m2 h were achieved, respectively, with a 30% water recovery. Using Basic Blue 41 GRL, initial water fluxes of 18.72, 15.13 and 13.42 L/m2 h were achieved with SSW, TWW1, and TWW2 as FS with water recoveries of 50%, 20% and 20%, respectively. The average reverse solute fluxes for Reactive Black 5 and Basic Blue 41 GRL were 0.06 to 0.34 g/m2 h, respectively. Diluted dyeing solutions were produced, with simultaneous water reclamation from SSW and TWW resulting in similar or higher water fluxes and lower reverse solute fluxes compared with other commercially available membranes.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Água , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Soluções , Águas Residuárias , Recursos Hídricos
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 12, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811443

RESUMO

A decline in surface water sources in Pakistan is continuously causing the over-extraction of groundwater resources which is in turn costing the saltwater intrusion in many areas of the country. The saltwater intrusion is a major problem in sustainable groundwater development. The application of electrical resistivity methods is one of the best known geophysical approaches in groundwater study. Considering the accuracy in extraction of freshwater resources, the use of resistivity methods is highly successful to delineate the fresh-saline aquifer boundary. An integrated geophysical study of VES and ERI methods was carried out through the analysis and interpretation of resistivity data using Schlumberger array. The main purpose of this investigation was to delineate the fresh/saline aquifer zones for exploitation and management of fresh water resources in the Upper Bari Doab, northeast Punjab, Pakistan. The results suggest that sudden drop in resistivity values caused by the solute salts indicates the saline aquifer, whereas high resistivity values above a specific range reveal the fresh water. However, the overlapping of fresh/saline aquifers caused by the formation resistivity was delineated through confident solutions of the D-Z parameters computed from the VES data. A four-layered unified model of the subsurface geologic formation was constrained by the calibration between formation resistivity and borehole lithologs. i.e., sand and gravel-sand containing fresh water, clay-sand with brackish water, and clay having saline water. The aquifer yield contained within the fresh/saline aquifers was measured by the hydraulic parameters. The fresh-saline interface demarcated by the resistivity methods was confirmed by the geochemical method and the local hydrogeological data. The proposed geophysical approach can delineate the fresh-saline boundary with 90% confidence in any homogeneous or heterogeneous aquifer system.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Geologia/métodos , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Doce/análise , Água Subterrânea/normas , Paquistão , Sais/análise , Recursos Hídricos
7.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 701-720, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705203

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the importance of considering potential land use and management changes in climate impact research. By taking into account possible trends of economic development and environmental awareness, we assess effects of global warming on water availability and quality in the catchments of four European lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Vistula Lagoon (Poland and Russia), and Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine). Different setups of the process-based soil and water integrated model (SWIM), representing one reference and four socio-economic scenarios for each study area: the "business as usual", "crisis", "managed horizons", and "set-aside" scenarios are driven by sets of 15 climate scenarios for a reference (1971-2000) and near future (2011-2040) scenario period. Modeling results suggest a large spatial variability of potential impacts across the study areas, due to differences in the projected precipitation trends and the current environmental and socio-economic conditions. While climate change may reduce water and nutrients input to the Ria de Aveiro and Tyligulsyi Liman and increase water inflow to the Vistula Lagoon the socio-economic scenarios and their implications may balance out or reverse these trends. In the intensely managed Mar Menor catchment, climate change has no notable direct impact on water resources, but changes in land use and water management may certainly aggravate the current environmental problems. The great heterogeneity among results does not allow formulating adaptation or mitigation measures at pan-European level, as initially intended by this study. It rather implies the need of a regional approach in coastal zone management.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recursos Hídricos , Polônia , Portugal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Abastecimento de Água
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 729, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705319

RESUMO

Managers of water quality and water monitoring programs are often faced with constraints in terms of budget, time, and laboratory capacity for sample analysis. In such situation, the ideal solution is to reduce the number of sampling sites and/or monitored variables. In this case, selecting appropriate monitoring sites is a challenge. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to statistically assess and identify the appropriate sampling stations of monitoring network under the monitored parameters. To achieve this goal, two sets of water quality data acquired from two different monitoring networks were used. The hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) were used to group stations with similar characteristics in the networks, the time series analysis was then performed to observe the temporal variation of water quality within the station clusters, and the geo-statistical analysis associated Kendall's coefficient of concordance were finally applied to identify the most appropriate and least appropriate sampling stations. Based on the overall result, five stations were identified in the networks that contribute the most to the knowledge of water quality status of the entire river. In addition, five stations deemed less important were identified and could therefore be considered as redundant in the network. This result demonstrated that geo-statistical technique coupled with Kendall's coefficient of concordance can be a reliable method for water resource managers to identify appropriate sampling sites in a river monitoring network.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Recursos Hídricos
9.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 701-716, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638022

RESUMO

The variability of fecal microorganisms and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) loads in relation to influent flow rates was evaluated for a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) in support of a vulnerability assessment of a drinking water source. Incomplete treatment and bypass discharges often occur following intense precipitation events that represent conditions that deviate from normal operation. Parasites, fecal indicator bacteria, and WWMPs concentrations and flow rate were measured at the WRRF influent and effluent during dry and wet weather periods. Influent concentrations were measured to characterize potential bypass concentrations that occur during wet weather. Maximum influent Giardia and C. perfringens loads and maximum effluent Escherichia coli and C. perfringens loads were observed during wet weather. Influent median loads of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 6.8 log oocysts/day and 7.9 log cysts/day per 1,000 people. Effluent median loads were 3.9 log oocysts/day and 6.3 log cysts/day per 1,000 people. High loads of microbial contaminants can occur during WRRF bypasses following wet weather and increase with increasing flow rates; thus, short-term infrequent events such as bypasses should be considered in vulnerability assessments of drinking water sources in addition to the increased effluent loads during normal operation following wet weather.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água , Animais , Bactérias , Cryptosporidium , Giardia , Parasitos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , Recursos Hídricos
10.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 788-800, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638029

RESUMO

Rainwater collection is a common source of household water in developed and developing communities where treated on-site water is not available. Although rainwater catchment has been practiced for generations in rural Alaska communities, there are little data available on the quality and quantity of rainwater resources. Forty-eight rainwater samples were collected from nine communities in Alaska over 2 years. Samples were tested for physical water quality parameters, metals, and bacteria. Characteristics of household catchments were recorded. Rainwater quantity in two communities was evaluated. Overall, high-quality water was observed in rain catchments, with average total organic carbon (TOC) and turbidity being lower than or equal to those values in other published rainwater studies. pH was consistently low. Over 80% of samples were below the United States limits for metals and met international microbiological water quality standards. However, variation was observed between households, communities, indoor/outdoor bacteria samples, covered/uncovered storage containers, and over time. The quantity of rainwater available for catchment could supply 17-40% of annual household water and is projected to increase in future decades according to Alaska climate models. Best practices are recommended for rural Alaska communities to maintain the naturally high quality of rainwater and take advantage of large quantities of rainwater available on-site.


Assuntos
Chuva , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimento de Água , Alaska , Características da Família , Humanos , Água , Qualidade da Água
11.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(6): 550-565, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645132

RESUMO

The north-east of Iran is a semi-arid region and faces a water shortage crisis. Therefore, monitoring water resources using accurate methods such as stable isotopes technique is vitally important. In this study, precipitation events were sampled in 10 stations in the Mashhad basin and the Bojnourd region in 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2015, additional surface and groundwater. These samples were analysed at the Ottawa University for both oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. In addition, the moisture sources were determined using the backward trajectories of the HYSPLIT model. The backward trajectories showed that both high- and low-latitude water bodies provide moisture for the north-east of Iran. However, the role of high-latitude water bodies including the Caspian, the Black, and the Mediterranean Seas is stronger. On the other hand, the stable isotopes showed large variations and the developed meteoric water lines deviated in both slope and intercept from the global meteoric water line. This showed that the precipitation events of the north-east of Iran were provided by various air masses and moisture sources. Finally, plotting the isotope values of the surface water resources on high- and low-latitude meteoric water lines demonstrated that these water resources were dominantly recharged by precipitation events originating from high-latitude water bodies.


Assuntos
Deutério/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Chuva/química , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Água Doce/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Irã (Geográfico) , Estações do Ano , Ciclo Hidrológico
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20171022, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576911

RESUMO

Field surveys and integral modelling were carried out to study the effect of bubble plumes on the flow hydrodynamics and the time-evolution of water temperature profiles in a shallow lake with maximum depth of about 4 m. Then, model simulations were performed to verify the feasibility of destratification of ten water-supply reservoirs with capacities of 10-2,000 hm3. Finally, hydrological modelling was conducted to assess the impact of destratification on evaporation suppression and its effects on reservoir yield. The results indicate that net temperature reductions of the order of 1.0°C can be obtained, which corresponds to evaporation suppressions of approximately 10%. In turn, this resulted in increases in the regulated flow of 2-12% that could be described by a general correlation. Lastly, a simplified feasibility analysis provided an operational cost of about 1.0 US$ per cubic meter of saved water, which suggests that artificial destratification cannot be discarded as an alternative for supplementing water supply in rural water-scarce regions.


Assuntos
Lagos , Temperatura Ambiente , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Brasil , Hidrodinâmica , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109695, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577992

RESUMO

Operation of recession and inundation in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) revealed a potential contribution to the migration of heavy metals in soil and fluvial systems, thus led to negative ecological impacts. The work herein investigated the concentration and speciation of three typical heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Cu) in a water-level-fluctuation zone of TGR, as well as simulated the adsorption and desorption behavior of heavy metals on soils, which aimed at elucidating the fate of heavy metals in this special area. Field investigation revealed that water level fluctuation greatly enabled the migration of heavy metals to inner or upper soil layers. Laboratory experiments showed that adsorption of Cd(II) was a chemical process and dissolved organic matters (DOM) in soils strengthened the combination of Cd(II) to soil surface which inhibited the desorption process. Cr(VI) was physically adsorbed and readily to be desorbed. DOM enabled deposition of Cr(VI) in soils. Cation exchange was dominate mechanism in Cu(II) adsorption process, whereas DOM presented positive effects on desorption of Cu(II). The results presented in this study would provide basic theory for scientific research in TGR.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos , Adsorção , Cátions , China , Modelos Teóricos
14.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(6): 566-587, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578875

RESUMO

The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen can provide useful insights into water origin and hydrological processes. The present study aims to investigate the characteristics of stable H/O isotopes of groundwater and surface water in a coastal area of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Isotopes and chloride concentrations of surface water show a highly seasonal and linearly spatial variability, depending on the distance to the sea. The seasonal variation of upstream discharge and rainfall plays an important role in changes of the isotopic compositions and chloride concentrations. Tide also influences on chloride concentrations of surface water while it does not change the isotopic compositions. Evaporation plays a crucial role in changes of isotopic compositions, while the influence of freshwater/seawater mixing on isotopic variabilities is negligible. Groundwater has a spatial heterogeneity in isotopic compositions and chloride concentrations, reflecting different recharge sources and seawater intrusion processes. Groundwater in shallow aquifers originates from rainfall and surface water with small evaporative losses, and it experienced different magnitudes of mixing with seawater. Groundwater in deep aquifers might be recharged by open-surface water evaporation in the last glacial age with minor impacts of seawater intrusion on these aquifers.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Deutério/análise , Água Doce/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Água do Mar/química , Vietnã
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33043-33053, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515769

RESUMO

Rapid economic and population growth exacerbates water resource shortages and various associative ecological factors. Additionally, climate change makes it difficult to predict potential eco-environmental risks. The Government of China enacted a large-scale forestation campaign in the northwest to cope with the region's increasingly severe eco-environmental problems. This study applied GIS software to analyze areas where water resource changes have occurred and the reasons behind water shortages. Notwithstanding fluctuations, there was a general increase in water resource trends between 1980 and 2015. On a regional scale, we observed an increasing trend for provinces with large water resources, including Xinjiang, Qinghai, and Xizang, which accounted for 84.58% of the total increases observed between 1980 and 2015. The water resource trend for the region as a whole increased exponentially with increasing rainfall and decreasing evapotranspiration. Furthermore, water consumed by artificial forests in Northwest China reached 14 billion cubic meters, which is equivalent to 5.22% of its total annual water resources. In contrast, this study determined that under natural vegetation conservation practices, water consumed would have decreased to 10.13 billion cubic meters in 2015. Accordingly, this study concluded that the Government of China should change its policy from planting more trees to protecting natural vegetation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Governo , Plantas , Água , Recursos Hídricos
16.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(6): 532-549, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547680

RESUMO

Water scarcity is a leading concern in both developing and developed nations. Coping with water scarcity requires an understanding of various hydrological processes that act upon precipitation, surface and groundwater at a local scale. We measured isotopic signatures of several water samples from two distinct ecosystems, i.e. tropical savanna in the West and the warm semi-arid region in the East lying across the Western Ghats mountain range, India, to understand the hydrological processes. The results show that the hydrogeological conditions strongly influence the isotopic characteristics of water of different resources, governed by different hydrological processes, even at close spatial scales. Based on the local evaporation lines of different water resources within a particular ecosystem, it is inferred that the water resources are well linked at one site, but have diverse connectivity at the other site. Further, the isotopic signatures of all the water resources are systematically affected by the monsoon precipitation. In addition, anomalously depleted isotopic signatures are observed during known hailstorm events. This may provide a means to trace their signature in the existing water resources.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Chuva/química , Rios/química , Ciclo Hidrológico , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Deutério/análise , Ecossistema , Hidrologia , Índia , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 616, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493130

RESUMO

This study is the first meta-regression analysis of the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at the global level. Most of the regulating ecosystem services have not been properly estimated in terms of economic value and are also ignored in the everyday decision-making process. This study has reviewed 100 publications and included 275 economic value estimates. This study includes explanatory variables in the meta-analysis to account for these influences on the estimated economic value of regulating ecosystem services. This study has estimated the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at US$29.085 trillion for 2015. This study also has found that the values of climate and water regulations are the highest contributors to the total value of regulating ecosystem services. This study indicates that the results of meta-analysis might be helpful to decision-making with respect to three aspects: first, planning and management of urban green cover for sustainable cities; second, integration of the economic value of all the regulating ecosystem services; third, budget allocation for conservation and improvement of regulating ecosystem services for the present and future generations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Clima , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Recursos Hídricos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1068-1088, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470472

RESUMO

Existence of anthropogenic contaminants (ACs) in different environmental matrices is a serious and unresolved concern. For instance, ACs from different sectors, such as industrial, agricultural, and pharmaceutical, are found in water bodies with considerable endocrine disruptors potency and can damage the biotic components of the environment. The continuous ACs exposure can cause cellular toxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, and alterations in sex ratios in human beings. Whereas, aquatic organisms show bioaccumulation, trophic chains, and biomagnification of ACs through different entry route. These problems have been found in many countries around the globe, making them a worldwide concern. ACs have been found in different environmental matrices, such as water reservoirs for human consumption, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), groundwaters, surface waters, rivers, and seas, which demonstrate their free movement within the environment in an uncontrolled manner. This work provides a detailed overview of ACs occurrence in water bodies along with their toxicological effect on living organisms. The literature data reported between 2017 and 2018 is compiled following inclusion-exclusion criteria, and the obtained information was mapped as per type and source of ACs. The most important ACs are pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, ofloxacin, acetaminophen, progesterone ranitidine, and testosterone), agricultural products or pesticides (atrazine, carbendazim, fipronil), narcotics and illegal drugs (amphetamines, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine), food industry derivatives (bisphenol A, and caffeine), and personal care products (triclosan, and other related surfactants). Considering this threatening issue, robust detection and removal strategies must be considered in the design of WWTPs and DWTPs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Organismos Aquáticos , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diclofenaco , Disruptores Endócrinos , Praguicidas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Recursos Hídricos
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109510, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401332

RESUMO

Water quality assessment and monitoring is one of the most important aspects for ensuring a good environmental health. A Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most frequently used tools for assessing overall quality of water resources. This study uses Factor Analysis (FA) for one of the most significant steps in WQI development - weight determination. Factor analysis has been applied to the water quality parameters shortlisted from Principal Component Analysis in the study area and it grouped the parameters into different sets of loadings. Each loading contained a group of parameters contributing to the overall variance addressed by that loading. Weights were allocated to each loading as well as to individual parameters within each loading. For final aggregation, a hybrid method was followed; where weighted harmonic means were estimated for the parameters within each loading and weighted arithmetic mean was estimated from the results of harmonic mean. The use of multivariate statistical technique reduces the subjectivity in the development of the final WQI and makes the current study a useful step in future for the development of a Ganga Water Quality Index (GWQI). In addition to this, the developed methodology can also be used for developing WQI for any water body depending on the availability of historical data.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Água/normas , Recursos Hídricos , Análise Fatorial , Análise de Componente Principal , Alocação de Recursos
20.
Water Environ Res ; 91(10): 1129-1149, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433901

RESUMO

This review on Sustainability covers selected 2018 publications on the focus of sustainability. It is divided into the following sections: (a) Water quantity; (b) Water quality; (c) Climate change and resilience; (d) Planning and ecosystem evaluation; (e) Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications; (f) Sustainable management; (g) Sustainability and asset management; (h) Sustainability in wastewater treatment; (i) Sustainable water and wastewater utilities; (j) Sustainable water resource management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Recursos Hídricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Águas Residuárias , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
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