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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 584-595, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301499

RESUMO

Water use efficiency (WUE) is a central parameter for linking carbon and water exchange processes in terrestrial ecosystems. The Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region (BTSSR) in China has undergone tremendous vegetation restoration and climate change. Understanding the WUE responses to climate change and human activity and their relative contributions to the trends and inter-annual variations (IAVs) in WUE is necessary to improve water use efficiency and strengthen water resource management. The evapotranspiration (ET) dataset based on the model tree ensemble (MTE) algorithm which was a machine learning approach using flux-tower ET measurements and the GLASS GPP dataset, as well as the variance decomposition method, were used to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in water use efficiency and inherent water use efficiency (IWUE) and the impacts of climate change and human activities. The results showed that the annual WUE and IWUE exhibited significantly increase in most regions of the BTSSR. The trend of human activity played the most important role in the increases of WUE and IWUE, with relative contributions of 88.2% and 85.9%, respectively, followed by the IAV of human activity for WUE (6.1%) and the trend of climate change (8.7%) for IWUE. The contribution of IAV to climate change was relatively small. Moreover, WUE and IWUE were all positively correlated with precipitation and temperature in most regions. Our results indicated that ecological restoration projects had significantly improved water use efficiency in BTSSR and may decrease the water burden in the BTSSR.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução
2.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1698-1708, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284212

RESUMO

Waste water of the Kettara village, as well as the abandoned tailings, constitute a potential environmental issue with direct consequences on air, soil, water resources qualities and, on human health. In this paper, experimental investigations examine the environmental impact which is induced by the wastewater, mine tailings and the lithological factors of rocks. This multidisciplinary research allows to i) understand the transfer of the Metallic Trace Elements (selenium, arsenic, nickel and zinc) and sulfate ions in the fractured shales media, ii) to assess the water potability by using the microbiological analysis. The microbiological results reveal the domestic impact by the presence of several kinds of bacteria in the groundwater resources: E. coli, Fecal coliforms, Total coliforms, Enterococci, Mesophilic Aerobic Flora, Sulphite-reducing bacteria and Salmonella. Selenium, arsenic and the bacteriological contamination of the groundwater could be explained by five kinds of factors: i) the geological formations and the nature of the hydrogeological system (unconfined layer), ii) the groundwater flow, the hydraulic relation between the hydrogeological wells and, the fractures network in the shale aquifer. The piezometric map allows to highlight the groundwater flow from the North-East to North-West and to the South-West, the drainage axis towards the P21 well and the presence of the dividing axis in the contaminated zone by the arsenic, iii) the absence of the unhealthy habitats with permeable traditional septic tanks in the village; iv) the transfer of the spreading animal excrements from the soil to groundwater and, v) the migration of the wastewater towards downstream of the groundwater flow. The presence of the reed beds could explain the reduction of bacteria in the hydrogeological wells of the study area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea , Mineração , Águas Residuárias/análise , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Animais , Água Subterrânea/química , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Marrocos , Qualidade da Água , Poços de Água
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 468, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243555

RESUMO

In face of the new climate and socio-environmental conditions, conventional sources of water are no longer reliable to supply all water demands. Different alternatives are proposed to augment the conventional sources, including treated wastewater. Optimal and objective allocation of treated wastewater to different stakeholders through an optimization process that takes into account multiple objectives of the system, unlike the conventional ground and surface water resources, has been widely unexplored. This paper proposes a methodology to allocate treated wastewater, while observing the physical constraints of the system. A multi-objective optimization model (MOM) is utilized herein to identify the optimal solutions on the pareto front curve satisfying different objective functions. Fuzzy transformation method (FTM) is utilized to develop different fuzzy scenarios that account for potential uncertainties of the system. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is then expanded to include the confidence level of fuzzy parameters, and thereby several trade-off curves between objective functions are generated. Subsequently, the best solution on each trade-off curve is specified with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE). Sensitivity analysis of criteria's weights in the PROMETHEE method indicates that the results are highly dependent on the weighting scenario, and hence weights should be carefully selected. We apply this framework to allocate projected treated wastewater in the planning horizon of 2031, which is expected to be produced by wastewater treatment plants in the eastern regions of Tehran province, Iran. Results revealed the efficiency of this methodology to obtain the most confident allocation strategy in the presence of uncertainties.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Lógica Fuzzy , Irã (Geográfico) , Incerteza
4.
J Water Health ; 17(3): 455-462, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095520

RESUMO

Building on a recent increase in scholarly attention to the problem of tap water mistrust and resulting negative health impacts, we examine the relationship between neighborhood reliance on tap water alternatives and a range of explanatory factors. We model retail water store locations as a proxy for reliance on tap water alternatives in urbanized neighborhoods across California. Our study is unique in its inclusion of variables representing both compliance with primary and secondary water quality standards by publicly regulated drinking water systems serving particular neighborhoods, other water system attributes and the socioeconomic characteristics of neighborhoods. The location of retail water stores in urbanized neighborhoods does not appear strongly related to observed measures of water quality. Secondary contamination shows a weak relationship to tap alternative reliance, and primary contamination was not correlated with higher levels of tap alternative reliance. On the other hand, our research suggests that other socioeconomic factors, particularly country of birth, are associated with the prevalence of more water stores. Increasing reliance on tap water likely requires measuring and addressing secondary contamination found in distributional systems and premise plumbing, and more aggressive public education campaigns.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , California , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Água , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 807-820, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096411

RESUMO

Crop yields (Y) and virtual water content (VWC) of agricultural production are affected by climate variability and change, and are highly dependent on geographical location, crop type, specific planting and harvesting practice, soil property and moisture, hydro-geologic and climate conditions. This paper assesses and analyzes historical (1985-2009) and future (2040-2064) Y and VWC of three cereal crops (i.e., wheat, barley, and canola) with high spatial resolution in the highly intensive agricultural region of Alberta, Canada, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A calibrated and validated SWAT hydrological model is used to supplement agricultural (rainfed and irrigation) models to simulate Y and crop evapotranspiration (ET) at the sub-basin scales. The downscaled climate projections from nine General Climate Models (GCMs) for RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios are fed into the calibrated SWAT model. Results from an ensemble average of GCMs show that Y and VWC are projected to change drastically under both RCPs. The trade (export-import) of wheat grain from Alberta to more than a hundred countries around the globe led to the annual saving of ~5 billion m3 of virtual water (VW) during 1996-2005. Based on the weighted average of VWC for both rainfed and irrigated conditions, future population and consumption, our projections reveal an annual average export potential of ~138 billion m3 of VW through the flow of these cereal crops in the form of both grain and other processed foods. This amount is expected to outweigh the total historical provincial water yield of 66 billion m3 and counts for 47% of total historical precipitation and 61% of total historical actual ET. The research outcome highlights the importance of local high-resolution inputs in regional modeling and understanding the local to global water-food trade policy for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Água/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Alberta , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudança Climática , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 371, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102073

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of deep percolation (potential groundwater recharge) under different field crops is essential for sustainable management of scarce water resources and proper planning of crop rotation in irrigated, semi-arid regions of the world. The potential recharge from commonly grown field crops in semi-arid Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India was estimated using HYDRUS-1D model, where, irrigation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture dynamics were simulated. Simultaneously, net groundwater use by different cropping patterns was also calculated. Among the hydraulic parameters, n was found most sensitive for water percolation. During rainy season, 293.8 and 159.1 mm water was percolated below the root zone of cotton and soybean, respectively, which accounted for 39.4 and 32.9% of the water input. During winter season, 66.8 and 30.3 mm water was percolated below the root zone of winter maize and mustard, respectively, accounting for 20.5 and 10.6% of added water. It was observed that net groundwater use was positive for cotton, soybean, and summer maize with the values of 168.8, 159.1, and 18.0 mm year-1, respectively, and negative for rice, wheat, winter maize, and mustard. For the eight most important cropping patterns of semi-arid IGP, the net groundwater use was negative and varied between - 4.4 mm year-1 for cotton-maize and -423 mm year-1 for rice-wheat. With these cropping patterns, the overall rate of decline of groundwater was 231 mm year-1. It was found that maize-wheat and soybean-wheat cropping patterns consume much less water than rice-wheat cropping pattern and therefore are suitable to arrest the declining trend of groundwater in semi-arid IGP of India.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Clima Desértico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/análise , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Índia , Chuva/química , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 537-546, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146059

RESUMO

Achieving equitable access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services requires paying special attention to the most disadvantaged segments of the population. Yet, despite all the progress made to evaluate the access of vulnerable and marginalized groups, important knowledge gaps still remain with respect to identifying their specific barriers and needs. At the global level, for example, the two monitoring mechanisms for SDG 6 - the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) and Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and drinking-water (GLAAS) - face difficulties in understanding how, and to what extent, vulnerable and marginalized groups access WASH services. In this context, this work examines the UNECE/WHO-Europe 'Equitable Access Score-card' for assessing the access to WASH services by vulnerable and marginalized groups. In particular, we: (i) analyse its strengths and limitations as a tool for revealing the needs of these groups in accessing WASH services; and (ii) propose an extended variant of the score-card that addresses these limitations. We test this version in two local-level case studies: Lima (Peru) and Castelló de la Plana (Spain). The score-card diagnosis is found to be particularly useful for collecting information on the level of access of the different vulnerable and marginalized groups, as well as the specific public policies and funding mechanisms in place that address and support their needs. However, the score-card should be complemented with specific assessments of all five normative dimensions of the human rights to water and sanitation (access, availability, quality, acceptability and affordability) in order to have a better understanding of the concerns for service delivery for the different vulnerable and marginalized groups.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Higiene , Saneamento , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abastecimento de Água/economia , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 319, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044285

RESUMO

Finite freshwater sources are facing huge threats both for quality and quantity from uncertain global changes, namely population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change. These threats are even more prominent in developing countries where institutional capacity of decision-makers in the field of water resources is not sufficient. Attention of scientific communities to work on adaptation barriers is increasing as the need for global change adaptation becomes apparent. This paper presents a comparative study of assessing the current water quality as well as predicting its future situation using different scenarios in eight different cities of South and Southeast Asia. The idea behind this transdisciplinary work (integrated use of hydrological science, climate science, social science, and local policies) is to provide scientific evidence to decision-makers to help them to implement right management policies at timely manner. Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP), a numerical simulation tool, was used to model river water quality using two scenarios, namely business as usual (BAU) and scenario with measures. Water quality simulation was done along one representative river from all eight cities. Simulated results for BAU scenario shows that water quality in all the study sites will further deteriorate by year 2030 compared to the current situation and will be not suitable for fishing category as desired by the local governments. Also, simulation outcome for scenario with measures advocating improvement of water quality compared to current situation signifies the importance of existing master plans. However, different measures (suggested upgradation of wastewater handling infrastructure) and policies will not be sufficient enough to achieve desirable river water quality as evident from the gap between concentration of simulated water quality and desirable water quality concentrations. This work can prove vital as it provides timely information to the decision-makers involved in keeping inventory for attaining SDG 6.0 in their regions and it also calls for immediate and inclusive action for better water resource management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática , Hidrologia , Rios/química , Urbanização , Águas Residuárias , Qualidade da Água
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 673: 207-217, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986680

RESUMO

India has the highest national freshwater demand globally and 91% of India's freshwater is used in the agriculture sector. Cereals account for over 50% of the dietary water footprint in India and represent a potential opportunity for reducing water use in Indian agriculture. This study combines governmental production and irrigation statistics with crop distribution maps to examine trends in annual water use for cereal production in India between 2005 and 2014. A new online water assessment tool, Cool Farm Tool Water (CFTW), was used to calculate water use and derive seasonal state-level blue and green water footprints for rice, wheat, sorghum, millet and maize. The analysis indicates that India achieved 26.4% increased total cereal production between 2005 and 2014 without additional water or land use. Cereal water footprints have declined due to higher yields for most crops and slightly lower rates of evapotranspiration. There has also been a shift in the area under production away from the Kharif (monsoon) towards the Rabi (dry) season in which total water footprints for all cereals except rice are substantially lower (-33.4% to -45.0% compared to Kharif), but show a significantly higher dependency on ground and surface water. The value of this study is two-fold. First, it provides a full assessment of production trends for the five major cereals in India for each year from 2005 to 2014 and links it to water use. Secondly, it uses updated seasonal water footprints, which demonstrate the potential for changes in cereal production practices to contribute to improved efficiency of water use in India. Future pressures on scarce water resources may encourage transition to cereals with lower irrigation dependency, in particular maize, but also sorghum and millet. In addition, increased emphasis on improving millet and sorghum yields would be of benefit to secure cereal production and reduce its overall water footprint.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas , Fertilizantes , Índia , Milhetes , Oryza , Sorghum , Triticum , Zea mays
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901949

RESUMO

The Momoge National Nature Reserve (MNNR) is located at the intersection of Nenjiang and Taoer Rivers in Baicheng City, Jilin Province, where the Taoer River is the main source of water for the nature reserve. However, due to the construction of the water control project in the upper reaches of the Taoer River, the MNNR has been in a state of water shortage for a long time. To guarantee the wetland function of the nature reserve, the government planned to carry out normal and flood water supply from Nenjiang River through the West Water Supply Project of Jilin Province. Therefore, how to improve the utilization of flood resources effectively has become one of the key issues of ecological compensation for the MNNR. In this paper, a flood resources optimal allocation model that is based on the interval two-stage stochastic programming method was constructed, and the corresponding flood resource availability in different flow scenarios of Nenjiang River were included in the total water resources to improve their utilization. The results showed that the proportion of flood resources that were used in the MNNR after optimization was more than 70% under different flow scenarios, among which the proportion of flood resources under a low-flow scenario reached 77%, which was 23% higher than the proposed increase. In addition, the ecological benefits of low, medium, and high flow levels reached the range of 26.30 (106 CNY) to 32.14(106 CNY), 28.21(106 CNY) to 34.49(106 CNY) and 29.41(106 CNY) to 35.94(106 CNY), respectively. According to the results, flood resources significantly reduce the utilization of normal water resources, which can be an effective supplement to the ecological compensation of nature reserves and provide a basis for the distribution of transit flood resources in other regions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Inundações , Alocação de Recursos , Rios , Abastecimento de Água , Áreas Alagadas
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14287-14299, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864039

RESUMO

The objective of the study is to examine the impact of natural disasters on external migration, price level, poverty incidence, health expenditures, energy and environmental resources, water demand, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of selected Asian countries for a period of 2005-2017. The results confirm that natural disasters in the form of storm and flood largely increase migration, price level, and poverty incidence, which negatively influenced country's economic resources, including enlarge healthcare expenditures, high energy demand, and low economic growth. The study further presented the following results: i) natural resource depletion increases external migration, ii) FDI inflows increase price level, iii) increase healthcare spending and energy demand decreases poverty headcount, iv) poverty incidence and mortality rate negatively influenced healthcare expenditures, v) industrialization increases energy demand, and vi) agriculture value added, fertilizer, and cereal yields required more water supply to produce greater yield. The study emphasized the need to magnify the intensity of natural disasters and create natural disaster mitigation unit to access the human and infrastructure cost and attempt quick recovery for global prosperity.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Migração Humana , Desastres Naturais/economia , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Agricultura/economia , Ásia , Migração Humana/tendências , Pobreza , Abastecimento de Água/economia
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(1): 3-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816857

RESUMO

The wastewater industry is currently facing dramatic changes, shifting away from energy-intensive wastewater treatment towards low-energy, sustainable technologies capable of achieving energy positive operation and resource recovery. The latter will shift the focus of the wastewater industry to how one could manage and extract resources from the wastewater, as opposed to the conventional paradigm of treatment. Debatable questions arise: can the more complex models be calibrated, or will additional unknowns be introduced? After almost 30 years using well-known International Water Association (IWA) models, should the community move to other components, processes, or model structures like 'black box' models, computational fluid dynamics techniques, etc.? Can new data sources - e.g. on-line sensor data, chemical and molecular analyses, new analytical techniques, off-gas analysis - keep up with the increasing process complexity? Are different methods for data management, data reconciliation, and fault detection mature enough for coping with such a large amount of information? Are the available calibration techniques able to cope with such complex models? This paper describes the thoughts and opinions collected during the closing session of the 6th IWA/WEF Water Resource Recovery Modelling Seminar 2018. It presents a concerted and collective effort by individuals from many different sectors of the wastewater industry to offer past and present insights, as well as an outlook into the future of wastewater modelling.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Estatísticos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Águas Residuárias
14.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(2): 161-178, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889968

RESUMO

The region situated between the mountain area and the lowlands in NE Romania (East-Central Europe) is experiencing increased competition for water resources triggered by a growing population, intensification of agriculture, and industrial development. To better understand hydrological cycling processes in the region, a study was conducted using stable isotopes of water and atmospheric trajectory data to characterize regional precipitation and vapour sources derived from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and Black Seas, as well as recycled continental moisture, and to assess and partition these contributions to recharge of surface and groundwater. Atmospheric moisture in the lowlands is found to be predominantly delivered along easterly trajectories, while mountainous areas appear to be dominated by North Atlantic Ocean sources, with moisture transported along mid-latitude, westerly storm tracks. Large-scale circulation patterns affect moisture delivery, the North Atlantic Oscillation being particularly influential in winter and the East Atlantic pattern in summer. Winter precipitation is the main contributor to river discharge and aquifer recharge. As winter precipitation amounts are projected to decrease over the next decades, and water abstraction is expected to steadily increase, a general reduction in water availability is projected for the region.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/análise , Hidrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Rios/química , Ciclo Hidrológico , Romênia , Estações do Ano , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(3): 134, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729375

RESUMO

This research evaluated climate change impacts on water resources using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) models under representative concentration pathway scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 6, RCP 8.5). First, drought intensity was calculated using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) for the period 1987-2016. Then, the coefficients of precipitation as well as minimum and maximum temperature changes were simulated as SWAT model inputs. The results revealed that temperature will rise in future periods and the precipitation rate will be changed consequently. Then, changes in runoff during periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 were simulated by introducing downscaled results to SWAT model. The model was calibrated and validated by SWAT calibration and uncertainty procedures (SWAT-CUP). Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficients (0.57 and 0.54) and R2 determination coefficients (0.65 and 0.63) were obtained for calibration and validation periods, respectively. The results showed that runoff will rise in fall and spring while it will drop in winter and summer throughout future periods under all three scenarios. Such seasonal shifts in runoff levels result from climate change consequences in the forms of temperature rise, snowmelt, altered precipitation pattern, etc. Future-period evapotranspiration will rise under all three scenarios with a maximum increase in the period 2070-2100 under RCP 8.5 scenario. Additionally, rainfed crop yields will decline without considerable changes in irrigated and horticultural crop yields.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Biomassa , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Teóricos , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 653: 758-764, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759601

RESUMO

This study investigated the water resource potential for bioenergy production from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) in Northern China according to the distribution of water resources, climate conditions and the total water consumption of bioenergy based on sweet sorghum, which consisted of blue water, green water and grey water. At a case study site in Inner Mongolia, simulation with a plant phenological model was used to determine whether sweet sorghum could reach the harvestable stage for sugar juice production. The blue water in the agricultural phase was estimated according to the potential crop evapotranspiration (ETc), the drought sensitivity of sweet sorghum in different stages and the precipitation during the growing season. The results showed that the irrigation water was significantly different among the districts, ranging from 730 to 5500 m3/ha and 2060 to 6680 m3/ha for early-maturing and late-maturing varieties, respectively. To avoid the water pressure level to be exacerbated and the severe reallocation of water resources resulting in negative effects on other sectors, the maximal annual water withdrawal was set to not surpass the upper threshold of water stress level of 40%. That makes the maximum area for the production of sweet sorghum cannot exceed 1.95 × 104 ha, representing only 0.24% of the total marginal land area in Inner Mongolia. However, the economic benefits of bioenergy production from sweet sorghum would be negative due to the high labour input. Therefore, not only the availability of marginal land, the climate conditions and local water resources but also the improvement of mechanisation and agricultural production techniques should be considered to attain the sustainable development of bioenergy production and address global energy and environmental crises.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Biocombustíveis/análise , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Biomassa , China
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 653: 872-885, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759613

RESUMO

Petroleum reservoir is an unusual subsurface biosphere, where indigenous microbes lived and evolved for million years. However, continual water injection changed the situation by introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes. In this study, 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, comparative metagenomics and genomic bins reconstruction were employed to investigate the microbial community and metabolic potential in three typical water-flooded blocks of the Shen84 oil reservoir in Liaohe oil field, China. The results showed significant difference of microbial community compositions and metabolic characteristics existed between the injected water and the produced water/oil mixtures; however, there was considerable uniformity between the produced samples in different blocks. Microbial communities in the produced fluids were dominated by exogenous facultative microbes such as Pseudomonas and Thauera members from Proteobacteria phylum. Metabolic potentials for O2-dependent hydrocarbon degradation, dissimilarly nitrate reduction, and thiosulfate­sulfur oxidation were much more abundant, whereas genes involved in dissimilatory sulfate reduction, anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and methanogenesis were less abundant in the oil reservoir. Statistical analysis indicated the water composition had an obvious influence on microbial community composition and metabolic potential. The water-flooding process accompanied with introduction of nitrate or nitrite, and dissolved oxygen promoted the alteration of microbiome in oil reservoir from slow-growing anaerobic indigenous microbes (such as Thermotoga, Clostridia, and Syntrophobacter) to fast-growing opportunists as Beta- and Gama- Proteobacteria. The findings of this study shed light on the microbial ecology change in water flooded petroleum reservoir.


Assuntos
Betaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Gammaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Microbiota , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/microbiologia , Petróleo/metabolismo , Recursos Hídricos , Betaproteobacteria/genética , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Metagenômica , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia da Água , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 11000-11011, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783932

RESUMO

With the rapid economic development in the past decades, industrialization and urbanization in China has also rapidly developed and will continue in the next decades. However, the regional water shortage has posed great challenges for the sustainable development of big cities especially in north China. Here, we used the water ecological footprint model combined with the system dynamic model to assess the water resource carrying capacity and its sustainability in Zhangjiakou City, a typical water shortage city in north China. The calculated results showed that irrigation was the largest water consumer in Zhangjiakou. There existed a clear gap between water supply and water consumption in this city and such a gap is demonstrated by the high water resource pressure index. Our predicted results based on the water resource ecological footprint and the system dynamic model showed that although the improving water use efficiency has relieved the regional water shortage pressure, the efficiency gained would be to a large degree offset by increased water demands due to the increasing economic development. The annual average water shortage in Zhangjiakou in 2007-2050 would be up to 8.53 × 108 m3, nearly half of the total local average annual water resource. To deal with the severe water shortage over the next three decades, great attention should be paid to scientific water resource managements and water pollution control. This research provides a long-term view of water resource pressure and provides recommendations for a sustainable water use under the rapid regional socioeconomic development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/economia , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Urbanização
20.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 133-144, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784832

RESUMO

Malaysia depends heavily on rivers as a source for water supply, irrigation, and sustaining the livelihood of local communities. The evolution of land use in urban areas due to rapid development and the continuous problem of illegal discharge have had a serious adverse impact on the health of the country's waterways. Klang River requires extensive rehabilitation and remediation before its water could be utilised for a variety of purposes. A reliable and rigorous remediation work plan is needed to identify the sources and locations of streams that are constantly polluted. This study attempts to investigate the feasibility of utilising a temporal and spatial risk quotient (RQ) based analysis to make an accurate assessment of the current condition of the tributaries in the Klang River catchment area. The study relies on existing data sets on Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Ammonia (NH3) to evaluate the water quality at thirty strategic locations. Analysis of ammonia pollution is not only based on the limit established for river health but was expanded to include the feasibility of using the water for water intake, recreational activities, and sustaining fish population. The temporal health of Klang River was evaluated using the Risk Matrix Approach (RMA) based on the frequency of RQ > 1 and associated colour-coded hazard impacts. By using the developed RMA, the hazard level for each parameter at each location was assessed and individually mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS). The developed risk hazard mapping has high potential as one of the essential tools in making decisions for a cost-effective river restoration and rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Animais , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malásia , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial
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