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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235079, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614838

RESUMO

In times of water shortage, it becomes increasingly relevant for policymakers to understand the existing relationships between different types of water use, so as to encourage efficient water management. This article makes use of yearly data on agricultural, industrial, and household water use in the Balkan countries of Bulgaria, Romania, and Serbia. It does so to identify the potential interactions among these three categories of water use. Using a deterministic model based on differential equations, we provide an analysis of the interactions among these different sectors of water use for the period between 2008 and 2017. Results show that interactions among these different categories do not remain constant over periods of time, either across or within the countries analysed. We find that, for most countries, industrial and household water uses are more likely to be characterised by mutualism and competition, instead of a predator-prey relationship. Agricultural water use, on the other hand, takes on the role of predator against the other two.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Recursos Hídricos , Agricultura , Península Balcânica , Bulgária , Características da Família , Indústrias , Romênia , Sérvia , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569328

RESUMO

We identified the key sectors of water resource use in China from the perspective of the water footprint to improve the use of water resources. The empirical results showed that there were six key sectors (including Crop Cultivation; Forestry; Livestock and Livestock Products; Fishery, Technical Services for Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock and Fishing; Other Food Products, and Scrap and Waste) for water consumption in China in 2015.We analyzed the use of green water, blue water, and grey water. These six sectors accounted for 66.15% of the total impact and 90.76% of the direct impact. Seven key sectors (the six sectors above plus Steel Processing)for the consumption of blue water in China can explain 59.70% of the total impact and 86.94% of the direct effect in 2015. Eight key sectors (Crop cultivation, Other food products, Scrap and Waste, Railway Freight Transport, Highway Freight and Passengers Transport, Water Freight and Passengers Transport, Pipeline Transport, and Health Services) responsible for the consumption of grey water in China in 2015 can explain 81.28% of the total impact and 95.73% of the direct impact. Therefore, the Chinese government should focus on the departments that manage water resources in these sectors when designing water-saving policies and improving water-use efficiency, such as promoting water-saving irrigation technology (including sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation) in the agricultural sector.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura Florestal , Água/análise
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234621, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544207

RESUMO

Recent studies on water demand management show that providing visual information on water usage along with social comparisons with neighbouring households resulted in more efficient water usage. However, social comparisons can be discomforting for participants, especially in the case of downward or negative evaluations. To avoid this, some studies promote the use of social identity, a social norm approach that avoids comparisons. Past studies using social comparison used infographics, whereas other study types have used only textual (non-graphic) information. Therefore, in this study, we created a visualisation of water usage to highlight the importance of water as a shared resource, that is, as a public good, and feedback over six months according to the participants' water usage. A difference-in-difference analysis indicated that the feedback was marginally significant in decreasing water consumption immediately and continuously, especially for the middle and low use households, during the summer months, which is a period of perceived water shortage. From the questionnaire survey, we found that households felt that they determined their water usage based on their preference and were satisfied with the outcome.


Assuntos
Gestão da Saúde da População , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Economia , Humanos , Identificação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232751, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374769

RESUMO

Insufficient water resources restrict wheat production in the North China Plain, so it is urgent and essential to improve the border irrigation performance and water use efficiency. This study developed a predesigned varied-discharge irrigation scheme in the closed-ended border. Field treatments, including continuous-discharge (CD), increased-discharge (ID) and decreased-discharge (DD) border irrigation tests, were conducted to evaluate the irrigation performance of the proposed varied-discharge scheme. The DD border irrigation treatment had great application efficiency (AE), distribution uniformity (DU) and requirement efficiency (RE), and its comprehensive evaluation indicator (Y) was also significantly higher than other treatments. DD treatment achieved the average AE, DU, RE and Y values of 91.4%, 95.5%, 99.5% and 95.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the hydraulic simulation model WinSRFR was used to optimize the scheme of predesigned varied-discharge border irrigation, and sensitivity analyses of infiltration parameters, roughness coefficient, slope and inflow rate were carried out. The results indicate that the predesigned varied-discharge border irrigation scheme can improve the irrigation performance, and the DD border irrigation scheme has more satisfactory robustness than that of the ID border irrigation scheme.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Água Subterrânea , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , China , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Solo , Água
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 568-574, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322933

RESUMO

Water quality degradation by organochlorine pesticides and potentially toxic elements is of worldwide concern. This research explores groundwater conditions, regarding organochlorine pesticides and potentially toxic elements, in Hopelchen, Campeche, which is located in the buffer zone of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. Unfortunately, agriculture is allowed and agrochemical use is not monitored and sanctioned. Results show that Heptachlor, Endosulfan, and Dieldrin, all recognized carcinogens, had concentrations above the Mexican normative recommended values. Conversely, Cd and Ni concentrations were below recommended values. These results demonstrate that government intervention involving immediate control over agrochemical use is mandatory. Also, the results underscore the contamination of groundwater in several of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve's buffer zones by organochlorine pesticides concentrations, posing a probable threat for local inhabitants who consume this water and use it for recreation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Agricultura , Dieldrin/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Heptacloro/análise , México , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302331

RESUMO

Water resources are indispensable for all social-economic activities and ecosystem functions. In addition, changes in water resources have great significance for agricultural production. This paper uses five global climate models from CMIP5 to evaluate the future spatiotemporal variation in water resources in China under four RCP scenarios. The results show that the available precipitation significantly decreases due to evapotranspiration. Comparing the four RCP scenarios, the national average of the available precipitation is the highest under the RCP 2.6 and 4.5 scenarios, followed by that under the RCP 8.5 scenario. In terms of spatial distribution, the amount of available precipitation shows a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest. Regarding temporal changes, the available precipitation under RCP 8.5 exhibits a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, while the available precipitation under the RCP 6.0 scenario exhibits a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. Under the RCP 2.6 and 4.5 scenarios, the available precipitation increases, and the RCP 4.5 scenario has a higher rate of increase than that of RCP 2.6. In the context of climate change, changes in water resources and temperature cause widespread increases in potential agricultural productivity around Hu's line, especially in southwestern China. However, the potential agricultural productivity decreases in a large area of southeastern China. Hu's line has a partial breakthrough in the locking of agriculture, mainly in eastern Tibet, western Sichuan, northern Yunnan and northwestern Inner Mongolia. The results provide a reference for the management and deployment of future water resources and can aid in agricultural production in China.


Assuntos
Agricultura/tendências , Mudança Climática , Previsões , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , China , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Chuva , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093109

RESUMO

Background: Schistosomiasis is a public health problem that affects over 240 million people worldwide. It is mostly prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical areas among communities with limited access to clean water and adequate sanitation. This study was conducted in uMkhanyakude District in rural South Africa, where water resources are limited. In this community, individuals frequently come into contact with freshwater bodies for various reasons. The objective of the study was to identify critical contextual and psychosocial factors for behaviour change to reduce risk of schistosomiasis transmission in Madeya Village, uMkhanyakude district. Methods: Structured household interviews were held with 57 primary caregivers to assess their thoughts and attitudes towards collecting water from a safe source. We used the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model (RANAS) to estimate the intervention potential for each factor by analysing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers who use safe water sources. Results: The subscale vulnerability belonging to the risk factor on the RANAS was scored as low. Furthermore, attitudinal factors towards the use of safe water sources were found to be low. Ability factors (confidence in performance and confidence in recovery) towards the use of safe water sources were low as well, indicating that these factors should be the target of the intervention in the study area. Discussion: Based on this study, it is recommended that a community-based empowerment intervention strategy it appropriate. The strategy should prompt behavioural practice and public commitment, use persuasive language to boost self-efficacy and target younger low-income caregivers between 18 and 35 years of age.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Esquistossomose , África do Sul , Água , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6112-6125, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865568

RESUMO

Determining alternative water sources to meet municipal water demands is important when availability is limited. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a means for water planners to estimate the amount of combined sanitary wastewater and storm water that they might already be capturing through open air oxidation ponds. Increased understanding of the quantity of water that is already available could help water planners to better envision optimal water reuse scenarios. Using water and climate data on oxidation ponds in these three cities within the Texas Panhandle from 2010 to 2014, we evaluated water quantities which would be available for potential reuse. From the net monthly wastewater volumes values, the study also considered if per capita demand could have been met by reusing the wastewater. The study found wastewater volumes were lower in fall and winter months and much higher in spring and summer months. If a city considers reusing wastewater, blue water (groundwater) extraction could be reduced by as low as 45-50% in one city to as high as 100% in another. Water planners in similar environments and wastewater treatment systems may find this demonstration of potential reuse water quantity encouraging for better meeting their own water demands and enhancing water supply resiliency.


Assuntos
Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Texas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795105

RESUMO

Water resource security is an important condition for socio-economic development. Recently, the process of urbanization brings increasing pressures on water resources. Thus, a good understanding of harmonious development of urbanization and water resource security (WRS) systems is necessary. This paper examined the coordination state between urbanization and WRS and its obstacle factors in Beijing city, utilizing the improved coupling coordination degree (ICCD) model, obstacle degree model, and indicator data from 2008 to 2017. Results indicated that: (1) The coupling coordination degree between WRS and urbanization displayed an overall upward tendency during the 2008-2017 period; the coupling coordination state has changed from an imbalanced state into a good coordination state, experiencing from a high-speed development stage (2008-2010), through a steady growth stage (2010-2014), towards a low-speed growth (2014-2017). (2) In urbanization system, both the social and spatial urbanizations have the greatest obstruction to the development of urbanization-WRS system. The subsystems of pressure and state are the domain obstacle subsystems in WRS system. These results can provide important support for urban planning and water resource protection in the future, and hold great significance for urban sustainable development.


Assuntos
Urbanização , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Planejamento de Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 60, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863402

RESUMO

Integrated water planning and management face multiple challenges, among which are the competing interests of several water-using sectors and changing climatic trends. This paper presents integrated and non-integrated climate-environment-water approaches for reservoir operation, illustrated with Karkhe reservoir, Iran. Reservoir operation objectives are meeting municipal, environmental, and agricultural water demands. Results show the integrated approach, which relies on multi-objective optimization of municipal, environmental, and agricultural water supply, improves the municipal, environmental, and agricultural objectives by 70, 32, and 65% compared with the objectives' values achieved with the non-integrated approach, which implements a standard operating policy.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/química , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água , Agricultura , Irã (Geográfico) , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 64, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867698

RESUMO

In the recent decades, global warming has caused water shortages all over the world. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of drought caused by climate change on the chemical quality of groundwater in Saveh County, Markazi province, Iran. The physicochemical parameters of 29 wells were analyzed by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) during the drought period 2004-2015. Wilcox and Schoeller diagrams were applied to evaluate the water quality of wells for irrigation and drinking purposes, respectively. Schoeller diagram was consulted to show the relative concentrations of anions and cations typically expressed in milliequivalents per liter. Also, the Wilcox diagram was consulted to determine the suitability of water for agriculture purposes. Finally, the geographic information system was applied to the zoning of the groundwater quality parameters. According to the results, almost 90% of wells were in the category of "very salty and harmful for agriculture uses" in the last year of the study period (2015). The Schoeller diagram suggests that the water quality of 72.5, 10.4, 65.5, 100, 44.9, and 69% of wells were inappropriate and exceeded the Iranian National Standard level, in terms of TDS, TH, Na+، Mg2+, Cl-, and SO42- in 2015, respectively. A decrease in yearly average precipitation during the studied period has not only caused overuse of groundwater as the primary water resources but also led to a significant decline in its chemical quality.


Assuntos
Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Agricultura , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Irã (Geográfico) , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Poços de Água
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694247

RESUMO

Water resources allocation is an urgent problem for basin authorities. In order to obtain greater economic benefits from limited water supplies, sub-regions must cooperate with each other. To study the influence of cooperation among sub-regions and the symmetry of cooperation information on the interests of the basin authority and each sub-region, this study proposes a regional water allocation model in three different situations: (1) non-cooperation; (2) cooperation and information symmetry; (3) cooperation and information asymmetry. The proposed model clearly reflects the Stackelberg game relationship between the basin authority and sub-regions. Finally, the model is applied to the Qujiang River Basin in China, and the decisions of the basin authority and sub-regional managers of the Qujiang River Basin under three different situations are discussed. The results show that regional cooperation benefits both the cooperative regions and the social welfare value of the entire river basin, when compared with non-cooperation.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , China , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36141-36162, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760618

RESUMO

Water quality models are important tools used in the management of water resources. The models are usually developed for specific regions, with particular climates and physical characteristics. Thus, applying these models in regions other than those they were designed for can generate large simulation errors. With consideration to these discrepancies, the goal of this study is to identify the models employed in different countries and assist researchers in the selection of the most appropriate models for management purposes. Published studies from the last 21 years (1997-2017) that discuss the application of water quality models were selected from three engineering databases: SpringerLink, Web of Science, and Scopus. Seven models for water quality simulations have been widely applied around the world: AQUATOX, CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, QUALs, SWAT, SPARROW, and WASP. The countries most frequently applying water quality models are the USA, followed by China, and South Korea. SWAT was the most used model, followed by the QUAL group and CE-QUAL-W2. This study provides the opportunity for researchers, who wish to study countries with fewer cases of applied water quality models, to easily identify the work from that region. Furthermore, this work collated central themes of interest and the most simulated parameters for the seven countries that most frequently employed the water quality models.


Assuntos
Clima , Modelos Teóricos , Qualidade da Água/normas , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , China , República da Coreia , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671669

RESUMO

Water resources utilization, social economy development, and ecological environment protection are key factors in regional sustainable development. Scientific evaluation of regional coordinated development status and diagnosis of regional uncoordinated development constraints will improve the management level of decision-makers. At present, most developing countries have the problem of unbalanced regional development caused by the one-sided pursuit of a certain system. Taking 14 prefecture-level cities in Hunan Province as cases, this paper analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of the carrying capacity level of the water resources system, the development level of the social economy system and the protection level of the ecological environment system in each evaluation unit based on entropy weight method and order parameter analysis. Based on the theory of coordinated development, a calculation model of a coordinated development degree was constructed, and the corresponding evaluation criteria were formulated. The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of a coordinated development degree in each research unit were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the average coordinated development degree of Hunan Province from 2004 to 2016 evolved from "Light disorder recession" to "Nearly disorder recession", then to "Reluctance coordinated development". Restricted by different systems, the coordinated development degree in each research unit presented spatial and temporal differences. According to different development stages and the characteristics of different regions, corresponding development strategies can be formulated to provide the guidance for coordinated the development of regions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Ecossistema , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Países em Desenvolvimento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635275

RESUMO

Water shortages are a worldwide problem. Virtual water and the water footprint link water resources, human beings and agricultural products, and are effective tools to alleviate water-resources stress. The production of agricultural products consumes a large amount of water, and food is the most basic consumer good for human survival, so it is very necessary to study the water footprint of residents' food consumption, which is also the weak point of current research on virtual water and the water footprint. This paper aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis on the water footprint of food consumption in China from the perspectives of urban and rural residents, per capita water footprint, water footprint structure and food consumption structure. The results revealed that the average water footprint of residents' food consumption was 605.12 billion m3/year, basically showing an upward trend. Guangdong residents had the highest water footprint for food consumption due to the highest population and higher consumption of water-intensive foodstuffs such as grain and meat in their diet. The water footprint of Xizang residents' food consumption was the lowest followed by Ningxia and Qinghai due to having the least population. The water footprint of food consumption consumed by urban residents was on the rise while that consumed by rural residents was on the decline in China, which was consistent with the changing trend of population. On the whole, the rural population consumed more virtual water embedded in food than the urban population. From the water footprint structure point, the contribution rate of the green water footprint is the largest, reaching 69.36%. The second is the gray water footprint and then the blue water footprint, accounting for 18.71% and 11.93%, respectively. From the perspective of the food consumption structure, grain and pig, beef and mutton consumption contributed significantly to the total water footprint of residents' food consumption, contributing 37.5% and 22.56%, respectively. The study is helpful for water management and water allocation in rural and urban areas, improving agricultural technology to reduce the gray water footprint and optimizing food consumption structure, such as reducing the consumption of grain and meat.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 32759-32763, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586314

RESUMO

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) currently supports chemical and ecological monitoring programmes in order to achieve the good water surface status. Although chemical and ecological assessments are necessary, they have some limitations. Chemical approaches focus on certain substances identified as priorities, but they do not take into account other potentially harmful substances and also ignore the hazards related to contaminant cocktails. On the other hand, while ecological approaches provide holistic information on the impairment of biological communities in ecosystems, they do not distinguish the role of contaminants in these alterations, and consequently do not allow the establishment of contaminant impact reduction plans. Consequently, ecotoxicologists suggest the use of effect-based tools such as biomarkers. Biomarkers highlight the effect of potentially harmful substances (or a cocktail), and their specificity towards the chemicals makes it possible to properly discriminate the role of toxicants within biological community impairments. Thus, the integration of such tools (besides existing chemical and ecological tools) in the WFD could considerably improve its biomonitoring strategy. The B n' B project (Biomarkers and Biodiversity) exposes key objectives that will allow to (i) establish an inventory of the biomarkers developed by French laboratories; (ii) determine their methodological advancement and limits and, on this basis, formulate recommendations for biomonitoring use and future research needs; (iii) discuss the biomarkers' ecological significance, specificity to contaminants and interpretation capacity; (iv) establish, in fine, a selection of valuable biomarkers to enter the WFD; and (iv) propose integrative tools to facilitate the decision-taking by stakeholders.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Biomarcadores , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Substâncias Perigosas , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução
17.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(6): 550-565, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645132

RESUMO

The north-east of Iran is a semi-arid region and faces a water shortage crisis. Therefore, monitoring water resources using accurate methods such as stable isotopes technique is vitally important. In this study, precipitation events were sampled in 10 stations in the Mashhad basin and the Bojnourd region in 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2015, additional surface and groundwater. These samples were analysed at the Ottawa University for both oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. In addition, the moisture sources were determined using the backward trajectories of the HYSPLIT model. The backward trajectories showed that both high- and low-latitude water bodies provide moisture for the north-east of Iran. However, the role of high-latitude water bodies including the Caspian, the Black, and the Mediterranean Seas is stronger. On the other hand, the stable isotopes showed large variations and the developed meteoric water lines deviated in both slope and intercept from the global meteoric water line. This showed that the precipitation events of the north-east of Iran were provided by various air masses and moisture sources. Finally, plotting the isotope values of the surface water resources on high- and low-latitude meteoric water lines demonstrated that these water resources were dominantly recharged by precipitation events originating from high-latitude water bodies.


Assuntos
Deutério/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Chuva/química , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Água Doce/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Irã (Geográfico) , Estações do Ano , Ciclo Hidrológico
18.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(6): 566-587, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578875

RESUMO

The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen can provide useful insights into water origin and hydrological processes. The present study aims to investigate the characteristics of stable H/O isotopes of groundwater and surface water in a coastal area of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Isotopes and chloride concentrations of surface water show a highly seasonal and linearly spatial variability, depending on the distance to the sea. The seasonal variation of upstream discharge and rainfall plays an important role in changes of the isotopic compositions and chloride concentrations. Tide also influences on chloride concentrations of surface water while it does not change the isotopic compositions. Evaporation plays a crucial role in changes of isotopic compositions, while the influence of freshwater/seawater mixing on isotopic variabilities is negligible. Groundwater has a spatial heterogeneity in isotopic compositions and chloride concentrations, reflecting different recharge sources and seawater intrusion processes. Groundwater in shallow aquifers originates from rainfall and surface water with small evaporative losses, and it experienced different magnitudes of mixing with seawater. Groundwater in deep aquifers might be recharged by open-surface water evaporation in the last glacial age with minor impacts of seawater intrusion on these aquifers.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Deutério/análise , Água Doce/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Água do Mar/química , Vietnã
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(5): e379646, sep.-oct. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127218

RESUMO

RESUMEN El propósito del presente artículo es reflexionar sobre la capitalización de uno de los elementos básicos e indispensables para la vida en el planeta: el agua, recurso vital en donde se ha concentrado, en definitiva, todo el carácter configurador de la sociedad, y que en último caso, se ha convertido en el sentido y la razón de supervivencia de la población frente a mecánicas asociadas fuertemente al capital. Esta última idea es importante porque teóricamente permite desplegar un nexo estructural profundo entre la sociedad y el agua. Siguiendo esta dinámica, una última variable de análisis recae en la gobernanza del agua y sus principales restrictivas en un marco de dinámicas globales atmosféricas que lo atraviesan, y que, en última instancia, estremecen los derechos humanos y la salud pública. De esta manera, se busca una gobernanza hídrica que profundice el nexo y la integración múltiple entre sociedad, empresa, Estado y naturaleza en el manejo del agua sobre una base de principios y técnicas que generen políticas públicas mediadas por una participación completa de los diferentes actores que la involucran, así como la articulación en los diferentes contextos organizativos que legitimen el agua como un recurso compartido. De ahí, se parte que defender el agua como un bien común para todas y todos, sigue siendo un desafío en los diferentes niveles de Gobierno.(AU)


ABSTRACT The purpose of the present is to reflect on the capitalization of one of the basic and indispensable elements for life on the planet: water, vital resource where it has concentrated, in short, all the configurator character of society, and that in the last case, it has become the sense and the reason for survival of the population against mechanics strongly associated with capital. This Last idea is important, because theoretically it allows to deploy a deep structural nexus between society and water. Following this dynamic, a last variable of analysis lies in the water governance and its main restrictive in a framework of global atmospheric dynamics that traverse it, and that ultimately, they shake the human rights and the public health. That way, to seek a water governance that deepens the nexus and the multiple integration between society, company, State and nature in the management of waters on a basis of principles and techniques that generate public policies mediated by a complete participation of the different actors that involve it, as well as the articulation in the different organisational contexts they legitimize the water as a shared resource, and that this, it must be defended as a common good for all, it remains a challenge at different levels of government.(AU)


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Mudança Climática , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Política Ambiental/tendências , Direitos Humanos
20.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(6): 532-549, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547680

RESUMO

Water scarcity is a leading concern in both developing and developed nations. Coping with water scarcity requires an understanding of various hydrological processes that act upon precipitation, surface and groundwater at a local scale. We measured isotopic signatures of several water samples from two distinct ecosystems, i.e. tropical savanna in the West and the warm semi-arid region in the East lying across the Western Ghats mountain range, India, to understand the hydrological processes. The results show that the hydrogeological conditions strongly influence the isotopic characteristics of water of different resources, governed by different hydrological processes, even at close spatial scales. Based on the local evaporation lines of different water resources within a particular ecosystem, it is inferred that the water resources are well linked at one site, but have diverse connectivity at the other site. Further, the isotopic signatures of all the water resources are systematically affected by the monsoon precipitation. In addition, anomalously depleted isotopic signatures are observed during known hailstorm events. This may provide a means to trace their signature in the existing water resources.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Chuva/química , Rios/química , Ciclo Hidrológico , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Deutério/análise , Ecossistema , Hidrologia , Índia , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
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