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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 59, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442808

RESUMO

Indigenous people constitute an important section of society in many countries. Despite being a numerically smaller section, they are culturally diverse and distributed mostly in valuable natural resources-rich regions worldwide. In the era of globalization, industrialization, and trade liberalization, indigenous communities have become more vulnerable to displacement, land alienation, cultural erosion, and social exclusion. During the last few decades, researchers have tried to evaluate and document their problems and prospects. The present study analyzes the trends and characteristics of research and development conducted about indigenous communities. The research hotspots based on keywords, productive researchers, and journals during 1979-2020 were mapped using the Scopus database. The analysis was carried out using the bibliometrix R-package and VOSviewer software tool. Consistent growth in the number of studies and citations on indigenous communities concerning environmental conservation, natural resources, and economic development was observed during the last four decades. The present findings reveal that research on the indigenous community has attracted the attention of the scientific community in recent years. Qualitative studies with methodological rigor, having potential for social and policy implications, are warranted to understand and respect ingrained cultural and socio-economic diversity among these communities. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Recursos Naturais , Bibliometria , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Grupos Populacionais
2.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111836, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433369

RESUMO

Although collaborative governance has been presented as central in environmental management, it does not guarantee sustainable natural resources management. Due to methodological challenges and a lack of robust interdisciplinary data, few studies have linked collaborative processes to ecological outcomes. This paper contributes to that research effort by investigating whether the relative involvement of different interest groups in deliberations matters from an ecological perspective. To that end, this interdisciplinary paper links social and ecological indicators across two large French river basins in a dataset spanning 25 years. We find that the presence of different interest groups - agricultural, industrial and NGOs - during deliberations, is linked to different ecological outcomes. Most notably, the composition of present members does not play the same role depending on the type of pollution source studied (e.g. point and/or diffuse sources).


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Rios , Agricultura , Indústrias , Recursos Naturais
3.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111812, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517252

RESUMO

Research on natural resource management like fisheries, irrigation systems or forestry traditionally uses case studies providing us with a rich, in-depth perspective on many single systems. This comes with a disadvantage - lacking comparability as differences between studies exist in variables examined, their operationalization or methods used. Thus, studies often disagree on important drivers for ecological success. However, due to design differences the reasons behind different results often remain unknown. One reason might be the impact of method choice. Hence, this article tests the influence of methods on model results. We use a high-quality data set, the Nepal Irrigation Institutions and Systems database (NIIS), developed at the Ostrom Workshop. It contains 263 cases, each record having information on around 600 variables. Multiple machine learning methods - random forests (RF), gradient boosting (GBM), shallow neural networks (SNN) and deep neural networks (DNN) - are compared with a standard statistical approach (multivariate linear regressions (MLR)). We try to answer the question whether these methods differ in estimating the relevance for success of such well-known concepts like participation of users, resource size, relations with other groups, and social capital among others. The results indicate that both agreements and substantial differences exist across methods which casts doubt on the robustness of previous results. Hence, we advise more caution in interpreting existing results. We see this research as a step towards increasing the robustness of results and improving both generalisability and reproducibility of natural resource management research.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Nepal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112879

RESUMO

Environments in both biotic and abiotic ecosystems have been affected by the colonization of non-native flora. In this study, we examined the effect of Bidens alba invasion on different land-use types along a coastline in southern China. Bacterial communities in each site were determined using 16S rDNA sequencing, and soil physicochemical properties were analyzed using standard methods. Although our results indicated that B. alba invasion did not have a significant effect on the alpha diversity of bacteria, it caused significant differences in soil bacterial community composition between invaded and uninvaded soil across different land-use types. Beta diversity and several physicochemical properties in forest, orchard and waterfront environments were recorded to be more susceptible to B. alba invasion. A high proportion of the variation of bacterial communities can be explained by a combination of environmental variables, indicating that environmental selection rather than plant invasion is a more effective process in coastal microbial assemblages. By comparing topological roles of shared OTUs among invaded and uninvaded soil, keystone taxa in invaded soil were identified. Acidobacteria was the major phyla involved in the invasive process which could be driven by environmental selection. How key phyla react in our experiment should be verified by further studies.


Assuntos
Bidens/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Microbiologia do Solo , Acidobacteria/genética , Acidobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , China , Ecossistema , Microbiota/genética , Recursos Naturais , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048955

RESUMO

Land is a scarce resource and its depletion is related to a combination of demographic and economic factors. Hence, the changes in dietary habits and increase in world population that upturn the food demand, are intertwined with a context of increasing oil prices and rise of green capitalism that in turn impacts the demand in biofuel. A visible indicator of these phenomena is the increase, in recent years, of Large Scale Land Acquisitions (LSLAs) by private companies or states. Such land investments often lead to conflicts with local population and have raised issues regarding people's rights, the role of different production models and land governance. The aim of this work is to show how publicly available data about LSLAs can be modeled into complex network structures, thus showing how the application of advanced network analysis techniques can be used to better understand land trade dynamics. We use data collected by the Land Matrix Initiative on LSLAs to model three land trade networks: a multi-sector network, a network centered on the mining sector and a network centered on the agriculture one. Then we provide an extended analysis of such networks which includes: (i) a structural analysis, (ii) the definition of a score, namely LSLA-score, which allows to rank the countries based on their investing/target role in the land trade network, (iii) an analysis of the land trade context which takes into account the LSLA-score ranking and the correlation between network features and several country development indicators, (iv) an analysis centered on the discover and analysis of network motifs (i.e., recurring patterns in the land trade network), which provides insights into complex and diverse relations between countries. Our analyses showed how the land trade market is massively characterized by a Global North-Global South dynamic, even if the investing power of emerging economies also has a major impact in creating relations between different sub-regions of the world. Moreover, the analyses on the mining and agriculture sectors highlighted how the role of several countries in the trade network may drastically change depending of the investment sector, showing diverse hierarchies between investor, intermediate and target countries.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Agricultura , Bases de Dados Factuais , Internacionalidade , Recursos Naturais
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002077

RESUMO

Recent decades have been marked by unprecendented environmental changes which threaten the integrity of freshwater systems and their ecological value. Although most of these changes can be attributed to human activities, disentagling natural and anthropogenic drivers remains a challenge. In this study, surface sediments from Lake Ighiel, a mid-altitude site in the Carpathian Mts (Romania) were investigated following high-resolution sedimentological, geochemical, environmental magnetic and diatom analyses supported by historical cartographic and documentary evidence. Our results suggest that between 1920 and 1960 the study area experienced no significant anthropogenic impact. An excellent correspondence is observed between lake proxy responses (e.g., growth of submerged macrophytes, high detrital input, shifts in diatom assemblages) and parameters tracking natural hydroclimate variability (e.g., temperature, NAO). This highlights a dominant natural hydroclimatic control on the lacustrine system. From 1960 however, the depositional regime shifted markedly from laminated to homogenous clays; since then geochemical and magnetic data document a trend of significant (and on-going) subsurface erosion across the catchment. This is paralleled by a shift in lake ecosystem conditions denoting a strong response to an intensified anthropogenic impact, mainly through forestry. An increase in detrital input and marked changes in the diatom community are observed over the last three decades, alongside accelerated sedimentation rates following enhanced grazing and deforestation in the catchment. Recent shifts in diatom assemblages may also reflect forcing from atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, a key recent drive of diatom community turnover in mountain lakes. In general, enhanced human pressure alongside intermittent hydroclimate forcing drastically altered the landscape around Lake Ighiel and thus, the sedimentation regime and the ecosystem's health. However, paleoenvironmental signals tracking natural hydroclimate variability are also clearly discernible in the proxy data. Our work illustrates the complex link between the drivers of catchment-scale impacts on one hand, and lake proxy responses on the other, highlighting the importance of an integrated historical and palaeolimnological approach to better assess lake system changes.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Lagos , Altitude , Mudança Climática/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lagos/análise , Recursos Naturais , Nitrogênio/análise , Romênia
8.
Medisan ; 24(5)
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1135219

RESUMO

El papel de la universidad en la conservación del medioambiente y la protección de sus recursos naturales se expresa mediante la integración de la dimensión ambiental en el sistema educativo y se dirige a la adquisición de conocimientos, al perfeccionamiento de capacidades y a la formación de valores éticos que favorezcan un comportamiento social y profesional coherente con el desarrollo sostenible. En tal sentido, en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Santiago de Cuba se evaluó el cuidado del medioambiente aplicando la metodología establecida por el Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Medioambiente para la obtención del reconocimiento nacional al respecto, con lo cual se evidenció un avance en la gestión de la Universidad, aunque aún existen aspectos pendientes que se han incluido en la "Estrategia de gestión ambiental" de la institución para avanzar en el desempeño de la protección medioambiental.


The role of the university in the conservation of the environment and the protection of its natural resources is expressed by means of the environmental dimension integration in the educational system and it is directed to the acquisition of knowledge, to the improvement of capacities and the training of ethical values that favor a social and professional behavior coherent with the sustainable development. In such a sense, in the University of Medical Sciences of Santiago de Cuba the care of environment was evaluated implementing the methodology established by the Ministry of Science, Technology and environment in order to obtain the national recognition in this respect, with which an advance in the management of the University was evidenced, although there are some unfinished aspects that have been included in the "Strategy of Environmental Management" of the institution to advance in the environmental protection performance.


Assuntos
Universidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Gestão Ambiental , Recursos Naturais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946497

RESUMO

Based on 0.01°×0.01° grid data of PM2.5 annual concentration and statistical yearbook data for 11 cities in Hebei Province from 2000 to 2015, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of PM2.5 in the study area are analysed, the level of intensive land use in the area is evaluated, and decoupling theory and spatial regression are used to discuss the relationship between PM2.5 concentration and intensive land use and the influence of intensive land use variables on PM2.5 in Hebei Province. The results show that 1. In terms of time, the concentration of PM2.5 in Hebei Province showed an overall upward trend from 2000 to 2015, with the highest in winter and the lowest in summer. The daily variations show double peaks at 8:00-10:00 and 21:00-0:00 and a single valley at 16:00-18:00. 2. In terms of space, the concentration of PM2.5 in Hebei Province is high in the southeast and low in the northwest, and the pollution spillover initially decreases and then increases. 3. In the past 16 years, the level of intensive land use in Hebei Province has increased annually, but blind expansion still exists. 4. Decoupling theory and the spatial lag model show that land use intensity, land input level and land use structure are positively correlated with PM2.5 concentration, land output benefit is negatively correlated with PM2.5 concentration, and PM2.5 concentration and land intensive use level have not yet been decoupled; thus, the relationship is not harmonious. This research can provide a scientific basis for reducing air pollution and promoting the development of urban land resources for intensive and sustainable development.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Recursos Naturais , Material Particulado/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , Regressão Espacial , Urbanização
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760117

RESUMO

Renewable electricity can fully decarbonise the European electricity supply, but large land requirements may cause land-use conflicts. Using a dynamic model that captures renewable fluctuations, I explore the relationship between land requirements and total system cost of different supply-side options in the future. Cost-minimal fully renewable electricity requires some 97,000 km2 (2% of total) land for solar and wind power installations, roughly the size of Portugal, and includes large shares of onshore wind. Replacing onshore wind with offshore wind, utility-scale PV, or rooftop PV reduces land requirements drastically with only small cost penalties. Moving wind power offshore is most cost-effective and reduces land requirements by 50% for a cost penalty of only 5%. Wind power can alternatively be replaced by photovoltaics, leading to a cost penalty of 10% for the same effect. My research shows that fully renewable electricity supply can be designed with very different physical appearances and impacts on landscapes and the population, but at similar cost.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Energia Renovável , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Europa (Continente) , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Centrais Elétricas/economia , Energia Renovável/economia , Energia Solar/economia , Processos Estocásticos , Vento
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(36): 45121-45132, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776215

RESUMO

This study attempts to investigate the environment cleanness between the total factor productivity, natural resources and green taxation on Malaysia's clean environment. Using the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis, this study employs the bootstrap quantile estimates based on the annual data series covering the period of 1970-2018 to analyse the quantile effect factors affecting environment cleanness in Malaysia. The empirical estimates of this study reject the EKC hypothesis throughout the quantile levels, while the green taxation shows a negative sign which indicated government fiscal policies are reducing carbon emission in the upper quantiles. There is also homogeneity slope equality effect between total factor of productivity and green taxation on carbon emissions in the middle and upper quantile levels, while natural resources are indication heterogeneity effect on all quantile levels. From the policy point of view, if Malaysia wants to get environment cleanness, there is a need for comprehensive policies of total factor of productivity with environment innovation-friendly and technological improvement in all major economic sectors of the country.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Malásia , Recursos Naturais , Impostos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111068, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854880

RESUMO

Increasing global pressure on natural resources requires that decision makers and land managers adopt sustainable solutions to ensure the long-term provision of essential ecosystem services (ES). Analysing the effects of land-use changes on ES can contribute to an improved understanding of the interactions between socio-economic development, landscape changes and ES, which is fundamental in order to avoid or mitigate the undesired consequences of today's decisions. Studies at longer timescales are still underrepresented, but are also fundamental for capturing slow social and ecological processes. This study therefore analysed the impacts of land-use/land cover (LULC) changes on ES values from the past to the future (1860-2100) in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol (Italy). Future scenarios were based on socio-economic storylines and their spatial distribution mapped. By attributing ES values to LULC types, we assessed changes in ES values as well as their spatial patterns. Our results indicate that the abandonment of mountain grassland induced an ongoing shift in ES at higher elevations, from grassland-related ES towards forest-related ES. The intensification of use in the valley bottoms had predominantly negative effects on regulation & maintenance, and cultural ES in the past. Under future scenarios, changes in ES values at lower elevations greatly depend on expected socio-economic development. Negative effects on regulation & maintenance and cultural ES were highest for the 'Food sovereignty' scenario due to huge transformations of grassland and permanent cultures to arable land in order to optimise food provision at the regional level. In contrast, under the 'Liberalisation' and 'Rewilding' scenarios, there were positive trends for forest-related provisioning ES and less negative effects on regulation & maintenance and cultural ES within the study area, but the dependence on imported products increased. Our findings provide valuable information for decision-making and policy development in order to minimise negative consequences through targeted management measures or payments for environmental services.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Itália , Recursos Naturais
13.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111069, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854881

RESUMO

The Ecological Footprint is defined as the ecological impact caused by human activities, such as agriculture, fishing, raising livestock, and building infrastructure. A high level of Ecological Footprint index is linked to high consumption of natural resources, which causes a negative impact on the environment. Few studies analyze the Ecological Footprint and its determinants considering the effects of neighboring countries. Therefore, we research whether the Ecological Footprints of 158 countries are spatially correlated, as well as their determinants. We retrieve the data from the Global Footprint Network and the World Bank for ten years (2007-2016) and apply a dynamic spatial Durbin model. Unlike previous studies of spatial dependence, we estimate the direct, indirect and total effects of biocapacity, trade openness and GDP on the Ecological Footprint in the short-run and long-run horizons. Our results detect significant spatial effects. We find that biocapacity, trade openness and GDP increase the Ecological Footprint of countries, however, the former two exhibit significant indirect effects in both horizons while the latter one display significant direct effects. These effects account for a significant share of the variation of the Ecological Footprint. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results to academics and policymakers.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Recursos Naturais , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Análise Espacial
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 503, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648051

RESUMO

This research presents the methodology of mapping a situation of the natural-landscape resources of Khuzestan province in Iran using time-varying space data according to seasonal changes of the indicators of SAVI and LST. The novelty of this research is the combined use of GIS techniques, optical and thermal remote sensing for mapping the situation of the natural-landscape resources aimed at territorial planning. In this research, a classification was carried out for the study area based on the potential of the natural-landscape resources. The Landsat 7 and 8 materials from the periods of 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 were used to perform this research using ERDAS Imagine, ENVI, ArcGIS, and Priznak software. Variations of LST and SAVI were analyzed for 10 seasons of year from April to September. The results showed that both increasing the area of bare soils (wasteland) and residential areas and decreasing the extent of the water resources, forests, and rangeland in Khuzestan province have caused the surface temperature to rise over a period of 9 years. Whereas, matching of the Entisols and Inceptisols with areas having high natural resource potential in Khuzestan province was indicated by the results of this study. And also, the Badlands, Rock-outcrops, and Dunelands are the areas with low natural resource potential. It has been shown that integral indicator of the situation of the natural-landscape resources that calculated using the materials of multispectral space imagery is a stable indicator and criterion for land assessing in terms of their suitability for agricultural use. The results of this study can be used to provide a territorial management and planning in accordance with the goals of land use planning and sustainable development, by potential assessment and mapping a status of the natural-landscape resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura , Irã (Geográfico) , Recursos Naturais
15.
J Environ Manage ; 268: 110712, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510446

RESUMO

Keeping in view the catastrophic effects of environmental degradation, G7 countries agree to implement the policy recommendations of the famous Paris Climate Agreement (COP21) in 2015; carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are increasing in G7 countries, which is a severe threat for the environment of the world. This study examines the effects of economic globalization on environmental degradation (CO2 emissions) for G7 countries for the period of 1996-2017. We further examine the role of financial development, agriculture value-added, and natural resources in the relationship between economic globalization and CO2 emissions. This study contributes to the existing literature by providing new empirical evidence on how economic globalization, along with financial development, agriculture value-added, and natural resources affect CO2 emissions in G7 economies. This study utilizes novel econometric techniques such as CS-ARDL for short-run and long-run results of the empirical analysis. The empirical findings show that economic globalization, financial development, and natural resources increase carbon emissions. In contrast, agriculture value-added decreases carbon emissions. This study suggests that policies designed for controlling carbon emissions should be absorbed in approximately more than one year.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Recursos Naturais , Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono , Internacionalidade
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525886

RESUMO

The proposal of the "Belt and Road" initiative has had a positive and far-reaching impact on the economic and social development of countries and regions along the route and has provided good opportunities and conditions for the development of China's foreign contracted projects. In the present study, in view of the heterogeneous characteristics and spatial correlation of countries along the Belt and Road, panel data of 46 contracted projects in China along the Belt and Road from 2008 to 2017 were used to empirically study the spatial characteristics of resource heterogeneity and outsourcing projects in the host country from the perspectives of spatial correlation and spatial heterogeneity. The results indicated that China had significant spatial agglomeration effects, natural restraining effects, and spatial spillover effects on the contracting projects along the Belt and Road, and the marginal impact in low-income countries exhibited a "broken line" relationship. Corresponding suggestions were provided for Chinese enterprises contracting projects involving Belt and Road countries. The databases of BRI need to be established, and ensure green investment efficiency.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Internacionalidade , Recursos Naturais/provisão & distribução , China , Modelos Econômicos , Análise Espacial
17.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110974, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579526

RESUMO

Stakeholder analysis and engagement is a central tenet for understanding and solving sustainability challenges, and is applied widely in environmental and natural resource management (ENRM). The practice in ENRM follows translation of stakeholder theory from its origins in business management to the sustainability sector. In this analytical essay we explore key concepts in ENRM research and practice to examine complexities that have accompanied this translation to ENRM. In particular, we consider the centrality of stakeholders' landscape perspectives in defining their stake in ENRM issues, and through this lens examine the limitations that are inherent in the classic 'hub-and-spoke' model of stakeholder analysis that is the theoretical underpinning for ENRM stakeholder analysis and engagement practice. We argue that unlike the traditional business context where both power and perspective are centred on the business entity that then defines other stakeholders in reference to itself, in ENRM, stakeholder relations are centred on an ENRM issue, typically a landscape or the implications of policy change on a landscape. As a consequence, decision-making power is decentred onto one of several stakeholders; often a government or other high power entity, implicitly conferring privilege to those powerful stakeholders' landscape perspectives over those held by low power stakeholders. We conclude with priorities for foregrounding power and explicating landscape perspectives to identify privilege in ENRM. We direct these insights especially to those ENRM actors who have the dual roles of adjudicator and privileged stakeholder such that they do not inadvertently perpetuate power imbalances through the privilege of aligning their decision-making power with their landscape perspectives.


Assuntos
Governo , Recursos Naturais
18.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110968, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583801

RESUMO

Tourism is frequently promoted as a strategy for sustainable economic development in developing countries. However, the preferred methodology for empirically assessing tourism's economic impacts on local economies, applied computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling, does not account for how tourism affects local natural resource stocks upon which many households depend. We develop a bioeconomic local CGE model to show how market-driven impacts of tourism expansion affect natural resource availability over time. We then show how changes in resource availability affect local incomes of different socioeconomic groups. We parameterize our model with household, business, and tourist survey data from a municipality in the Philippines. We find that tourism expansion increases local real incomes in the short run, but this causes a decline in a local open-access natural resource that erodes real incomes over time, particularly for households engaged in the natural resource sector. Different market integration contexts, as expressed through trade linkages, can mitigate natural resource decline, but this reduces the overall local economic benefit of tourism.


Assuntos
Comércio , Recursos Naturais , Características da Família , Filipinas
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234687, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555654

RESUMO

Carbon (C) footprint of dairy production, expressed in kg C dioxide (CO2) equivalents (CO2e) (kg energy-corrected milk (ECM))-1, encompasses emissions from feed production, diet management and total product output. The proportion of pasture on diets may affect all these factors, mainly in subtropical climate zones, where cows may access tropical and temperate pastures during warm and cold seasons, respectively. The aim of the study was to assess the C footprint of a dairy system with annual tropical and temperate pastures in a subtropical region. The system boundary included all processes up to the animal farm gate. Feed requirement during the entire life of each cow was based on data recorded from Holstein × Jersey cow herds producing an average of 7,000 kg ECM lactation-1. The milk production response as consequence of feed strategies (scenarios) was based on results from two experiments (warm and cold seasons) using lactating cows from the same herd. Three scenarios were evaluated: total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum intake, 75, and 50% of ad libitum TMR intake with access to grazing either a tropical or temperate pasture during lactation periods. Considering IPCC and international literature values to estimate emissions from urine/dung, feed production and electricity, the C footprint was similar between scenarios, averaging 1.06 kg CO2e (kg ECM)-1. Considering factors from studies conducted in subtropical conditions and actual inputs for on-farm feed production, the C footprint decreased 0.04 kg CO2e (kg ECM)-1 in scenarios including pastures compared to ad libitum TMR. Regardless of factors considered, emissions from feed production decreased as the proportion of pasture went up. In conclusion, decreasing TMR intake and including pastures in dairy cow diets in subtropical conditions have the potential to maintain or reduce the C footprint to a small extent.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Fazendas , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Herbivoria , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Pradaria , Lactação , Recursos Naturais , Estações do Ano
20.
Ambio ; 49(12): 2003-2014, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385808

RESUMO

Payment for ecosystem services (PES) has emerged as a promising tool to participatory natural resource management and sharing of benefits among the stakeholders. However, very few successful models of PES are available for replication. This study deals with an analysis of a PES model currently operational in the Dhauladhar Range, Western Himalaya, where upstream villagers are paid for maintaining the spring-shed that supplies drinking water to the downstream township. To understand the flow of various ecosystem services (ES), institutional mechanism, and governance, we conducted an in-depth analysis of this project. The study identified lack of monitoring and weak governance as factors affecting smooth operation of PES. To revamp the PES model more effectively at the present and new sites in future stakeholder integration, valuation of ES and inputs in terms of capacity building of primary and secondary stakeholders would be critical.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Recursos Naturais
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