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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008095, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881868

RESUMO

Research publications and data nowadays should be publicly available on the internet and, theoretically, usable for everyone to develop further research, products, or services. The long-term accessibility of research data is, therefore, fundamental in the economy of the research production process. However, the availability of data is not sufficient by itself, but also their quality must be verifiable. Measures to ensure reuse and reproducibility need to include the entire research life cycle, from the experimental design to the generation of data, quality control, statistical analysis, interpretation, and validation of the results. Hence, high-quality records, particularly for providing a string of documents for the verifiable origin of data, are essential elements that can act as a certificate for potential users (customers). These records also improve the traceability and transparency of data and processes, therefore, improving the reliability of results. Standards for data acquisition, analysis, and documentation have been fostered in the last decade driven by grassroot initiatives of researchers and organizations such as the Research Data Alliance (RDA). Nevertheless, what is still largely missing in the life science academic research are agreed procedures for complex routine research workflows. Here, well-crafted documentation like standard operating procedures (SOPs) offer clear direction and instructions specifically designed to avoid deviations as an absolute necessity for reproducibility. Therefore, this paper provides a standardized workflow that explains step by step how to write an SOP to be used as a starting point for appropriate research documentation.


Assuntos
Métodos , Registros , Redação/normas , Documentação , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Fluxo de Trabalho
2.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 700-707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735497

RESUMO

Clear writing is a critical component of public health research and practice. The ability to convey information in a concise, engaging, and insightful manner influences stakeholder engagement and is the backbone of program and policy development, organization, and implementation. To help master of public health (MPH) students adapt their writing skills to these specialized demands, Boston University School of Public Health launched the Peer Writing Coach Program in 2010 staffed by MPH students. The service is open to all students enrolled in public health classes. They can schedule up to 2 appointments per assignment for both individual and team papers. Student use increased from 55 appointments in academic year 2010-2011 (the first year of the program) to 767 appointments in academic year 2017-2018. For the 2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019 academic years, 1128 (74%) of 1530 appointment requests asked for assistance "writing clearly and concisely," 886 (58%) for assistance "organizing and synthesizing main points of argument," and 529 (35%) for assistance "tailoring writing for a specific audience." This case study describes the rationale for creating the program, outlines the chronology of its development since 2010, and provides an overview of peer coach training, student use, and lessons learned as we addressed logistical challenges.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Guias como Assunto , Saúde Pública/educação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação/normas , Adulto , Boston , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Adulto Jovem
3.
Public Health Rep ; 135(4): 428-434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579862

RESUMO

Although writing is a valued public health competency, authors face a multitude of barriers (eg, lack of time, lack of mentorship, lack of appropriate instruction) to publication. Few writing courses for applied public health professionals have been documented. In 2017 and 2018, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered to implement a Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Intensive Writing Training course to improve the quality of submissions from applied epidemiologists working at health departments. The course included 3 webinars, expert mentorship from experienced authors, and a 2-day in-person session. As of April 2020, 39 epidemiologists had participated in the course. Twenty-four (62%) of the 39 epidemiologists had submitted manuscripts, 17 (71%) of which were published. The program's evaluation demonstrates the value of mentorship and peer feedback during the publishing process, the importance of case study exercises, and the need to address structural challenges (eg, competing work responsibilities or supervisor support) in the work environment.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Epidemiologistas/educação , Epidemiologia/educação , Editoração/normas , Redação/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
4.
Tunis Med ; 98(2): 99-109, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A Certificate of Specialization (C2S) in research methodology and scientific communication was established at the Faculty of Medicine of Bejaia (Algeria), for the benefit of university hospital teachers, in 2018. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a clinical certifying-research training program on the acquisition of fundamental knowledge for the conduct of health research projects in its three conceptual, operational and editorial phases. METHODS: This training took place during three face-to-face seminars (a total of 12 teaching days), in the form of lectures and workshops by eight lecturers, with a final exam and a thesis dissertation project. The data were collected through Pre- and post-tests which were distributed before and after each seminar while the questionnaire was administered by the end of the training in order to assess the whole course of this training. The knowledge assessment grids were composed of 20 items for each of the first two seminars and 12 items for the third seminar. According to the categories of the Likert scale, these items were weighted from 1 to 5 points, an overall score for the 52 items of 260 points. RESULTS: A total of 38 candidates (selected from 140 applications) attended this training with an overall presenteeism rate of 93%. The differential scores ("pre-test" and "post-test") of progression of knowledge were successively 60%, 49% and 42% in the three seminars. Out of a total of 260 points, the overall learning score of all three seminars increased from an average of 119 points ± 8.66 to 180 points ± 15.87 (p <10-7), with a differential score of 51.6%. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of the C2S clinical research program of the Bejaia Faculty of Medicine documented the significant evolution of knowledge of research methodology and scientific writing tools. The continuity of this training and its generalization to the Maghreb faculties of health sciences are highly recommended, for the improvement of scientific production in Algeria and the Great Maghreb.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Certificação , Currículo/normas , Docentes de Medicina , Capacitação de Professores/normas , Redação/normas , Argélia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Certificação/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Tunis Med ; 98(3): 219-224, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395815

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The initial medical certificate (IMC) is the first document delivered to an injured person, or his or her legal representative. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and writing habits of Tunisian dental post-graduate students regarding the IMC. METHOD: This was a descriptive study conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry of Monastir (Tunisia) during the period from October 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019. All the post graduate students were included in the survey. For data collection, a questionnaire written in French was used. The platform "Google Forms" was used to perform the questionnaire and the link was sent by mail to all participants. RESULTS: For 19.9% of respondents , the IMC was considered as an expertise and 22% of them declared that even non-graduates can deliver it. In addition, 22% of participants have already given a IMC to a third party and 12.2% have reported photos and X-rays to the IMC. On the other hand, 82.4% of respondents do not indicate total incapacity for work (TIW) when writing the IMC. In fact, 13.7% of them do not know what a TIW is and 52.1% think that it will be determined during the expertise. Finally, 85.6% of respondents estimated that they did not have the necessary information about the IMC and 96.9% of them thought that an information support would be useful to help them in writing it. CONCLUSION: The writing of IMC incurs the criminal, civil and ethical responsibility of the practitioner.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Registros Médicos/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontologia/normas , Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais/terapia , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Redação/normas
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007742, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240173

RESUMO

Conferences are great venues for disseminating algorithmic bioinformatics results, but they unfortunately do not offer an opportunity to make major revisions in the way that journals do. As a result, it is not possible for authors to fix mistakes that might be easily correctable but nevertheless can cause the paper to be rejected. As a reviewer, I wish that I had the opportunity to tell the authors, "Hey, you forgot to do this really important thing, without which it is hard to accept the paper, but if you could go back and fix it, you might have a great paper for the conference." This lack of a back and forth can be especially problematic for first-time submitters or those from outside the field, e.g., biologists. In this article, I outline Ten Simple Rules to follow when writing an algorithmic bioinformatics conference paper to avoid having it rejected.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Editoração/normas , Redação/normas
7.
Pap. psicol ; 41(1): 54-65, ene.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190932

RESUMO

La evidencia científica sitúa el modelo de Respuesta a la Intervención como el enfoque clave para la prevención y diagnóstico de las Dificultades de Aprendizaje Específicas en Escritura. La formación del psicólogo educativo en torno a la instrucción en competencia escrita y la monitorización del progreso del alumnado resulta fundamental para desarrollar su labor de orientación al profesorado en la aplicación eficiente de dicho modelo. En este estudio se presenta una revisión internacional de las dos dimensiones clave del modelo: las medidas de evaluación de las habilidades escritoras sensibles al cambio y las prácticas instruccionales empíricamente validadas para la mejora de la competencia escrita. A partir de la revisión de 34 artículos, se analizan la idoneidad de las medidas y tareas de evaluación a utilizar y se discuten las prácticas instruccionales eficaces según el proceso cognitivo de la escritura en el que se focalizan: ortografía, caligrafía o procesos cognitivo de orden superior


Scientific evidence points to the Response to Intervention Model as a key approach to the identification and prevention of learning disabilities in writing. In order to guide teachers in the successful implementation of this model, educational psychologists need to receive training in writing instruction and how to monitor students' progress. In this study, we present an international literature review on the two key dimensions of the model: writing assessment measures that are sensitive to change and empirically validated instructional practices to improve writing competence. Based on the 33 papers reviewed, we analyze the suitability of assessment measures and tasks and discuss several instructional practices according to their focus in a specific writing cognitive process: spelling, handwriting, and high-level cognitive processes


Assuntos
Humanos , Redação/normas , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/normas , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Psicologia/educação , Ensino
8.
Health Info Libr J ; 37(2): 163-167, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243699

RESUMO

Academic librarians with teaching responsibility have traditionally delivered training in discovering and organising information. However, in recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on supporting researchers through all stages of the research lifecycle. While librarians are ideally placed to provide training in writing for publication and presentation of research, very few in the United Kingdom appear to be doing so. However, there are clear benefits to teaching these subjects. Based on feedback from faculty on user needs, the University of Cambridge Medical Library's training programme was expanded to include training and support in the publication and presentation of research outputs. This article recounts the process by which the new courses were developed, and the techniques used by the library's teaching staff to gain understanding of conventions and requirements of forms of written communication with which they were unfamiliar. It also evaluates the impact of the new courses, discusses next steps and provides advice for other librarians wishing to develop similar courses. D.I.


Assuntos
Bibliotecários/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/normas , Ensino/educação , Redação/normas , Humanos , Bibliotecas Médicas , Publicações/tendências , Ensino/tendências , Reino Unido
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210449

RESUMO

Despite the increase in the number of journals issuing data policies requiring authors to make data underlying reporting findings publicly available, authors do not always do so, and when they do, the data do not always meet standards of quality that allow others to verify or extend published results. This phenomenon suggests the need to consider the effectiveness of journal data policies to present and articulate transparency requirements, and how well they facilitate (or hinder) authors' ability to produce and provide access to data, code, and associated materials that meet quality standards for computational reproducibility. This article describes the results of a research study that examined the ability of journal-based data policies to: 1) effectively communicate transparency requirements to authors, and 2) enable authors to successfully meet policy requirements. To do this, we conducted a mixed-methods study that examined individual data policies alongside editors' and authors' interpretation of policy requirements to answer the following research questions. Survey responses from authors and editors along with results from a content analysis of data policies found discrepancies among editors' assertion of data policy requirements, authors' understanding of policy requirements, and the requirements stated in the policy language as written. We offer explanations for these discrepancies and offer recommendations for improving authors' understanding of policies and increasing the likelihood of policy compliance.


Assuntos
Atitude , Políticas Editoriais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Redação/normas
10.
Int J Med Inform ; 136: 104095, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058265

RESUMO

Clinicians write a billion free text notes per year. These notes are typically replete with errors of all types. No established automated method can extract data from this treasure trove. The practice of medicine therefore remains haphazard and chaotic, resulting in vast economic waste. The lexeme hypotheses are based on our analysis of how records are created. They enable a computer system to predict what issue a clinician will need to address next, based on the environment in which the clinician is working, and what responses the clinician has selected to date. The system uses a lexicon storing the issues (queries) and a range of responses to the issues. When the clinician selects a response, a text fragment is added to the output file. In the first phase of this work, the notes of 69 returning hemophilia patients were scrutinized, and the lexicon was expanded to 847 lexeme queries and 7995 responses to enable the construction of completed notes. The quality of lexeme-generated notes from 20 consecutive subjects was then compared to the clinicians' conventional clinic notes. The system generated grammatically correct notes. In comparison to the traditional clinic note, the lexeme-generated notes were more complete (88 % compared with 62 %), and had less typographical and grammatical errors (0.8 versus 3.5 errors per note). The system notes and traditional notes averaged about 800 words, but the traditional notes had a much wider distribution of lengths. The note-creation rate from marshalling the data to completion using the system averaged 80 wpm, twice as fast as the typical clinician can type. The lexeme method generates more complete, grammatical and organized notes faster than traditional methods. The notes are completely computerized at inception, and they incorporate prompts for clinicians to address otherwise overlooked items. This pilot justifies further exploration of this methodology.


Assuntos
Curadoria de Dados/normas , Documentação/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Anamnese/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Processamento de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação/normas , Adulto , Automação , Competência Clínica , Hemofilia A/diagnóstico , Hemofilia A/terapia , Humanos , Registros Médicos , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ir J Med Sci ; 189(3): 1027-1031, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Good clinical record-keeping is central in ensuring patient safety and effective communication between healthcare professionals. Poor communication is the root cause of many adverse events in medicine. AIMS: To assess the standard of notation for surgical inpatients, to create and pilot an educational tool to improve the quality of documentation, and to assess the adequacy of intern training in this area. METHODS: Healthcare records were retrospectively assessed during the first audit cycle for inclusion of basic criteria as per the current guidelines from the Health Service Executive. The intervention comprised a teaching session and an educational tool which was designed utilising the mnemonic DATA (date and time, addressograph, team, author details). A second audit cycle was carried out prospectively. Irish interns were also surveyed to assess the level of training they had received with regard to clinical record-keeping. Comparative analyses of quantitative data were performed using chi-squared test for categorical variables. RESULTS: A total of 200 notes were analysed. Those written after the intervention were significantly more likely to contain patient details, time seen, author name, job title, bleep number, and medical council registration number. Of the 59 interns who responded to the survey, 78% had not received training on how to properly write a clinical note and many had simply copied the format of notes written by the previous team. Very few had been made aware of the national guidelines available for record-keeping. CONCLUSION: The use of the educational tool and a formal training session significantly improved the quality of notes written for surgical inpatients. Junior doctors do not feel adequately trained in this area. The authors recommend that formal training in record-keeping be included in all hospital induction programmes.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação/normas , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(6): 635-640, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787766

RESUMO

One of the skills that is more in need to be strengthened in the medical area is the dissemination of knowledge. For this reason, it is necessary to provide elements that promote training in scientific writing. Identifying the most common problems when writing medical original articles for publication will provide useful resources that should contribute to the generation of knowledge. There are multiple reasons that intervene for an original article not to be accepted in a medical journal, among which failure to follow instructions for authors and methodological, design and structural problems stand out. However, the aspect that most influences and that is seldom pointed out, is inadequate writing of research manuscripts, which becomes evident in the different sections that make up manuscripts. All the above-mentioned factors are the responsibility of the authors, and therefore must be taken care of properly. The purpose of this article is to identify the most common mistakes when writing original medical manuscripts, which, if avoided, will increase the possibility for research papers to be accepted for publication.


Assuntos
Autoria/normas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Redação/normas , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Editoração/normas
16.
Tunis Med ; 97(7): 865-869, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872396

RESUMO

The title and abstract are the first contact of a reader with a given article. Therefore, drafting these parts should be done carefully. The final version of the title and abstract is only made at the end of the process of manuscript writing. The title must be catchy for the reader so that he wants to read the whole article. It must also be simple, clear and informative. It can be descriptive, affirmative or interrogative. The title's length is 10 to 12 words reflecting the main information the article contains. If more information is needed, the author can add a subtitle. Articles with short titles are the most likely to be read and cited. The abstract is a condensed version of a scientific research and must be understood independently of the rest of the article. It gives to the reader an overall idea of the article, and conditions his decision to continue reading. The abstract can be structured or unstructured. Keywords are expressions reflecting the main aspects of the study. They allow the indexation of articles, and must be checked in the Medical subject headings. The main keywords should appear in the title.


Assuntos
Autoria/normas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Redação/normas , Humanos , Editoração/normas
17.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(5): 643-649, 2019 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859897

RESUMO

Wording problems are common in medical literature. The essence of any scientific work is to be understandable. A correct writing technique allows to communicate with the reader in an easy and accessible way, without disregarding proper grammatical and orthographic rules. This work is an updated guideline for the proper writing of biomedical manuscripts in Spanish. It avoids cumbersome grammatical explanations, aiming to become a simple material available for quick consultation.


Assuntos
Idioma , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto , Redação/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Comunicação Acadêmica
18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226647, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856230

RESUMO

Several dictionary websites are available on the web to access semantic, synonymous, or spelling information about a given word. During nine years, we systematically recorded all the entered letter sequences from a French web dictionary. A total of 200 million orthographic forms were obtained allowing us to create a large-scale database of spelling errors that could inform psychological theories about spelling processes. To check the reliability of this big data methodology, we selected from this database a sample of 100 frequently misspelled words. A group of 100 French university students had to perform a spelling-to-dictation test on this list of words. The results showed a strong correlation between the two data sets on the frequencies of produced spellings (r = 0.82). Although the distributions of spelling errors were relatively consistent across the two databases, the proportion of correct responses revealed significant differences. Regression analyses allowed us to generate possible explanations for these differences in terms of task-dependent factors. We argue that comparing the results of these large-scale databases with those of standard and controlled experimental paradigms is certainly a good way to determine the conditions under which this big data methodology can be adequately used for informing psychological theories.


Assuntos
Alfabetização/normas , Vocabulário , Processamento de Texto/normas , Redação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Alfabetização/psicologia , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 41: 102643, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722264

RESUMO

Plagiarism refers to the behaviour of taking other people's work or idea as one's work or idea. Lack of understanding of plagiarism can lead to unintentional plagiarism. Unintentional plagiarism occurs not only in nursing students' writing but also in other healthcare learners. However, teaching approaches for understanding and avoiding unintentional plagiarism in healthcare education are limited. This is particularly helpful for using blending learning to address the issue of unintentional plagiarism. This editorial will describe the impact of unintentional plagiarism and propose a teaching approach called 'Understanding and Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism' using blended learning to help avoid unintentional plagiarism. This teaching approach aims to assist healthcare teachers to deliver academic writing development programmes in three important steps: 1) Plan appropriate tasks, 2) Prepare essential resources, and 3) Perform effective delivery.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/ética , Plágio , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Redação/normas , Humanos
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