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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1526, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis and gonorrhea reached an all-time high in 2018. The resurgence of syphilis and gonorrhea requires innovative methods of sexual contact tracing that encourage disclosure of same-sex sexual contacts that might otherwise be suppressed. Over 75% of Grindr mobile phone application users report seeking "friendship," so this study asked people diagnosed with syphilis and gonorrhea to identify their friends. METHODS: Patients at the two Baltimore sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and the Baltimore City Health Department were asked 12 questions to elicit members of their friendship networks before eliciting sexual networks. The study included 353 index cases and 172 friendship contacts, yielding a friendship network of 331 non-isolates (n = 331) and sexual-only network of 140 non-isolates. The data were plotted and analyzed using exponential family random graph analysis. RESULTS: Eliciting respondents' in-person social contacts yielded 12 syphilis cases and 6 gonorrhea cases in addition to the 16 syphilis cases and 4 gonorrhea cases that would have been found with sexual contacts alone. Syphilis is clustered within sexual (odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (1.36, 3.66)) and social contacts (OR = 1.31, 95% CI (1.02, 1.68)). Gonorrhea is clustered within reported social (OR = 1.56, 95% CI (1.22, 2.00)) but not sexual contacts (OR = 0.98, 95% CI (0.62, 1.53)). CONCLUSIONS: Eliciting friendship networks of people diagnosed with syphilis and gonorrhea may find members of their sexual networks, drug use networks, or people of similar STI risk. Friendship networks include more diagnosed cases of syphilis and gonorrhea than sexual networks alone, especially among populations with many non-disclosing men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW). Future research should evaluate whether this friendship network method of contact tracing can be implemented by adapting automated mobile phone COVID-19 contact tracing protocols, if these COVID-19 contact tracing methods are able to maintain anonymity and public trust.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Amigos , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24180-24187, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913057

RESUMO

Standard epidemiological models for COVID-19 employ variants of compartment (SIR or susceptible-infectious-recovered) models at local scales, implicitly assuming spatially uniform local mixing. Here, we examine the effect of employing more geographically detailed diffusion models based on known spatial features of interpersonal networks, most particularly the presence of a long-tailed but monotone decline in the probability of interaction with distance, on disease diffusion. Based on simulations of unrestricted COVID-19 diffusion in 19 US cities, we conclude that heterogeneity in population distribution can have large impacts on local pandemic timing and severity, even when aggregate behavior at larger scales mirrors a classic SIR-like pattern. Impacts observed include severe local outbreaks with long lag time relative to the aggregate infection curve, and the presence of numerous areas whose disease trajectories correlate poorly with those of neighboring areas. A simple catchment model for hospital demand illustrates potential implications for health care utilization, with substantial disparities in the timing and extremity of impacts even without distancing interventions. Likewise, analysis of social exposure to others who are morbid or deceased shows considerable variation in how the epidemic can appear to individuals on the ground, potentially affecting risk assessment and compliance with mitigation measures. These results demonstrate the potential for spatial network structure to generate highly nonuniform diffusion behavior even at the scale of cities, and suggest the importance of incorporating such structure when designing models to inform health care planning, predict community outcomes, or identify potential disparities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde , Demografia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Rede Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 232-242, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889682

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expectant and parenting young people (young parents) need a range of supports but may have difficulty accessing existing resources. An optimally connected network of organizations can help young parents navigate access to available services. Community organizations participating in the Pathways to Success (Pathways) initiative sought to strengthen their network of support for young parents through social network analysis (SNA) undertaken within an action research framework. METHOD: Evaluators and community partners utilized a survey and analysis tool to map and describe the local network of service providers offering resources to young parents. Respondents were asked to characterize their relationship with all other organizations in the network. Following survey analysis, all participants were invited to discuss and interpret the results and plan the next actions to improve the network on behalf of young parents. RESULTS: Scores described the diversity of organizations in the network, density of connections across the community, degree to which the network was centralized or decentralized, which organizations were central or outliers, frequency of contact, levels of collaboration, and levels of trust. Findings were interpreted with survey participants and used by Pathways staff for action planning to improve their network. DISCUSSION: SNA clarified complex relationships and set service providers on a path toward optimizing their network. The usefulness of SNA to impact and improve a network approach to supporting young parents is discussed, including lessons learned from this project.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Gravidez na Adolescência , Rede Social , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
4.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 171-177, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expectant and parenting young people (young parents) require diverse services to support their health, educational success, and family functioning. Rarely can the needs of young parents be met by a single school or service provider. This case study examines how one large school district funded through the pathways to success initiative was able to facilitate systems change to increase young parents' access to and use of supportive services. METHODS: Data sources include a needs and resources assessment, quarterly reports documenting grantee effort, sustainability plans, social network analysis, and capstone interviews. All data sources were systematically reviewed to identify the existing context prior to the start of the initiative, the changes that resulted from the initiative, and efforts that could potentially be maintained beyond the grant period. RESULTS: The community context prior to Pathways implementation was one of disconnected services and missed opportunities. The full-time program coordinator hired by the district focused on systems-level change and facilitated connections between organizations. This greater connectivity contributed to increased collaboration with the goal of producing lasting benefits for young parents. DISCUSSION: Promoting sustainable connections and collaboration at the systems level can help dismantle barriers to service access and benefit young parents.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Rede Social
6.
Phys Rev E ; 102(2-1): 022310, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942454

RESUMO

The frequent emergence of diseases with the potential to become threats at local and global scales, such as influenza A(H1N1), SARS, MERS, and recently COVID-19 disease, makes it crucial to keep designing models of disease propagation and strategies to prevent or mitigate their effects in populations. Since isolated systems are exceptionally rare to find in any context, especially in human contact networks, here we examine the susceptible-infected-recovered model of disease spreading in a multiplex network formed by two distinct networks or layers, interconnected through a fraction q of shared individuals (overlap). We model the interactions through weighted networks, because person-to-person interactions are diverse (or disordered); weights represent the contact times of the interactions. Using branching theory supported by simulations, we analyze a social distancing strategy that reduces the average contact time in both layers, where the intensity of the distancing is related to the topology of the layers. We find that the critical values of the distancing intensities, above which an epidemic can be prevented, increase with the overlap q. Also we study the effect of the social distancing on the mutual giant component of susceptible individuals, which is crucial to keep the functionality of the system. In addition, we find that for relatively small values of the overlap q, social distancing policies might not be needed at all to maintain the functionality of the system.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distância Social , Rede Social , Análise de Sistemas , Teoria de Sistemas
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 79-82, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890368

RESUMO

In the last decades internet has transformed our way to communicate, relate and work. Probably it has already changed also the way of thinking, perceiving ourselves and reality. The increasing web-based social networking services is a striking feature of modern human society. Internet represents the real, extraordinary novelty of the third millennium and a large part of humanity is already online. Therefore, it can be postulated that the mind on the Internet will produce events and changes that we cannot ignore.


Assuntos
Internet , Mídias Sociais , Rede Social , Humanos
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 172-175, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social networks are taking over teenagers' lives and altering the way they relate to others. They are creating their own and changing culture. Which is a cause for concern for adults, who do not understand it. Moreover, usage peaks at a pivotal time in life: adolescence. Therefore it seems important to understand these new habits, and the reasons why social networks are such an important part of the life of adolescents. Furthermore, we looked into the question if virtual relationships have an impact on real-life relationships, and vice versa. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This literature review examined studies published between 2008 and September 2019. Twenty-five articles were selected from PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO and Cochrane databases. RESULTS: Above all, teenagers are motivated to use social networks because they can develop an identity based on an idealized profile. This profile must be at least as good as those of their peers, in order to obtain the latter's approval. This is notably the case in a context where changes to the family structure give a greater weight to the opinion of peers. Young people are driven to seek refuge on the Internet by a lack of family support, and parents who are less emotionally present. This effect could be limited by encouraging communication between teenagers and their parents. Finally, romantic relationships are impacted by the availability of pornography. Viewing pornography is increasingly seen as a normal stage of development and is linked to poorer attachment to peers and family. CONCLUSIONS: The Internet seems to support a gradual detachment from family life and a move towards greater inclusion in the peer group. This is all the more evident in a context where family structures are changing.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos
9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 233, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing data of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is used to estimate basic epidemiological parameters. Contact tracing data could also be potentially used for assessing the heterogeneity of transmission at the individual patient level. Characterization of individuals based on different levels of infectiousness could better inform the contact tracing interventions at field levels. METHODS: Standard social network analysis methods used for exploring infectious disease transmission dynamics was employed to analyze contact tracing data of 1959 diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 patients from a large state of India. Relational network data set with diagnosed patients as "nodes" and their epidemiological contact as "edges" was created. Directed network perspective was utilized in which directionality of infection emanated from a "source patient" towards a "target patient". Network measures of " degree centrality" and "betweenness centrality" were calculated to identify influential patients in the transmission of infection. Components analysis was conducted to identify patients connected as sub- groups. Descriptive statistics was used to summarise network measures and percentile ranks were used to categorize influencers. RESULTS: Out-degree centrality measures identified that of the total 1959 patients, 11.27% (221) patients have acted as a source of infection to 40.19% (787) other patients. Among these source patients, 0.65% (12) patients had a higher out-degree centrality (> = 10) and have collectively infected 37.61% (296 of 787), secondary patients. Betweenness centrality measures highlighted that 7.50% (93) patients had a non-zero betweenness (range 0.5 to 135) and thus have bridged the transmission between other patients. Network component analysis identified nineteen connected components comprising of influential patient's which have overall accounted for 26.95% of total patients (1959) and 68.74% of epidemiological contacts in the network. CONCLUSIONS: Social network analysis method for SARS-CoV-2 contact tracing data would be of use in measuring individual patient level variations in disease transmission. The network metrics identified individual patients and patient components who have disproportionately contributed to transmission. The network measures and graphical tools could complement the existing contact tracing indicators and could help improve the contact tracing activities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886666

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to compare sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, HIV knowledge and risk behaviors of people living with HIV (PLH) and their social network members (NMs) to inform HIV prevention programs that engage PLH as prevention educators in their communities. We compared baseline characteristics of PLH enrolled in an intervention to become HIV prevention Change Agents (CAs) (n = 458) and 602 NMs they recruited. CAs and NMs responded to questionnaires through a computer-driven interface with Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) software. Although NMs scored higher on socio-economic status, self-esteem and general self-efficacy, they had lower HIV knowledge (AOR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), greater inconsistent condom use (AOR 3.2; 95% CI: 2.4-4.9), and recent experience as perpetrators of physical (AOR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2-5.1) or sexual (AOR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4-12.7) intimate partner violence; and as victims of physical (AOR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) or sexual (AOR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8) forms of violence than CAs. Higher HIV knowledge and lower sexual risk behaviors among CAs suggest PLH's potential as communicators of HIV prevention information to NMs. CAs' training should also focus on improving self-esteem, general self-efficacy and social support to increase their potential effectiveness as HIV prevention educators and enhance their own overall health and well-being.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Apoio Social , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237978, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886685

RESUMO

Do efficient communication networks accelerate solution discovery? The most prominent theory of organizational design for collective learning maintains that informationally efficient collaboration networks increase a group's ability to find innovative solutions to complex problems. We test this idea against a competing theory that argues that communication networks that are less efficient for information transfer will increase the discovery of novel solutions to complex problems. We conducted a series of experimentally designed Data Science Competitions, in which we manipulated the efficiency of the communication networks among distributed groups of data scientists attempting to find better solutions for complex statistical modeling problems. We present findings from 16 independent competitions, where individuals conduct greedy search and only adopt better solutions. We show that groups with inefficient communication networks consistently discovered better solutions. In every experimental trial, groups with inefficient networks outperformed groups with efficient networks, as measured by both the group's average solution quality and the best solution found by a group member.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Ciência de Dados , Aprendizagem , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Social , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911485

RESUMO

Physical, technological, and social networks are often at risk of intentional attack. Despite the wide-spanning importance of network vulnerability, very little is known about how criminal networks respond to attacks or whether intentional attacks affect criminal activity in the long-run. To assess criminal network responsiveness, we designed an empirically-grounded agent-based simulation using population-level network data on 16,847 illicit drug exchanges between 7,295 users of an active darknet drug market and statistical methods for simulation analysis. We consider three attack strategies: targeted attacks that delete structurally integral vertices, weak link attacks that delete large numbers of weakly connected vertices, and signal attacks that saturate the network with noisy signals. Results reveal that, while targeted attacks are effective when conducted at a large-scale, weak link and signal attacks deter more potential drug transactions and buyers when only a small portion of the network is attacked. We also find that intentional attacks affect network behavior. When networks are attacked, actors grow more cautious about forging ties, connecting less frequently and only to trustworthy alters. Operating in tandem, these two processes undermine long-term network robustness and increase network vulnerability to future attacks.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tráfico de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribução , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Social , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Intenção , Violência/psicologia
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e230, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972463

RESUMO

We used social network analysis (SNA) to study the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Karnataka, India, and to assess the potential of SNA as a tool for outbreak monitoring and control. We analysed contact tracing data of 1147 COVID-19 positive cases (mean age 34.91 years, 61.99% aged 11-40, 742 males), anonymised and made public by the Karnataka government. Software tools, Cytoscape and Gephi, were used to create SNA graphics and determine network attributes of nodes (cases) and edges (directed links from source to target patients). Outdegree was 1-47 for 199 (17.35%) nodes, and betweenness, 0.5-87 for 89 (7.76%) nodes. Men had higher mean outdegree and women, higher mean betweenness. Delhi was the exogenous source of 17.44% cases. Bangalore city had the highest caseload in the state (229, 20%), but comparatively low cluster formation. Thirty-four (2.96%) 'super-spreaders' (outdegree ⩾ 5) caused 60% of the transmissions. Real-time social network visualisation can allow healthcare administrators to flag evolving hotspots and pinpoint key actors in transmission. Prioritising these areas and individuals for rigorous containment could help minimise resource outlay and potentially achieve a significant reduction in COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Rede Social , Software , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237864, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870926

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to identify and characterize the structure and dynamics of global R&D collaboration networks in ICT by analyzing cross-country co-patents, with a special focus on the role of China. We employ a Social Network Analysis (SNA) perspective, using information on more than 77 thousand co-patents from 2001-2015. These co-patents are disaggregated by three time periods and four ICT subsectors. Global measures for the network as a whole, as well as local measures on the positioning of countries in the networks are interpreted. The empirical results are highly interesting. First, international R&D collaboration networks in ICT show a dynamic transformation in becoming larger in magnitude (more countries but also more inter-linkages), less centralized and more densely connected, though with varying degrees across ICT subsectors. Second, the powerful position of the US weakens relatively compared to other, increasingly connected countries, in particular China. While China has already surpassed the US in total patenting in ICT in 2015, China is now also catching up from a network perspective shown by its growing central position over the observed time period.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Internacionalidade , Pesquisa , China , Tecnologia da Informação , Rede Social , Estados Unidos
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22374, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of conspiracy theories have emerged. A popular theory posits that the pandemic is a hoax and suggests that certain hospitals are "empty." Research has shown that accepting conspiracy theories increases the likelihood that an individual may ignore government advice about social distancing and other public health interventions. Due to the possibility of a second wave and future pandemics, it is important to gain an understanding of the drivers of misinformation and strategies to mitigate it. OBJECTIVE: This study set out to evaluate the #FilmYourHospital conspiracy theory on Twitter, attempting to understand the drivers behind it. More specifically, the objectives were to determine which online sources of information were used as evidence to support the theory, the ratio of automated to organic accounts in the network, and what lessons can be learned to mitigate the spread of such a conspiracy theory in the future. METHODS: Twitter data related to the #FilmYourHospital hashtag were retrieved and analyzed using social network analysis across a 7-day period from April 13-20, 2020. The data set consisted of 22,785 tweets and 11,333 Twitter users. The Botometer tool was used to identify accounts with a higher probability of being bots. RESULTS: The most important drivers of the conspiracy theory are ordinary citizens; one of the most influential accounts is a Brexit supporter. We found that YouTube was the information source most linked to by users. The most retweeted post belonged to a verified Twitter user, indicating that the user may have had more influence on the platform. There was a small number of automated accounts (bots) and deleted accounts within the network. CONCLUSIONS: Hashtags using and sharing conspiracy theories can be targeted in an effort to delegitimize content containing misinformation. Social media organizations need to bolster their efforts to label or remove content that contains misinformation. Public health authorities could enlist the assistance of influencers in spreading antinarrative content.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Decepção , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Betacoronavirus , União Europeia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais , Software , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938697

RESUMO

Hygienic measures imposed to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and contain COVID-19 have proven effective in controlling the pandemic. In this article, we argue that these measures could impact the human microbiome in two different and disparate ways, acting as a double-edged sword in human health. New lines of research have shown that the diversity of human intestinal and oropharyngeal microbiomes can shape pulmonary viral infection progression. Here, we suggest that the disruption in microbial sharing, as it is associated with dysbiosis (loss of bacterial diversity associated with an imbalance of the microbiota with deleterious consequences for the host), may worsen the prognosis of COVID-19 disease. In addition, social detachment can also decrease the rate of transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it seems crucial to perform new studies combining the pandemic control of COVID-19 with the diversity of the human microbiome.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Microbiota , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distância Social , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Rede Social
17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(9): e23153, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critical care teams are on the front line of managing the COVID-19 pandemic, which is stressful for members of these teams. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess whether the use of social networks is associated with increased anxiety related to the COVID-19 pandemic among members of critical care teams. METHODS: We distributed a web-based survey to physicians, residents, registered and auxiliary nurses, and nurse anesthetists providing critical care (anesthesiology, intensive care, or emergency medicine) in several French hospitals. The survey evaluated the respondents' use of social networks, their sources of information on COVID-19, and their levels of anxiety and information regarding COVID-19 on analog scales from 0 to 10. RESULTS: We included 641 respondents in the final analysis; 553 (86.3%) used social networks, spending a median time of 60 minutes (IQR 30-90) per day on these networks. COVID-19-related anxiety was higher in social network users than in health care workers who did not use these networks (median 6, IQR 5-8 vs median 5, IQR 3-7) in univariate (P=.02) and multivariate (P<.001) analyses, with an average anxiety increase of 10% in social network users. Anxiety was higher among health care workers using social networks to obtain information on COVID-19 than among those using other sources (median 6, IQR 5-8 vs median 6, IQR 4-7; P=.04). Social network users considered that they were less informed about COVID-19 than those who did not use social networks (median 8, IQR 7-9 vs median 7, IQR 6-8; P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that social networks contribute to increased anxiety in critical care teams. To protect their mental health, critical care professionals should consider limiting their use of these networks during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Rede Social , Adulto , Anestesiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Medicina de Emergência , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos , Rede Social , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Internet
20.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the content available on Facebook pharmacy groups in Jordan regarding the perception of the pharmacists' role during the coronavirus pandemic in Jordan. METHODS: Researchers identified Facebook pharmacy groups through the search engine on the Facebook website. The main search keywords were pharmacy, pharmacist, pharmacists, and Jordan using both Arabic and English. Two researchers analyzed the posts and discussion threads on local pharmacy Facebook groups in a period between March 20th and April 3rd. A total of 184 posts and threads were identified for the purpose of the study. RESULTS: Identified threads and responses resulted in three overarching themes: pharmacists having a positive role during the pandemic, taking additional responsibilities and services, and having passive or negative roles. A positive role was seen in pharmacists acting as first-line healthcare providers, creating public's awareness regarding COVID-19, and being responsible for chronic medication refill during the pandemic. Taking additional responsibilities was summarized in home deliveries and involvement in industrial and corporate efforts to deal with the pandemic. A passive/negative role was seen mostly among hospital pharmacists not being proactive during the pandemic and by pharmacists trying to maximize profits during pandemic time. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacists perceived their role as a positive role during the coronavirus pandemic. Not only they took responsibilities for their daily services during the crises, but they took additional responsibilities to assure patient safety and satisfaction


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Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Papel Profissional , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Rede Social
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