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1.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 14): 359, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The abundance of molecular profiling of breast cancer tissues entailed active research on molecular marker-based early diagnosis of metastasis. Recently there is a surging interest in combining gene expression with gene networks such as protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, gene co-expression (CE) network and pathway information to identify robust and accurate biomarkers for metastasis prediction, reflecting the common belief that cancer is a systems biology disease. However, controversy exists in the literature regarding whether network markers are indeed better features than genes alone for predicting as well as understanding metastasis. We believe much of the existing results may have been biased by the overly complicated prediction algorithms, unfair evaluation, and lack of rigorous statistics. In this study, we propose a simple approach to use network edges as features, based on two types of networks respectively, and compared their prediction power using three classification algorithms and rigorous statistical procedure on one of the largest datasets available. To detect biomarkers that are significant for the prediction and to compare the robustness of different feature types, we propose an unbiased and novel procedure to measure feature importance that eliminates the potential bias from factors such as different sample size, number of features, as well as class distribution. RESULTS: Experimental results reveal that edge-based feature types consistently outperformed gene-based feature type in random forest and logistic regression models under all performance evaluation metrics, while the prediction accuracy of edge-based support vector machine (SVM) model was poorer, due to the larger number of edge features compared to gene features and the lack of feature selection in SVM model. Experimental results also show that edge features are much more robust than gene features and the top biomarkers from edge feature types are statistically more significantly enriched in the biological processes that are well known to be related to breast cancer metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study validates the utility of edge features as biomarkers but also highlights the importance of carefully designed experimental procedures in order to achieve statistically reliable comparison results.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Área Sob a Curva , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Metástase Neoplásica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Curva ROC
2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 406: 115237, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920000

RESUMO

Improvement of COVID-19 clinical condition was seen in studies where combination of antiretroviral drugs, lopinavir and ritonavir, as well as immunomodulant antimalaric, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine together with the macrolide-type antibiotic, azithromycin, was used for patient's treatment. Although these drugs are "old", their pharmacological and toxicological profile in SARS-CoV-2 - infected patients are still unknown. Thus, by using in silico toxicogenomic data-mining approach, we aimed to assess both risks and benefits of the COVID-19 treatment with the most promising candidate drugs combinations: lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://CTD.mdibl.org), Cytoscape software (https://cytoscape.org) and ToppGene Suite portal (https://toppgene.cchmc.org) served as a foundation in our research. Our results have demonstrated that lopinavir/ritonavir increased the expression of the genes involved in immune response and lipid metabolism (IL6, ICAM1, CCL2, TNF, APOA1, etc.). Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin interacted with 6 genes (CCL2, CTSB, CXCL8, IL1B, IL6 and TNF), whereas chloroquine and azithromycin affected two additional genes (BCL2L1 and CYP3A4), which might be a reason behind a greater number of consequential diseases. In contrast to lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin downregulated the expression of TNF and IL6. As expected, inflammation, cardiotoxicity, and dyslipidaemias were revealed as the main risks of lopinavir/ritonavir treatment, while chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin therapy was additionally linked to gastrointestinal and skin diseases. According to our results, these drug combinations should be administrated with caution to patients suffering from cardiovascular problems, autoimmune diseases, or acquired and hereditary lipid disorders.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Simulação por Computador , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Toxicogenética/métodos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008159, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925923

RESUMO

Intracellular spatial heterogeneity is frequently observed in bacteria, where the chromosome occupies part of the cell's volume and a circuit's DNA often localizes within the cell. How this heterogeneity affects core processes and genetic circuits is still poorly understood. In fact, commonly used ordinary differential equation (ODE) models of genetic circuits assume a well-mixed ensemble of molecules and, as such, do not capture spatial aspects. Reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) models have been only occasionally used since they are difficult to integrate and do not provide mechanistic understanding of the effects of spatial heterogeneity. In this paper, we derive a reduced ODE model that captures spatial effects, yet has the same dimension as commonly used well-mixed models. In particular, the only difference with respect to a well-mixed ODE model is that the association rate constant of binding reactions is multiplied by a coefficient, which we refer to as the binding correction factor (BCF). The BCF depends on the size of interacting molecules and on their location when fixed in space and it is equal to unity in a well-mixed ODE model. The BCF can be used to investigate how spatial heterogeneity affects the behavior of core processes and genetic circuits. Specifically, our reduced model indicates that transcription and its regulation are more effective for genes located at the cell poles than for genes located on the chromosome. The extent of these effects depends on the value of the BCF, which we found to be close to unity. For translation, the value of the BCF is always greater than unity, it increases with mRNA size, and, with biologically relevant parameters, is substantially larger than unity. Our model has broad validity, has the same dimension as a well-mixed model, yet it incorporates spatial heterogeneity. This simple-to-use model can be used to both analyze and design genetic circuits while accounting for spatial intracellular effects.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional , Difusão , Espaço Intracelular/química , Espaço Intracelular/genética
4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008185, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925942

RESUMO

Cells adjust their metabolism in response to mutations, but how this reprogramming depends on the genetic context is not well known. Specifically, the absence of individual enzymes can affect reprogramming, and thus the impact of mutations in cell growth. Here, we examine this issue with an in silico model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae's metabolism. By quantifying the variability in the growth rate of 10000 different mutant metabolisms that accumulated changes in their reaction fluxes, in the presence, or absence, of a specific enzyme, we distinguish a subset of modifier genes serving as buffers or potentiators of variability. We notice that the most potent modifiers refer to the glycolysis pathway and that, more broadly, they show strong pleiotropy and epistasis. Moreover, the evidence that this subset depends on the specific growing condition strengthens its systemic underpinning, a feature only observed before in a toy model of a gene-regulatory network. Some of these enzymes also modulate the effect that biochemical noise and environmental fluctuations produce in growth. Thus, the reorganization of metabolism induced by mutations has not only direct physiological implications but also transforms the influence that other mutations have on growth. This is a general result with implications in the development of cancer therapies based on metabolic inhibitors.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Mutação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Mutação/genética , Mutação/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Biologia de Sistemas
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866176

RESUMO

In recent years, the binary definition of sex is being challenged by repetitive reports about individuals with ambiguous sexual identity from various animal groups. This has created an urge to decode the molecular mechanism underlying sexual development. However, sexual ambiguities are extremely uncommon in nature, limiting their experimental value. Here, we report the establishment of a genetically modified clone of Daphnia magna from which intersex daphniids can be readily generated. By mutating the conserved central sex determining factor Doublesex1, body-wide feminization of male daphniid could be achieved. Comparative transcriptomic analysis also revealed a genetic network correlated with Doublesex1 activity which may account for the establishment of sexual identity in D. magna. We found that Dsx1 repressed genes related to growth and promoted genes related to signaling. We infer that different intersex phenotypes are the results of fluctuation in activity of these Dsx1 downstream factors. Our results demonstrated that the D. magna genome is capable of expressing sex in a continuous array, supporting the idea that sex is actually a spectrum.


Assuntos
Daphnia/genética , Daphnia/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Genoma/genética , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21478, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769881

RESUMO

The aim of current study was to use Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to identify hub genes related to the incidence and prognosis of KRAS mutant (MT) lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).We involved 184 stage IIB to IV LUAD samples and 59 normal lung tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The R package "limma" was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). WGCNA and survival analyses were performed by R packages "WGCNA" and "survival," respectively. The functional analyses were performed by R package "clusterProfiler" and GSEA software. Network construction and MCODE analysis were performed by Cytoscape_v3.6.1.Totally 2590 KRAS MT specific DEGs were found between LUAD and normal lung tissues, and 10 WGCNA modules were identified. Functional analysis of the key module showed the ribosome biogenesis related terms were enriched. We observed the expression of 8 genes were positively correlated to the worse survival of KRAS MT LUAD patients, the 7 of them were validated by Kaplan-Meier plotter database (kmplot.com/) (thymosin Beta 10 [TMSB10], ribosomal Protein S16 [RPS16], mitochondrial ribosomal protein L27 [MRPL27], cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1 [COX6A1], HCLS1-associated protein X-1 [HAX1], ribosomal protein L38 [RPL38], and ATP Synthase Membrane Subunit DAPIT [ATP5MD]). The GSEA analysis found mTOR and STK33 pathways were upregulated in KRAS MT LUAD (P < .05, false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.25).In summary, our study firstly used WGCNA to identify hub genes in the development of KRAS MT LUAD. The identified prognostic factors would be potential biomarkers in clinical use. Further molecular studies are required to confirm the mechanism of those genes in KRAS MT LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Mutação , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008082, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790763

RESUMO

We study the genotype-phenotype maps of 80 quantitative phenotypes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, by representing the genotypes affecting each phenotype as a genotype network. In such a network, each vertex or node corresponds to an individual's genotype at all those genomic loci that affect a given phenotype. Two vertices are connected by an edge if the associated genotypes differ in exactly one nucleotide. The 80 genotype networks we analyze are based on data from genome-wide association studies of 199 A. thaliana accessions. They form connected graphs whose topography differs substantially among phenotypes. We focus our analysis on the incidence of epistasis (non-additive interactions among mutations) because a high incidence of epistasis can reduce the accessibility of evolutionary paths towards high or low phenotypic values. We find epistatic interactions in 67 phenotypes, and in 51 phenotypes every pairwise mutant interaction is epistatic. Moreover, we find phenotype-specific differences in the fraction of accessible mutational paths to maximum phenotypic values. However, even though epistasis affects the accessibility of maximum phenotypic values, the relationships between genotypic and phenotypic change of our analyzed phenotypes are sufficiently smooth that some evolutionary paths remain accessible for most phenotypes, even where epistasis is pervasive. The genotype network representation we use can complement existing approaches to understand the genetic architecture of polygenic traits in many different organisms.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Epistasia Genética/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Fenótipo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4050, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792485

RESUMO

Regulatory networks describe the hierarchical relationship between transcription factors, associated proteins, and their target genes. Regulatory networks respond to environmental and genetic perturbations by reprogramming cellular metabolism. Here we design, construct, and map a comprehensive regulatory network library containing 110,120 specific mutations in 82 regulators expected to perturb metabolism. We screen the library for different targeted phenotypes, and identify mutants that confer strong resistance to various inhibitors, and/or enhanced production of target compounds. These improvements are identified in a single round of selection, showing that the regulatory network library is universally applicable and is convenient and effective for engineering targeted phenotypes. The facile construction and mapping of the regulatory network library provides a path for developing a more detailed understanding of global regulation in E. coli, with potential for adaptation and use in less-understood organisms, expanding toolkits for future strain engineering, synthetic biology, and broader efforts.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among adult males globally. The poor prognosis of PCa is largely due to late diagnosis of the disease when it has already progressed to an advanced stage marked by androgen-independence, thus necessitating new strategies for early detection and treatment. We construe that these direly needed advances are limited by our poor understanding of early events in the progression of PCa and that would thus represent ideal targets for early intervention. To begin to fill this void, we interrogated molecular "oncophenotypes" that embody the transition of PCa from an androgen-dependent (AD) to-independent (AI) state. METHODS: To accomplish this aim, we used our previously established AD and AI murine PCa cell lines, PLum-AD and PLum-AI, respectively, which recapitulate primary and progressive PCa morphologically and molecularly. We statistically surveyed global gene expressions in these cell lines by microarray analysis. Differential profiles were functionally interrogated by pathways, gene set enrichment and topological gene network analyses. RESULTS: Gene expression analysis of PLum-AD and PLum-AI transcriptomes (n = 3 each), revealed 723 differentially expressed genes (392 upregulated and 331 downregulated) in PLum-AI compared to PLum-AD cells. Gene set analysis demonstrated enrichment of biological functions and pathways in PLum-AI cells that are central to tumor aggressiveness including cell migration and invasion facilitated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further analysis demonstrated that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was predicted to be significantly activated in the PLum-AI cells, whereas gene sets previously associated with favorable response to the p38 inhibitor SB203580 were attenuated (i.e., inversely enriched) in the PLum-AI cells, suggesting that these aggressive cells may be therapeutically vulnerable to p38 inhibition. Gene set and gene-network analysis also alluded to activation of other signaling networks particularly those associated with enhanced EMT, inflammation and immune function/response including, but not limited to Tnf, IL-6, Mmp 2, Ctgf, and Ptges. Accordingly, we chose SB203580 and IL-6 to validate their effect on PLum-AD and PLum-AI. Some of the common genes identified in the gene-network analysis were validated at the molecular and functional level. Additionally, the vulnerability to SB203580 and the effect of IL-6 were also validated on the stem/progenitor cell population using the sphere formation assay. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our study highlights pathways associated with an augmented malignant phenotype in AI cells and presents new high-potential targets to constrain the aggressive malignancy seen in the castration-resistant PCa.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
10.
Life Sci ; 258: 118226, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771555

RESUMO

AIM: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers throughout the world. Circulating serum-derived microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) can be used as non-invasive biomarkers for CRC diagnosis. This study aimed to identify a panel of six serum exosomal miRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. MAIN METHODS: Exosomes were isolated and characterized from the conditioned media of the human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-116 and Caco2). Sera were isolated from peripheral blood of 45 CRC and also 45 healthy individuals. The expression levels and diagnostic value of candidate circulating miRNAs (miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-150, miR-143, miR-145, and let-7a) were measured through quantitative real-time PCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of selected miRNAs. The association of candidate miRNAs and clinicopathological characteristics e.g. tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging and lymph node metastasis (LNM) were further evaluated. KEY FINDINGS: Circulating serum miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-150, and let-7a were significantly up-regulated in CRC patients, while miR-143 and miR-145 showed a significant down-regulation. The higher levels of miR-143 and miR-145 in patients with TNM stage I-II were detected, whereas miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-150, and let-7a were highly expressed in TNM stage III. The expression levels of miR-19a, miR-20a, and miR-150 were positively correlated with LNM status, while the expression levels of miR-143 and miR-145 were lower in patients with LNM. Area under the ROC curves of miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-150, miR-143, miR-145, and let-7a were 0.87, 0.83, 0.75, 0.76, 0.78 and 0.71, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: We established a panel of six-circulating miRNA signature (i.e. miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-143, miR-145, miR-150, and let-7a) in serum as a non-invasive biomarker for CRC diagnosis. These findings confirm that serum-derived miRNAs have a strong potential to be a diagnostic biomarker for patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Células CACO-2 , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Life Sci ; 258: 118231, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791150

RESUMO

AIMS: Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) refers to heterogeneous tumor cells retaining the abilities of self-renewal and differentiation. This study used mRNAsi, which is an index to describe the similarity between tumor cells and CSCs, to define genes involved in endometrial carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression profiles of 552 tumor samples and 23 non-tumor samples were calculated for differentially expressed genes. WGCNA was utilized to construct gene co-expression networks and classify screened genes into different modules. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were performed to identify and construct the prognostic model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC), Kaplan-Meier curve, multivariate Cox regression analysis, and nomogram were used to assess the prognostic capacity of the six-gene signature. The screened genes were further validated by GEO (GSE17025) and qRT-PCR in EC tissues. KEY FINDINGS: 2573 upregulated and 1890 downregulated genes were identified. A total of 35 genes in the turquoise module were identified as key genes. With multivariate analysis, six genes (DEPDC1, FAM83D, NCAPH, SPC25, TPX2, and TTK) up-regulated in endometrial carcinoma were identified, and their higher expression was associated with a higher stage/age/grade. Moreover, ROC and Kaplan-Meier plots indicated these genes had a high prognostic value for EC. A nomogram was constructed for clinical use. In addition, we explored the pathogenesis involving six genes. The results showed that these genes may become pathogenic as their copy numbers changes and methylation level reduces. Finally, GSEA revealed these genes had a close association with cell cycle, etc. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings may provide new insights into the treatment of diseases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726362

RESUMO

Short rotation woody biomass cultivars developed from fast-growing shrub species of willow (Salix spp.) have superior properties as perennial energy crops for the Northeast and Midwest US. However, the insect pest potato leafhopper (PLH) Empoasca fabae (Harris) can cause serious damage and reduce yield of susceptible genotypes. Currently, the willow cultivars in use display varying levels of susceptibility under PLH infestation. However, genes and markers for resistance to PLH are not yet available for marker-assisted selection in breeding. In this study, transcriptome differences between a resistant genotype 94006 (S. purpurea) and a susceptible cultivar 'Jorr' (S. viminalis), and their hybrid progeny were determined. Over 600 million RNA-Seq reads were generated and mapped to the Salix purpurea reference transcriptome. Gene expression analyses revealed the unique defense mechanism in resistant genotype 94006 that involves PLH-induced secondary cell wall modification. In the susceptible genotypes, genes involved in programed cell death were highly expressed, explaining the necrosis symptoms after PLH feeding. Overall, the discovery of resistance genes and defense mechanisms provides new resources for shrub willow breeding and research in the future.


Assuntos
Salix/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genótipo , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA de Plantas/química , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Salix/parasitologia
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007471, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716923

RESUMO

Disease development and cell differentiation both involve dynamic changes; therefore, the reconstruction of dynamic gene regulatory networks (DGRNs) is an important but difficult problem in systems biology. With recent technical advances in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), large volumes of scRNA-seq data are being obtained for various processes. However, most current methods of inferring DGRNs from bulk samples may not be suitable for scRNA-seq data. In this work, we present scPADGRN, a novel DGRN inference method using "time-series" scRNA-seq data. scPADGRN combines the preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers with cell clustering for DGRN reconstruction. It exhibits advantages in accuracy, robustness and fast convergence. Moreover, a quantitative index called Differentiation Genes' Interaction Enrichment (DGIE) is presented to quantify the interaction enrichment of genes related to differentiation. From the DGIE scores of relevant subnetworks, we infer that the functions of embryonic stem (ES) cells are most active initially and may gradually fade over time. The communication strength of known contributing genes that facilitate cell differentiation increases from ES cells to terminally differentiated cells. We also identify several genes responsible for the changes in the DGIE scores occurring during cell differentiation based on three real single-cell datasets. Our results demonstrate that single-cell analyses based on network inference coupled with quantitative computations can reveal key transcriptional regulators involved in cell differentiation and disease development.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Simulação por Computador , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3493, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661225

RESUMO

The complexity of biological systems is encoded in gene regulatory networks. Unravelling this intricate web is a fundamental step in understanding the mechanisms of life and eventually developing efficient therapies to treat and cure diseases. The major obstacle in inferring gene regulatory networks is the lack of data. While time series data are nowadays widely available, they are typically noisy, with low sampling frequency and overall small number of samples. This paper develops a method called BINGO to specifically deal with these issues. Benchmarked with both real and simulated time-series data covering many different gene regulatory networks, BINGO clearly and consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods. The novelty of BINGO lies in a nonparametric approach featuring statistical sampling of continuous gene expression profiles. BINGO's superior performance and ease of use, even by non-specialists, make gene regulatory network inference available to any researcher, helping to decipher the complex mechanisms of life.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Algoritmos , Análise de Dados , Humanos
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3506, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665538

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterised by a series of genetic and epigenetic alterations that result in deregulation of transcriptional networks. One understudied source of transcriptional regulators are transposable elements (TEs), whose aberrant usage could contribute to oncogenic transcriptional circuits. However, the regulatory influence of TEs and their links to AML pathogenesis remain unexplored. Here we identify six endogenous retrovirus (ERV) families with AML-associated enhancer chromatin signatures that are enriched in binding of key regulators of hematopoiesis and AML pathogenesis. Using both locus-specific genetic editing and simultaneous epigenetic silencing of multiple ERVs, we demonstrate that ERV deregulation directly alters the expression of adjacent genes in AML. Strikingly, deletion or epigenetic silencing of an ERV-derived enhancer suppresses cell growth by inducing apoptosis in leukemia cell lines. This work reveals that ERVs are a previously unappreciated source of AML enhancers that may be exploited by cancer cells to help drive tumour heterogeneity and evolution.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722723

RESUMO

Grafting is a well-established agricultural practice in cherry production for clonal propagation, altered plant vigor and architecture, increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, precocity, and higher yield. Mobile molecules, such as water, hormones, nutrients, DNAs, RNAs, and proteins play essential roles in rootstock-scion interactions. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are 19 to 30-nucleotides (nt) RNA molecules that are a group of mobile signals in plants. Rootstock-to-scion transfer of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs enabled virus resistance in nontransgenic sweet cherry scion. To determine whether there was long-distance scion-to-rootstock transfer of endogenous sRNAs, we compared sRNAs profiles in bud tissues of an ungrafted 'Gisela 6' rootstock, two sweet cherry 'Emperor Francis' scions as well as their 'Gisela 6' rootstocks. Over two million sRNAs were detected in each sweet cherry scion, where 21-nt sRNA (56.1% and 55.8%) being the most abundant, followed by 24-nt sRNAs (13.1% and 12.5%). Furthermore, we identified over three thousand sRNAs that were potentially transferred from the sweet cherry scions to their corresponding rootstocks. In contrast to the sRNAs in scions, among the transferred sRNAs in rootstocks, the most abundant were 24-nt sRNAs (46.3% and 34.8%) followed by 21-nt sRNAs (14.6% and 19.3%). In other words, 21-nt sRNAs had the least transferred proportion out of the total sRNAs in sources (scions) while 24-nt had the largest proportion. The transferred sRNAs were from 574 cherry transcripts, of which 350 had a match from the Arabidopsis thaliana standard protein set. The finding that "DNA or RNA binding activity" was enriched in the transcripts producing transferred sRNAs indicated that they may affect the biological processes of the rootstocks at different regulatory levels. Overall, the profiles of the transported sRNAs and their annotations revealed in this study facilitate a better understanding of the role of the long-distance transported sRNAs in sweet cherry rootstock-scion interactions as well as in branch-to-branch interactions in a tree.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/genética , Prunus avium/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/química , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/isolamento & purificação
17.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 6(1): 21, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606380

RESUMO

Characterisation of gene-regulatory network (GRN) interactions provides a stepping stone to understanding how genes affect cellular phenotypes. Yet, despite advances in profiling technologies, GRN reconstruction from gene expression data remains a pressing problem in systems biology. Here, we devise a supervised learning approach, GRADIS, which utilises support vector machine to reconstruct GRNs based on distance profiles obtained from a graph representation of transcriptomics data. By employing the data from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as synthetic networks from the DREAM4 and five network inference challenges, we demonstrate that our GRADIS approach outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised and unsupervided approaches. This holds when predictions about target genes for individual transcription factors as well as for the entire network are considered. We employ experimentally verified GRNs from E. coli and S. cerevisiae to validate the predictions and obtain further insights in the performance of the proposed approach. Our GRADIS approach offers the possibility for usage of other network-based representations of large-scale data, and can be readily extended to help the characterisation of other cellular networks, including protein-protein and protein-metabolite interactions.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Algoritmos , Escherichia coli/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Biologia de Sistemas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8374-8392, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619237

RESUMO

The core-promoter, a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS), is a major integration-point for regulatory-signals controlling gene-transcription. Cellular differentiation is marked by divergence in transcriptional repertoire and cell-cycling behaviour between cells of different fates. The role promoter-associated gene-regulatory-networks play in development-associated transitions in cell-cycle-dynamics is poorly understood. This study demonstrates in a vertebrate embryo, how core-promoter variations define transcriptional output in cells transitioning from a proliferative to cell-lineage specifying phenotype. Assessment of cell proliferation across zebrafish embryo segmentation, using the FUCCI transgenic cell-cycle-phase marker, revealed a spatial and lineage-specific separation in cell-cycling behaviour. To investigate the role differential promoter usage plays in this process, cap-analysis-of-gene-expression (CAGE) was performed on cells segregated by cycling dynamics. This analysis revealed a dramatic increase in tissue-specific gene expression, concurrent with slowed cycling behaviour. We revealed a distinct sharpening in TSS utilization in genes upregulated in slowly cycling, differentiating tissues, associated with enhanced utilization of the TATA-box, in addition to Sp1 binding-sites. In contrast, genes upregulated in rapidly cycling cells carry broad distribution of TSS utilization, coupled with enrichment for the CCAAT-box. These promoter features appear to correspond to cell-cycle-dynamic rather than tissue/cell-lineage origin. Moreover, we observed genes with cell-cycle-dynamic-associated transitioning in TSS distribution and differential utilization of alternative promoters. These results demonstrate the regulatory role of core-promoters in cell-cycle-dependent transcription regulation, during embryo-development.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Humanos , Morfogênese/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , TATA Box/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17228-17239, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616573

RESUMO

The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to infect many different tissue sites is enabled, in part, by its transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) that coordinates its gene expression to respond to different environments. We elucidated the organization and activity of this TRN by applying independent component analysis to a compendium of 108 RNA-sequencing expression profiles from two S. aureus clinical strains (TCH1516 and LAC). ICA decomposed the S. aureus transcriptome into 29 independently modulated sets of genes (i-modulons) that revealed: 1) High confidence associations between 21 i-modulons and known regulators; 2) an association between an i-modulon and σS, whose regulatory role was previously undefined; 3) the regulatory organization of 65 virulence factors in the form of three i-modulons associated with AgrR, SaeR, and Vim-3; 4) the roles of three key transcription factors (CodY, Fur, and CcpA) in coordinating the metabolic and regulatory networks; and 5) a low-dimensional representation, involving the function of few transcription factors of changes in gene expression between two laboratory media (RPMI, cation adjust Mueller Hinton broth) and two physiological media (blood and serum). This representation of the TRN covers 842 genes representing 76% of the variance in gene expression that provides a quantitative reconstruction of transcriptional modules in S. aureus, and a platform enabling its full elucidation.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator sigma/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
20.
Life Sci ; 257: 118039, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621925

RESUMO

AIMS: Many studies have demonstrated that circRNAs are closely associated with human diseases. Nonetheless, the potential mechanism by which circRNAs impacts spinal cord injury (SCI) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the regulatory roles of circRNAs in SCI. MAIN METHODS: The sequencing data of circRNA, miRNA and mRNA were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. Candidates were identified to construct a circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network based on circRNA-miRNA interactions and miRNA-mRNA interactions. Protein-protein interactions (PPI) analysis was performed to determine hub genes, and a connectivity map (CMap) analysis was applied to determine potential therapeutic targets for SCI. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 1656 differentially expressed circRNAs (DEcircRNAs), 71 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) and 2782 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) were identified. We integrated four overlapped circRNAs, six miRNAs and 101 target mRNAs into a circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network. We next identified two hub genes (DDIT4, EZR) based on the PPI network and identified five circRNA-miRNA-hub gene regulatory axes. In addition, we discovered three chemicals (tanespimycin, fulvestrant, carbamazepine) as potential treatment options for SCI. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests a regulatory role for circRNAs in the pathogenesis and treatment of SCI from the view of a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network.


Assuntos
RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/fisiologia , Ratos
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