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1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of flu-like syndrome suggestive of COVID-19 in men who have sex with men (MSM) and engaged in casual sex during a period of social isolation. METHOD: National epidemiological survey, applied in April and May 2020, by adaptation of Respondent Drive Sampling. RESULTS: 1,337 MSM participated in the survey, of which 514 (38.4%) had fever associated with another sign or symptom of flu-like syndrome. Social, demographic characteristics, sexual practices and activities during the period of social isolation were statistically associated with the presence of flu-like syndrome. There was a statistical difference (p < 0.001) in the average of partners between those who had signs and symptoms of flu-like syndrome (3.5) and those who did not (1.7). CONCLUSION: Evidence of signs and symptoms indicative of flu-like syndrome suggestive of COVID 19 in Brazilian MSM who were involved in casual sex during the period of social isolation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto , Brasil , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Quarentena , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22885, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Publications regarding the 100 top-cited articles in a given discipline are common, but studies reporting the association between article topics and their citations are lacking. Whether or not reviews and original articles have a higher impact factor than case reports is a point for verification in this study. In addition, article topics that can be used for predicting citations have not been analyzed. Thus, this study aims to METHODS:: We searched PubMed Central and downloaded 100 top-cited abstracts in the journal Medicine (Baltimore) since 2011. Four article types and 7 topic categories (denoted by MeSH terms) were extracted from abstracts. Contributors to these 100 top-cited articles were analyzed. Social network analysis and Sankey diagram analysis were performed to identify influential article types and topic categories. MeSH terms were applied to predict the number of article citations. We then examined the prediction power with the correlation coefficients between MeSH weights and article citations. RESULTS: The citation counts for the 100 articles ranged from 24 to 127, with an average of 39.1 citations. The most frequent article types were journal articles (82%) and comparative studies (10%), and the most frequent topics were epidemiology (48%) and blood and immunology (36%). The most productive countries were the United States (24%) and China (23%). The most cited article (PDID = 27258521) with a count of 135 was written by Dr Shang from Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University (China) in 2016. MeSH terms were evident in the prediction power of the number of article citations (correlation coefficients  = 0.49, t = 5.62). CONCLUSION: The breakthrough was made by developing dashboards showing the overall concept of the 100 top-cited articles using the Sankey diagram. MeSH terms can be used for predicting article citations. Analyzing the 100 top-cited articles could help future academic pursuits and applications in other academic disciplines.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Medical Subject Headings , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Publicações , Previsões , Humanos , Redes Sociais Online , PubMed , Publicações/classificação , Publicações/normas , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
J Cell Sci ; 133(15)2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801132

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted traditional modes of scientific communication. In-person conferences and seminars have been cancelled and most scientists around the world have been confined to their homes. Although challenging, this situation has presented an opportunity to adopt new ways to communicate science and build scientific relationships within a digital environment, thereby reducing the environmental impact and increasing the inclusivity of scientific events. As a group of researchers who have recently created online seminar series for our respective research communities, we have come together to share our experiences and insights. Only a few weeks into this process, and often learning 'on the job', we have collectively encountered different problems and solutions. Here, we share our advice on formats and tools, security concerns, spreading the word to your community and creating a diverse, inclusive and collegial space online. We hope our experience will help others launch their own online initiatives, helping to shape the future of scientific communication as we move past the current crisis.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ciência , Realidade Virtual , Segurança Computacional , Humanos , Redes Sociais Online , Pesquisa
7.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(10): 1020-1024, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore older people's use of the Internet for coping with stress posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey with a random sample of 407 Internet users aged 60 years and over (Mean = 69.14). RESULTS: Participants reported a significant increase in 7 of 12 Internet-based functions following the pandemic onset. Stress levels were moderate-to-high and participants appeared more worried about others than about themselves. Significant positive associations were found between stress and increase in Internet use for interpersonal communication and online errands. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant negative association between stress and subjective wellbeing, but it was only increased Internet use for leisure that associated significantly with enhanced wellbeing. CONCLUSION: The changes in Internet use clearly reflected coping efforts that were apparently ineffective in enhancing wellbeing. Paradoxically, the only online functions that could improve wellbeing, Internet use for leisure, are precisely those whose use hardly increased.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comércio , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades de Lazer , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Correio Eletrônico , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e20673, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although "infodemiological" methods have been used in research on coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an examination of the extent of infodemic moniker (misinformation) use on the internet remains limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to investigate internet search behaviors related to COVID-19 and examine the circulation of infodemic monikers through two platforms-Google and Instagram-during the current global pandemic. METHODS: We have defined infodemic moniker as a term, query, hashtag, or phrase that generates or feeds fake news, misinterpretations, or discriminatory phenomena. Using Google Trends and Instagram hashtags, we explored internet search activities and behaviors related to the COVID-19 pandemic from February 20, 2020, to May 6, 2020. We investigated the names used to identify the virus, health and risk perception, life during the lockdown, and information related to the adoption of COVID-19 infodemic monikers. We computed the average peak volume with a 95% CI for the monikers. RESULTS: The top six COVID-19-related terms searched in Google were "coronavirus," "corona," "COVID," "virus," "corona virus," and "COVID-19." Countries with a higher number of COVID-19 cases had a higher number of COVID-19 queries on Google. The monikers "coronavirus ozone," "coronavirus laboratory," "coronavirus 5G," "coronavirus conspiracy," and "coronavirus bill gates" were widely circulated on the internet. Searches on "tips and cures" for COVID-19 spiked in relation to the US president speculating about a "miracle cure" and suggesting an injection of disinfectant to treat the virus. Around two thirds (n=48,700,000, 66.1%) of Instagram users used the hashtags "COVID-19" and "coronavirus" to disperse virus-related information. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, there is a growing interest in COVID-19, and numerous infodemic monikers continue to circulate on the internet. Based on our findings, we hope to encourage mass media regulators and health organizers to be vigilant and diminish the use and circulation of these infodemic monikers to decrease the spread of misinformation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ferramenta de Busca , Navegador , Comunicação , Humanos , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S48-S53, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737232

RESUMO

In this article, I review the ethical issues that arise in the allocation of deceased-donor organs to children and young adults. By analyzing the public media cases of Sarah Murnaghan, Amelia Rivera, and Riley Hancey, I assess whether public appeals to challenge inclusion and exclusion criteria for organ transplantation are ethical and under which circumstances. The issues of pediatric allocation with limited evidence and candidacy affected by factors such as intellectual disability and marijuana use are specifically discussed. Finally, I suggest that ethical public advocacy can coexist with well-evidenced transplant allocation if and when certain conditions (morally defensible criteria, expert evidence, nonprioritization of the poster child, and greater advocacy for organ transplantation in general) are met.


Assuntos
Doação Dirigida de Tecido/ética , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Defesa do Paciente/ética , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/cirurgia , Doação Dirigida de Tecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Pulmão/ética , Transplante de Pulmão/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Redes Sociais Online , Pais , Defesa do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia/cirurgia , Preconceito , Opinião Pública , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alocação de Recursos/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Listas de Espera , Síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 81(5): 487-492, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To highlight the self-reported experiences and disease perceptions of infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A qualitative study using an inductive method was conducted on infertile women with PCOS who shared their self-reported experiences on French-speaking on-line forums. RESULTS: 785 comments by 211 women on 7 forums were analyzed. Women complained of late diagnosis and lack of information regarding PCOS. PCOS and infertility showed negative psychological impact on daily life. This impact appeared to be alleviated by the sharing of knowledge and experience enabled by these forums. CONCLUSION: The self-reported experience of infertile women with PCOS is interesting for health practitioners. The psychological impact of PCOS and perceptions of illness appear to be improved by sharing experiences between women with PCOS, suggesting a beneficial support role of online discussion forums.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina/complicações , Internet , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Adulto , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Disseminação de Informação , Internet/organização & administração , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Sociais Online , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Grupos de Autoajuda , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mol Autism ; 11(1): 61, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698850

RESUMO

The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is changing how society operates. Environmental changes, disrupted routines, and reduced access to services and social networks will have a unique impact on autistic individuals and their families and will contribute to significant deterioration in some. Access to support is crucial to address vulnerability factors, guide adjustments in home environments, and apply mitigation strategies to improve coping. The current crisis highlights that our regular care systems are not sufficient to meet the needs of the autism communities. In many parts of the world, people have shifted to online school and increased use of remote delivery of healthcare and autism supports. Access to these services needs to be increased to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19 and future epidemics/pandemics. The rapid expansion in the use of telehealth platforms can have a positive impact on both care and research. It can help to address key priorities for the autism communities including long waitlists for assessment and care, access to services in remote locations, and restricted hours of service. However, system-level changes are urgently needed to ensure equitable access and flexible care models, especially for families and individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. COVID-19 mandates the use of technology to support a broader range of care options and better meet the diverse needs of autistic people and their families. It behooves us to use this crisis as an opportunity to foster resilience not only for a given individual or their family, but also the system: to drive enduring and autism-friendly changes in healthcare, social systems, and the broader socio-ecological contexts.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Resiliência Psicológica , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(6): 380-389, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612078

RESUMO

Objective In recent years, the long-term use of media (including the Internet, video games, and social networking services) at a young age has been regarded as a problem. It has been pointed out that prolonged media usage may have an undesirable effect on the growth of adolescents from the physical, mental, and social perspectives. Junior and senior high school students are in a particularly important period of self-management of the basic lifestyle habits acquired thus far. Additionally, they must cultivate the ability to interact appropriately with media used daily. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the time expended on media usage and lifestyle habits among junior and senior high school students.Methods A sample of 1,633 students was extracted from all junior and senior high schools in Fukushima City. Principals of the schools distributed a self-administered questionnaire to their students. In total, 1,589 responses were obtained; as surveys of 30 students were missing values for gender and grade, they were excluded from the analysis, and data from 1,559 respondents were ultimately analyzed. A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between an independent variable (media usage time) and dependent variables (subjective health, lifestyle habits, and drinking and smoking experience) while controlling for gender and grade.Results Among junior high students, media usage for more than three hours was significantly related to "no breakfast," "no exercise habits," "irregular sleep," "lack of rest," and "feeling stressed." Among high school students, media usage for three hours or more was significantly related to "poor subjective health status," "eating only one or two meals a day," "no breakfast," "low food diversity," "obesity," "no exercise habits," "irregular sleep," "late bedtime," "waking up late," "drinking," and "smoking."Conclusion Our findings indicate that three or more hours of daily media usage is related to unhealthy lifestyles in terms of sleeping, eating, physical activity, drinking, and smoking. Junior and senior high school students who responded to the survey indicated that prolonged usage was also adversely related to their subjective health. Because the overuse of media is associated with students' lifestyles and health, it is important to develop an educational system that helps junior and senior high school students use media properly.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Redes Sociais Online , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(1): 37-50, jan.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1092171

RESUMO

Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar questões sociais e psicológicas relacionadas ao fenômeno do sexting, que se refere à prática de compartilhamento de imagens íntimas na internet e redes sociais. Por intermédio de uma análise não-sistematizada da literatura, sobretudo de publicações internacionais, pretende-se: i) definir o sexting, levando em consideração os aspectos consensuais presentes na literatura da área; ii) explicar sua ocorrência na contemporaneidade, avaliando possíveis impactos na saúde mental das pessoas, em especial de adolescentes; iii) refletir sobre os fatores de risco e proteção que estão circunscritos à manifestação do sexting; iv) apresentar as implicações jurídicas em casos de divulgação indevidas de imagens íntimas. Entende-se que as discussões apresentadas no decorrer deste artigo podem abrir espaços para um campo de investigação pouco explorado na literatura nacional.


This article aim to analyze social and psychological issues related to the phenomenon of sexting, which refers to the practice of sharing intimate images on the internet and social networks. Through a non-systematized analysis of the literature, especially of international publications, it is intended to: i) define sexting, taking into account the consensual aspects present in the literature of the area; ii) explain its occurrence in the contemporary world, evaluating possible impacts on the mental health of people, especially adolescents; iii) reflect about the risk and protection factors that are involved to the manifestation of sexting; iv) present the legal implications in cases of inappropriate exposure of intimate images. It is understood that the discussions presented in this article may open spaces for a little explored field of investigation in the national literature.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo central analizar cuestiones sociales y psicológicas relacionadas con el fenómeno del sexting, que se refiere a la práctica de compartir imágenes íntimas en Internet y redes sociales. Por medio de un análisis no sistematizado de la literatura, sobre todo de publicaciones internacionales, se pretende: i) definir el sexting, teniendo en cuenta los aspectos consensuados presentes en la literatura del área; ii) explicar su ocurrencia en la contemporaneidad, evaluando posibles impactos en la salud mental de las personas, en especial de adolescentes; iii) reflexionar sobre los factores de riesgo y protección que están circunscritos a la manifestación del sexting; iv) presentar las implicaciones jurídicas en casos de divulgación indebida de imágenes íntimas. Se entiende que las discusiones presentadas en el transcurso de este artículo pueden abrir espacios para un campo de investigación poco explorado en la literatura nacional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento do Adolescente , Normas Jurídicas , Fatores de Proteção , Redes Sociais Online , Nudismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234422, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This longitudinal mixed methods experimental study aimed to better understand the interplay between digital technology exposure over time, self-efficacy, and prosocial behavior in everyday contexts. METHODS: 66 psychology students tracked their daily prosocial behavior over three weeks. Additionally, half of the participants were randomly assigned to receive access to an online platform, which made personalized suggestions for prosocial actions to complete. Qualitative post-study interviews complemented quantitative measures. RESULTS: Platform exposure had no measurable impact beyond that of tracking over time on either prosocial behavior or self-efficacy. Tracking increased self-efficacy to perform everyday prosocial actions, but did not affect self-efficacy to impact change. Prosocial behavior was predicted by self-efficacy to impact change. Enjoyment of the platform predicted completing higher numbers of suggested prosocial actions and was related to a higher likelihood to continue using the platform in the future. Avenues for increasing platform effectiveness include context-specific action personalization, an effective reminder system, and better support for the development of self-efficacy to impact change through meaningful actions. CONCLUSION: Technology for prosocial behavior should be enjoyable, capable of being seamlessly integrated into everyday life, and ensure that suggested actions are perceived as meaningful in order to support the sustainable development of self-efficacy and prosocial behavior over time.


Assuntos
Autoeficácia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Tecnologia Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Redes Sociais Online , Sistemas On-Line , Medicina de Precisão , Recompensa , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 24(9): 717-733, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561254

RESUMO

Never before have we experienced social isolation on such a massive scale as we have in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, we know that the social environment has a dramatic impact on our sense of life satisfaction and well-being. In times of distress, crisis, or disaster, human resilience depends on the richness and strength of social connections, as well as on active engagement in groups and communities. Over recent years, evidence emerging from various disciplines has made it abundantly clear: perceived social isolation (i.e., loneliness) may be the most potent threat to survival and longevity. We highlight the benefits of social bonds, the choreographies of bond creation and maintenance, as well as the neurocognitive basis of social isolation and its deep consequences for mental and physical health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Relações Interpessoais , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Demência , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Vias Neurais , Resiliência Psicológica , Distância Social , Rede Social , Percepção Social
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013632, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a possible trigger for increases in loneliness and social isolation among older people due to the restrictions on movement that many countries have put in place. Loneliness and social isolation are consistently identified as risk factors for poor mental and physical health in older people. Video calls may help older people stay connected during the current crisis by widening the participant's social circle or by increasing the frequency of contact with existing acquaintances. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this rapid review is to assess the effectiveness of video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older adults. The review also sought to address the effectiveness of video calls on reducing symptoms of depression and improving quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL from 1 January 2004 to 7 April 2020. We also searched the references of relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (including cluster designs) were eligible for inclusion. We excluded all other study designs. The samples in included studies needed to have a mean age of at least 65 years. We included studies that included participants whether or not they were experiencing symptoms of loneliness or social isolation at baseline. Any intervention in which a core component involved the use of the internet to facilitate video calls or video conferencing through computers, smartphones or tablets with the intention of reducing loneliness or social isolation, or both, in older adults was eligible for inclusion. We included studies in the review if they reported self-report measures of loneliness, social isolation, symptoms of depression or quality of life.  Two review authors screened 25% of abstracts; a third review author resolved conflicts. A single review author screened the remaining abstracts. The second review author screened all excluded abstracts and we resolved conflicts by consensus or by involving a third review author. We followed the same process for full-text articles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data, which another review author checked. The primary outcomes were loneliness and social isolation and the secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and quality of life. One review author rated the certainty of evidence for the primary outcomes according to the GRADE approach and another review author checked the ratings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for the primary outcome, loneliness, and the secondary outcome, symptoms of depression. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three cluster quasi-randomised trials, which together included 201 participants. The included studies compared video call interventions to usual care in nursing homes. None of these studies were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Each study measured loneliness using the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Total scores range from 20 (least lonely) to 80 (most lonely). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale compared to usual care at three months (mean difference (MD) -0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.28 to 2.41; 3 studies; 201 participants), at six months (MD -0.34, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.72; 2 studies; 152 participants) and at 12 months (MD -2.40, 95% CI -7.20 to 2.40; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. None of the included studies reported social isolation as an outcome. Each study measured symptoms of depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Total scores range from 0 (better) to 30 (worse). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale compared to usual care at three months' follow-up (MD 0.41, 95% CI -0.90 to 1.72; 3 studies; 201 participants) or six months' follow-up (MD -0.83, 95% CI -2.43 to 0.76; 2 studies, 152 participants). The evidence suggests that video calls may have a small effect on symptoms of depression at one-year follow-up, though this finding is imprecise (MD -2.04, 95% CI -3.98 to -0.10; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. Only one study, with 62 participants, reported quality of life. The study measured quality of life using a Taiwanese adaptation of the Short-Form 36-question health survey (SF-36), which consists of eight subscales that measure different aspects of quality of life: physical function; physical role; emotional role; social function; pain: vitality; mental health; and physical health. Each subscale is scored from 0 (poor health) to 100 (good health). The evidence is very uncertain and suggests that there may be little to no difference between people allocated to usual care and those allocated to video calls in three-month scores in physical function (MD 2.88, 95% CI -5.01 to 10.77), physical role (MD -7.66, 95% CI -24.08 to 8.76), emotional role (MD -7.18, 95% CI -16.23 to 1.87), social function (MD 2.77, 95% CI -8.87 to 14.41), pain scores (MD -3.25, 95% CI -15.11 to 8.61), vitality scores (MD -3.60, 95% CI -9.01 to 1.81), mental health (MD 9.19, 95% CI 0.36 to 18.02) and physical health (MD 5.16, 95% CI -2.48 to 12.80). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on this review there is currently very uncertain evidence on the effectiveness of video call interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults. The review did not include any studies that reported evidence of the effectiveness of video call interventions to address social isolation in older adults. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of video calls for outcomes of symptoms of depression was very uncertain. Future research in this area needs to use more rigorous methods and more diverse and representative participants. Specifically, future studies should target older adults, who are demonstrably lonely or socially isolated, or both, across a range of settings to determine whether video call interventions are effective in a population in which these outcomes are in need of improvement.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Solidão/psicologia , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
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