Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.053
Filtrar
1.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 68, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914045

RESUMO

Blockchain is a shared distributed digital ledger technology that can better facilitate data management, provenance and security, and has the potential to transform healthcare. Importantly, blockchain represents a data architecture, whose application goes far beyond Bitcoin - the cryptocurrency that relies on blockchain and has popularized the technology. In the health sector, blockchain is being aggressively explored by various stakeholders to optimize business processes, lower costs, improve patient outcomes, enhance compliance, and enable better use of healthcare-related data. However, critical in assessing whether blockchain can fulfill the hype of a technology characterized as 'revolutionary' and 'disruptive', is the need to ensure that blockchain design elements consider actual healthcare needs from the diverse perspectives of consumers, patients, providers, and regulators. In addition, answering the real needs of healthcare stakeholders, blockchain approaches must also be responsive to the unique challenges faced in healthcare compared to other sectors of the economy. In this sense, ensuring that a health blockchain is 'fit-for-purpose' is pivotal. This concept forms the basis for this article, where we share views from a multidisciplinary group of practitioners at the forefront of blockchain conceptualization, development, and deployment.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa , Informática Médica , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/organização & administração , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/provisão & distribução , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/tendências , Data Warehousing/métodos , Data Warehousing/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/tendências , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/organização & administração , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/tendências , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa/normas , Sistemas de Informação Administrativa/tendências , Informática Médica/métodos , Informática Médica/organização & administração , Informática Médica/tendências , Registros Médicos/normas
3.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206458, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383766

RESUMO

The accuracy and diversity of recommendation algorithms have always been the research hotspot of recommender systems. A good recommender system should not only have high accuracy and diversity, but also have adequate robustness against spammer attacks. However, the issue of recommendation robustness has received relatively little attention in the literature. In this paper, we systematically study the influences of different spammer behaviors on the recommendation results in various recommendation algorithms. We further propose an improved algorithm by incorporating the inner-similarity of user's purchased items in the classic KNN approach. The new algorithm effectively enhances the robustness against spammer attacks and thus outperforms traditional algorithms in recommendation accuracy and diversity when spammers exist in the online commercial systems.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional/normas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Guias como Assunto , Internet/normas , Sistemas On-Line/normas , Software , Algoritmos , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Humanos , Redes Sociais Online , Interface Usuário-Computador
4.
Neural Netw ; 102: 78-86, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558653

RESUMO

Recently telecom fraud has become a serious problem especially in developing countries such as China. At present, it can be very difficult to coordinate different agencies to prevent fraud completely. In this paper we study how to detect large transfers that are sent from victims deceived by fraudsters at the receiving bank. We propose a new generative adversarial network (GAN) based model to calculate for each large transfer a probability that it is fraudulent, such that the bank can take appropriate measures to prevent potential fraudsters to take the money if the probability exceeds a threshold. The inference model uses a deep denoising autoencoder to effectively learn the complex probabilistic relationship among the input features, and employs adversarial training that establishes a minimax game between a discriminator and a generator to accurately discriminate between positive samples and negative samples in the data distribution. We show that the model outperforms a set of well-known classification methods in experiments, and its applications in two commercial banks have reduced losses of about 10 million RMB in twelve weeks and significantly improved their business reputation.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Aprendizado de Máquina , Humanos
10.
Biomed Tech (Berl) ; 63(1): 11-30, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346114

RESUMO

Modern surgical departments are characterized by a high degree of automation supporting complex procedures. It recently became apparent that integrated operating rooms can improve the quality of care, simplify clinical workflows, and mitigate equipment-related incidents and human errors. Particularly using computer assistance based on data from integrated surgical devices is a promising opportunity. However, the lack of manufacturer-independent interoperability often prevents the deployment of collaborative assistive systems. The German flagship project OR.NET has therefore developed, implemented, validated, and standardized concepts for open medical device interoperability. This paper describes the universal OR.NET interoperability concept enabling a safe and dynamic manufacturer-independent interconnection of point-of-care (PoC) medical devices in the operating room and the whole clinic. It is based on a protocol specifically addressing the requirements of device-to-device communication, yet also provides solutions for connecting the clinical information technology (IT) infrastructure. We present the concept of a service-oriented medical device architecture (SOMDA) as well as an introduction to the technical specification implementing the SOMDA paradigm, currently being standardized within the IEEE 11073 service-oriented device connectivity (SDC) series. In addition, the Session concept is introduced as a key enabler for safe device interconnection in highly dynamic ensembles of networked medical devices; and finally, some security aspects of a SOMDA are discussed.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões/normas , Salas Cirúrgicas , Humanos , Fluxo de Trabalho
11.
Biomed Tech (Berl) ; 63(1): 49-56, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135451

RESUMO

The new IEEE 11073 service-oriented device connectivity (SDC) standard proposals for networked point-of-care and surgical devices constitutes the basis for improved interoperability due to its independence of vendors. To accelerate the distribution of the standard a reference implementation is indispensable. However, the implementation of such a framework has to overcome several non-trivial challenges. First, the high level of complexity of the underlying standard must be reflected in the software design. An efficient implementation has to consider the limited resources of the underlying hardware. Moreover, the frameworks purpose of realizing a distributed system demands a high degree of reliability of the framework itself and its internal mechanisms. Additionally, a framework must provide an easy-to-use and fail-safe application programming interface (API). In this work, we address these challenges by discussing suitable software engineering principles and practical coding guidelines. A descriptive model is developed that identifies key strategies. General feasibility is shown by outlining environments in which our implementation has been utilized.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Desenho de Programas de Computador , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
12.
Biomed Tech (Berl) ; 63(1): 57-68, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272252

RESUMO

The new medical device communication protocol known as IEEE 11073 SDC is well-suited for the integration of (surgical) point-of-care devices, so are the established Health Level Seven (HL7) V2 and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards for the communication of systems in the clinical IT infrastructure (CITI). An integrated operating room (OR) and other integrated clinical environments, however, need interoperability between both domains to fully unfold their potential for improving the quality of care as well as clinical workflows. This work thus presents concepts for the propagation of clinical and administrative data to medical devices, physiologic measurements and device parameters to clinical IT systems, as well as image and multimedia content in both directions. Prototypical implementations of the derived components have proven to integrate well with systems of networked medical devices and with the CITI, effectively connecting these heterogeneous domains. Our qualitative evaluation indicates that the interoperability concepts are suitable to be integrated into clinical workflows and are expected to benefit patients and clinicians alike. The upcoming HL7 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) communication standard will likely change the domain of clinical IT significantly. A straightforward mapping to its resource model thus ensures the tenability of these concepts despite a foreseeable change in demand and requirements.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Salas Cirúrgicas , Humanos
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(11)2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149045

RESUMO

As the number of elderly persons with chronic illnesses increases, a new public infrastructure for their care is becoming increasingly necessary. In particular, technologies that can monitoring bio-signals in real-time have been receiving significant attention. Currently, most healthcare monitoring services are implemented by wireless carrier through centralized servers. These services are vulnerable to data concentration because all data are sent to a remote server. To solve these problems, we propose self-organizing P2P middleware for healthcare monitoring that enables a real-time multi bio-signal streaming without any central server by connecting the caregiver and care recipient. To verify the performance of the proposed middleware, we evaluated the monitoring service matching time based on a monitoring request. We also confirmed that it is possible to provide an effective monitoring service by evaluating the connectivity between Peer-to-Peer and average jitter.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Cuidadores , Computadores , Humanos
15.
J Neural Eng ; 14(5): 056008, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28677591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electrical source localization (ESL) deriving from scalp EEG and, in recent years, from intracranial EEG (iEEG), is an established method in epilepsy surgery workup. We aimed to validate the distributed ESL derived from scalp EEG and iEEG, particularly regarding the spatial extent of the source, using a realistic epileptic spike activity simulator. APPROACH: ESL was applied to the averaged scalp EEG and iEEG spikes of two patients with drug-resistant structural epilepsy. The ESL results for both patients were used to outline the location and extent of epileptic cortical patches, which served as the basis for designing a spatiotemporal source model. EEG signals for both modalities were then generated for different anatomic locations and spatial extents. ESL was subsequently performed on simulated signals with sLORETA, a commonly used distributed algorithm. ESL accuracy was quantitatively assessed for iEEG and scalp EEG. MAIN RESULTS: The source volume was overestimated by sLORETA at both EEG scales, with the error increasing with source size, particularly for iEEG. For larger sources, ESL accuracy drastically decreased, and reconstruction volumes shifted to the center of the head for iEEG, while remaining stable for scalp EEG. Overall, the mislocalization of the reconstructed source was more pronounced for iEEG. SIGNIFICANCE: We present a novel multiscale framework for the evaluation of distributed ESL, based on realistic multiscale EEG simulations. Our findings support that reconstruction results for scalp EEG are often more accurate than for iEEG, owing to the superior 3D coverage of the head. Particularly the iEEG-derived reconstruction results for larger, widespread generators should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Eletrocorticografia/normas , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Neocórtex/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 43(4): 733-742, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28401577

RESUMO

Marriage and family therapists (MFTs) use ethical codes and state licensure laws/rules as guidelines for best clinical practice. It is important that professional codes reflect the potential exponential use of technology in therapy. However, current standards regarding technology use lack clarity. To explore this gap, a summative content analysis was conducted on state licensure laws/rules and professional ethical codes to find themes and subthemes among the many aspects of therapy in which technology can be utilized. Findings from the content analysis indicated that while there have been efforts by both state and professional organizations to incorporate guidance for technology use in therapy, a clear and comprehensive "roadmap" is still missing. Future scholarship is needed that develops clearer guidelines for therapists.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Terapia Familiar , Terapia Conjugal , Telecomunicações , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/ética , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/legislação & jurisprudência , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Terapia Familiar/ética , Terapia Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Humanos , Terapia Conjugal/ética , Terapia Conjugal/legislação & jurisprudência , Terapia Conjugal/métodos , Telecomunicações/ética , Telecomunicações/legislação & jurisprudência , Telecomunicações/normas
17.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(2): 105-114, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-160514

RESUMO

Background. Several countries or regions within countries have an effective national asthma strategy resulting in a reduction of the large burden of asthma to individuals and society. There has been no systematic appraisal of the extent of national asthma strategies in the world. Methods. The Global Asthma Network (GAN) undertook an email survey of 276 Principal Investigators of GAN centres in 120 countries, in 2013–2014. One of the questions was: “Has a national asthma strategy been developed in your country for the next five years? For children? For adults?”. Results. Investigators in 112 (93.3%) countries answered this question. Of these, 26 (23.2%) reported having a national asthma strategy for children and 24 (21.4%) for adults; 22 (19.6%) countries had a strategy for both children and adults; 28 (25%) had a strategy for at least one age group. In countries with a high prevalence of current wheeze, strategies were significantly more common than in low prevalence countries (11/13 (85%) and 7/31 (22.6%) respectively, p<0.001). Interpretation. In 25% countries a national asthma strategy was reported. A large reduction in the global burden of asthma could be potentially achieved if more countries had an effective asthma strategy (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estratégias Mundiais , Saúde Global/tendências , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/organização & administração , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Transversais/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Estratégias Nacionais , Programas de Imunização/métodos
19.
Span. j. psychol ; 20(1): e50.1-e50.8, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167284

RESUMO

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become increasingly present in our lives, and their use has spread considerably. This paper presents a review of the way ICTs can help practitioners and researchers to study, promote, and train positive emotions. It is framed within the field of Positive Technologies: the applied scientific approach to the study of the use of technology to improve the quality of personal experience, with the goal of increasing wellbeing. First, the article presents an introduction to the topic of technologies and positive emotions. Then, it describes how ICTs can aid in monitoring, assessing, promoting, modifying, and training positive emotions. Finally, implications and future directions of the role of Positive Technologies in positive emotions are discussed. The authors conclude that, in the near future, Positive Technologies and the field of positive emotions will interact synergistically, producing an exponential growth in the understanding and promotion of positive emotions (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Emoções Manifestas/fisiologia , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/normas , Tecnologia/educação , Competência Mental/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Empatia/fisiologia , Terapia Comportamental/organização & administração , Terapia Comportamental/normas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA