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2.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(1): e50-e63, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417847

RESUMO

Recognition is growing that gambling, although highly profitable for corporations and governments, is a source of serious and unevenly distributed harm. This recognition has led to demands for public health strategies at the local, national, and international levels. We aimed to identify review-level evidence for interventions to address or prevent gambling-related harms and explore policy implications, using stakeholder consultation to assess the evidence base, identify gaps, and suggest key research questions. We opted for a systematic mapping review and narrative synthesis for all forms of gambling in any setting. We included participants from the whole population, identified gamblers including self-defined, and specific populations at risk (eg, children and young people). We included all outcome measures relating to prevention or treatment of gambling-related harms that were reported by review authors. After duplication, the searches generated 1080 records. Of 43 potential papers, 13 were excluded at the full paper stage and 30 papers were included in the Review. We identified whole-population preventive interventions, such as demand reduction (n=3) and supply reduction (n=4) interventions, and targeted treatment interventions for individuals addicted to gambling, such as therapeutic (n=12), pharmacological (n=5), and self-help or mutual support (n=4) interventions. We also reviewed studies (n=2) comparing these approaches. Interventions to screen, identify, and support individuals at risk of gambling-related harms and interventions to support ongoing recovery and prevent relapse for individuals with a gambling addiction were not represented in the review-level evidence. A public health approach suggests that there are opportunities to reduce gambling-related harms by intervening across the whole gambling pathway, from regulation of access to gambling to screening for individuals at risk and services for individuals with an identified gambling problem. The dearth of evidence for some interventions means that implementation must be accompanied by robust evaluation.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Redução do Dano , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 87, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Containment policies and other restrictions introduced by the Spanish government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic present challenges for marginalised populations, such as people who use drugs. Harm reduction centres are often linked to social services, mental health services, and infectious disease testing, in addition to tools and services that help to reduce the harms associated with injecting drugs. This study aimed to explore the impact of the pandemic on these services in four autonomous communities in Spain. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that employed a seven-section structured survey administered electronically to 20 centres in July 2020. Data from the most heavily affected months (March-June) in 2020 were compared to data from the same period in 2019. Averages were calculated with their ranges, rates, and absolute numbers. RESULTS: All 11 responding centres reported having had to adapt or modify their services during the Spanish state of alarm (14 March-21 June 2020). One centre reported complete closure for 2 months and four reported increases in their operating hours. The average number of service users across all centres decreased by 22% in comparison to the same period in the previous year and the average needle distribution decreased by 40% in comparison to 2019. Most centres reported a decrease in infectious disease testing rates (hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and tuberculosis) for March, April, and May in 2020 compared to the previous year. Reported deaths as a result of overdose did not increase during the state of alarm, but 2/11 (18%) centres reported an increase in overdose deaths immediately after finalisation of the state of alarm. CONCLUSION: Overall, Spanish harm reduction centres were able to continue operating and offering services by adjusting operating hours. The number of overall service users and needles distributed fell during the Spanish state of alarm lockdown period, suggesting that fewer clients accessed harm reduction services during this time, putting them at greater risk of reusing or sharing injecting equipment, overdosing, acquiring infectious diseases with decreased access to testing or discontinuing ongoing treatment such as methadone maintenance therapy, hepatitis C treatment, or antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Espanha
6.
J Addict Med ; 14(6): e287-e289, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009167

RESUMO

: Globally, there are concerns about access to healthcare and harm reduction services for people who use drugs (PWUD) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Members from the Network of Early Career Professionals working in Addiction Medicine shared their experiences of providing treatment to PWUD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on these qualitative reports, we highlight the similarities and discrepancies in access to services for PWUD in 16 countries under COVID-10 restrictions. In most countries reported here, efforts have been made to ensure continued access to services, such as mobilising opioid agonist maintenance treatment and other essential medicines to patients. However, due to travel restrictions and limited telemedicine services, several Network of Early Career Professionals working in Addiction Medicine members from lower-resourced countries experienced challenges with providing care to their patients during periods of COVID-19 lock-down. The insights provided in this commentary illustrate how the COVID-19 lock-down restrictions have impacted access to services for PWUD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Assistência Ambulatorial , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
7.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 77, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technology can enable syringe service programs (SSPs) and other community-based organizations (CBOs) operating under a harm reduction framework to work with an increased number of clients and can also enable organizations to offer services more effectively (e.g., offering HIV testing in ways participants may be more likely to accept). In the current time of COVID-19 social distancing, technology can also help organizations more safely provide services to people with compromised immune systems and to clients who might otherwise not be reached. However, technology projects implemented in harm reduction settings are frequently conceptualized and developed by researchers or technology specialists rather than by SSP staff or clients. METHODS: To more effectively meet the needs of SSPs and other CBOs across the USA, our team conducted qualitative interviews with 16 individuals who have extensive backgrounds working in the field of harm reduction. Interviews were digitally recorded and professionally transcribed, and the transcripts were checked for accuracy by the interviewers. The resulting transcripts were coded and analyzed to determine emerging themes. RESULTS: Interviewees mentioned the ability of technology to deliver consistent quality messaging to multiple clients at the same time and the potential to customize or tailor technology-based messaging to specific client populations as positive benefits. Clear barriers to technology use also emerged, in particular regarding privacy, data security, and the need to maintain client trust when discussing sensitive issues (e.g., illicit drug use). CONCLUSIONS: Technology offers the potential to deliver consistently high-quality health communication and maintain contact with clients who may have no other access to care. If designed and managed effectively, technology can also address issues related to providing services during times when physical contact is limited due to COVID-19 social distancing measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravação de Videoteipe/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47868

RESUMO

Dia Mundial sem Tabaco


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Políticas , Redução do Dano
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: British Columbia's (BC) Take-Home Naloxone (THN) program provides naloxone to bystanders for use in cases of suspected opioid overdose. This study seeks to provide trends and analysis from the provincial BC THN program since inception in 2012 to the end of 2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BC THN shipment and distribution records from 2012-2018 were retrieved. Frequency distributions were used to describe characteristics of individuals accessing the program. To evaluate correlates of distribution after the addition of hundreds of pharmacy distribution sites, an analytic sample was limited to records from 2018, and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate correlates of collecting naloxone at a pharmacy site. RESULTS: Since program inception to the end of 2018, there were 398,167 naloxone kits shipped to distribution sites, 149,999 kits reported distributed, and 40,903 kits reported used to reverse an overdose in BC. There was a significant increasing trend in the number of naloxone kits used to reverse an overdose over time (p<0.01), and more than 90% of kits that were reported used were distributed to persons at risk of an overdose. Individuals not personally at risk of overdose had higher odds of collecting naloxone at a pharmacy site, compared to other community sites (including harm reduction supply distribution sites, peer led organizations, drop-in centers, and supportive housing sites) (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.69; 95% CI: 2.50-2.90). CONCLUSIONS: This study documents thousands of opioid overdose reversals facilitated through the BC THN program. While those at highest risk of overdose may preferentially access naloxone through community sites, naloxone distribution through pharmacies has allowed the BC THN program to expand dramatically, increasing naloxone availability through longer opening hours on evenings and weekends. and in rural and remote regions. A diversity of naloxone distribution sites and strategies is crucial to prevent rising opioid overdose deaths.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naloxona/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Farmácias/tendências
11.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 118: 108103, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972644

RESUMO

In response to the novel coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, many people experiencing homelessness and substance use disorders entered respite and recuperation facilities for care and to isolate and prevent subsequent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, because drug use was officially prohibited in these facilities, we observed people who use substances leaving isolation temporarily or prematurely. The initial Covid-19 surge magnified the need for harm reduction access for those who use substances to ensure their safety and well-being and that of their local communities. In this commentary, we argue that expanding harm reduction access is crucial for subsequent waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection and also for patients who use substances and are hospitalized for other reasons.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
13.
Milbank Q ; 98(3): 700-746, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808709

RESUMO

Policy Points This article reconceptualizes our understanding of the opioid epidemic and proposes six strategies that address the epidemic's social roots. In order to successfully reduce drug-related mortality over the long term, policymakers and public health leaders should develop partnerships with people who use drugs, incorporate harm reduction interventions, and reverse decades of drug criminalization policies. CONTEXT: Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States. Synthetic opioids, predominantly illicit fentanyl and its analogs, surpassed prescription opioids and heroin in associated mortality rates in 2016. Unfortunately, interventions fail to fully address the current wave of the opioid epidemic and often omit the voices of people with lived experiences regarding drug use. Every overdose death is a culmination of a long series of policy failures and lost opportunities for harm reduction. METHODS: In this article, we conducted a scoping review of the opioid literature to propose a novel framework designed to foreground social determinants more directly into our understanding of this national emergency. The "continuum of overdose risk" framework is our synthesis of the global evidence base and is grounded in contemporary theories, models, and policies that have been successfully applied both domestically and internationally. FINDINGS: De-escalating overdose risk in the long term will require scaling up innovative and comprehensive solutions that have been designed through partnerships with people who use drugs and are rooted in harm reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Without recognizing the full drug-use continuum and the role of social determinants, the current responses to drug overdose will continue to aggravate the problem they are trying to solve.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Epidemia de Opioides/mortalidade , Epidemia de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842510

RESUMO

The decreasing age of young people injecting illicit drugs is an under-reported challenge for the prevention of HIV transmission worldwide. Young people aged 15-24 years represent 1 in 5 persons living with HIV in Mauritius where the epidemic is driven by injecting drug use and risky sexual behaviours. We recruited 22 heroin users aged 18-24 and 5 service providers working in harm reduction (HR) for the present study. Qualitative data were collected through unstructured interviews. We adopted an economic framework and an inductive approach to the analysis, which implied revising codes and themes. The risks heroin users described as consumers of illicit drugs and as clients of HR services could not be analyzed in isolation. Polydrug use emerged as a recurrent coping mechanism resulting from the changing dynamics within the heroin market. The risks faced by women went beyond addiction and infection with HIV. How participants viewed the risks and benefits linked to using heroin was greatly influenced by gaps in knowledge that left room for uncertainty and reinforcing mechanisms such as peer influence. The study shows that qualitative research can produce in-depth socio-behavioural insights required to produce more effective services for young people.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Redução do Dano , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Heroína/efeitos adversos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Heroína/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Maurício , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842553

RESUMO

Background: The fear of missing out (FoMO) on social media refers to the apprehension that online content and interactions from others are unseen and reacted to in a timely fashion. FoMO can become problematic, leading to anxiety, interrupted sleep, lack of concentration and dependence on social media to generate gratification. The literature has mainly focused on understanding the FoMO experience, factors contributing to it and its consequences. Method: In this paper, we build on previous research and develop a FoMO Reduction (FoMO-R) approach that embraces technical elements such as autoreply, filtering, status, education on how FoMO occurs and skills on how to deal with it; e.g., self-talk and checklists. We evaluate the method through focus groups and a diary study involving 30 participants who self-declared to experience FoMO regularly. Results: The results show that the method was accepted by the participants and helped them to manage their FoMO. They also show that a set of extra functionalities in social media design is needed so that users can manage FoMO more effectively. Conclusion: FoMO can be reduced through socio-technical approaches, joining both social and technical skills, and literacy on how social media are designed and how social interactions should happen on them.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo , Medo/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Grupos Focais , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1237, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco control strategies have engendered overall declines in smoking; however, a large gap remains between people with and without mental health problems, causing substantial health inequalities. Population-level information on barriers and opportunities for improvements is scarce. We aimed to assess mental health status of cigarette smokers and recent ex-smokers ('past-year smokers') in England, and smoking and harm reduction behaviour and quit attempts by mental health status. METHODS: Data were collected from 5637 current and 434 recent ex-smokers in 2016/17 in household surveys of representative samples of adults. We calculated weighted prevalence of different indicators of mental health problem: a) ever diagnosis, b) none, moderate, serious past-month distress, c) past-year treatment. We compared weighted smoking status, cigarette type, dependence, motivation to stop smoking, cutting down, use of nicotine replacement therapy or e-cigarettes, short-term abstinence, and quit attempts according to mental health status. RESULTS: Among past-year smokers: 35.9% ever had a diagnosis; 24.3% had experienced moderate, an additional 9.7% serious, past-month distress; 21.9% had had past-year treatment. Those with an indication of a mental health problem were more highly dependent and more likely to smoke roll-your-own cigarettes but also more likely to be motivated to stop smoking, to cut down, use nicotine replacement therapy or e-cigarettes and to have attempted to quit in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: About a third of cigarette smokers in England have mental health problems. Interventions should address their increased dependence and leverage higher prevalence of harm reduction behaviours, motivation to stop and attempts to stop smoking.


Assuntos
Redução do Dano , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 60, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caledonian Stadium, the main mass temporary shelter for homeless people in the City of Tshwane, was created as a local response to the imperatives of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) National State of Disaster lockdown in South Africa. This is a case study of the coordinated emergency healthcare response provided by the University of Pretoria's Department of Family Medicine between 24 March and 6 April 2020. METHODS: This study uses a narrative approach to restory situated, transient, partial and provisional knowledge. Analysis is based on documented data and iteratively triangulated interviews on the operational experiences of selected healthcare first responders directly involved in the shelter. RESULTS: The impending lockdown generated intense interactions by UP-DFM to prepare for the provision of COVID-19 and essential generalist primary with partners involved in the Community Oriented Substance Use Programme (COSUP). With approximately 2000 people at the shelter at its peak, the numbers exceeded expectations. Throughout, while government officials tried to secure bedding, food and toilets, the shelter was poorly equipped and without onsite management. The COSUP clinical team prioritised opioid substitution therapy using methadone and COVID-19 screening over generalist healthcare to manage withdrawal and contain tension and anxiety. COSUP and its partners helped the city plan and implement the safe re-sheltering of all Caledonian residents. CONCLUSION: The Caledonian shelter is an account of organisational resilience in the face of homelessness and substance use emergencies triggered by lockdown. Through community-oriented, bottom-up self-organisation, a clinically led team navigated a response to the immediate needs of people who are homeless and/or use drugs that evolved into a more sustainable intervention. Key lessons learnt were the importance of communicating with people directly affected by emergencies, the value of using methadone to reduce harms during emergencies and the imperative of including OST in essential primary healthcare.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768113

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as with other countries across the world, the Central and State Governments of India initiated several measures to slow down the spread of the virus and to 'flatten the curve'. One such measure was a 'total lockdown' for several weeks across the country. A complex and unexpected outcome of the lockdown which has medical, ethical, economic, and social dimensions is related to alcohol consumption. The lockdown and consequent acute non-availability of alcohol resulted in people with alcohol dependence going into withdrawals, black marketing of alcohol, and in extreme cases suicide resulting from the alleged frustration of not having access to alcohol. The health dilemmas around this situation are biological (e.g. pushing people into risky situations-potentially fatal alcohol withdrawal, consumption of illicit or other non-consumable alcohol) and psychosocial (e.g. isolation increasing the risk of relapses, loss of control over the decision to abstain which can be detrimental to recovery, restriction of access to services for alcohol problems). The legal and rights-related dilemmas are centred around whether States have the right to impinge on individual autonomy on the grounds of public health, the capacity of the health systems to provide appropriate services to cope with those who will struggle with the unavailability of alcohol, the constitutionality of the Central government's impinging on jurisdiction of states under the guise of a health emergency caused by the pandemic, and the ability of the State to make unbiased decisions about this issue when it is highly dependent on the revenue from the sale of alcohol and associated industries. The way forward could be a pragmatic and utilitarian approach involving continued access to alcohol, while observing all physical distancing norms necessary during the pandemic, for those who want to continue drinking; and implementing innovative measures such as tele-counselling for those who wish not to return back to drinking.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/ética , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Direitos Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Governo Federal , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena , Governo Estadual , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia
19.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1170-1178, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754861

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drug use during pregnancy can have negative effects on maternal and child health. However, there is a dearth of data regarding drug use among pregnant women in Kenya, where illicit drug use is on the rise. In this paper, we report factors influencing women's decisions to use drugs during pregnancy. METHODS: In 2015, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 45 women who inject drugs and five key stakeholders involved in provision of services to people who use drugs in coastal Kenya. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted to draw out themes related to key determinants of drug use during pregnancy. RESULTS: Four key themes emerged outlining determinants of drug use during pregnancy: (i) the use of drugs to cope with the stress of unexpected pregnancy, (ii) the continued drug use during pregnancy to manage withdrawal, (iii) the dual effect of pregnancy on drug use either as a facilitator or as a moderator of drug use, and (iv) the role of male intimate partner in influencing women's drug use during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Our paper reports women's drug use during pregnancy and the factors influencing this phenomenon. To safeguard the health and well-being of pregnant women and their unborn children, there is a need for education and awareness raising, implementing couple-based harm reduction approaches to leverage on positive male influences, improving availability of drug treatment, and provision of family planning interventions for women who use drugs.


Assuntos
Gestantes/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Addict Med ; 14(5): e142-e143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769778

RESUMO

: More than 3 decades of research has provided compelling evidence regarding the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of needle and syringe programs in reducing syringe-sharing and transmission of HIV, HCV, and other bloodborne infections. However, repressive drug policies and drug law enforcement practices around the world continue to undermine their operations and scale-up, as well as access to harm reduction among people who inject drugs. The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened access barriers to needle and syringe programs, raising concerns about unsafe injecting practices due to inadequate access to safe injecting supplies. This commentary discusses the robust public health responses that are needed at this particularly vulnerable and critical juncture to ensure access to safe injecting supplies and minimize the risk for transmission of bloodborne infections among people who inject drugs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
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