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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946500

RESUMO

Malnutrition is a huge problem in Burundi. In order to improve the health system response, the Ministry of Health piloted the introduction of malnutrition prevention and care indicators within its performance-based financing (PBF) scheme. Paying for units of services and for qualitative indicators is expected to enhance provision and quality of these nutrition services. The objective of this study is to assess the impacts of this intervention, on both child acute malnutrition recovery rates at health centre level and prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition among children at community level. This study follows a cluster-randomized controlled evaluation design: 90 health centres (HC) were randomly selected for the study, 45 of them were randomly assigned to the intervention and received payment related to their performance in malnutrition activities, while the other 45 constituted the control group and got a simple budget allocation. Data were collected from baseline and follow-up surveys of the 90 health centres and 6,480 households with children aged 6 to 23 months. From the respectively 1,067 and 1,402 moderate and severe acute malnutrition transcribed files and registers, findings suggest that the intervention had a positive impact on moderate acute malnutrition recovery rates (OR: 5.59, p = 0.039 -at the endline, 78% in the control group and 97% in the intervention group) but not on uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition recovery rate (OR: 1.16, p = 0.751 -at the endline, 93% in the control group and 92% in the intervention group). The intervention also had a significant increasing impact on the number of children treated for acute malnutrition. Analyses from the anthropometric data collected among 12,679 children aged 6-23 months suggest improvements at health centre level did not translate into better results at community level: prevalence of both acute and chronic malnutrition remained high, precisely at the endline, acute and chronic malnutrition prevalence were resp. 8.80% and 49.90% in the control group and 8.70% and 52.0% in the intervention group, the differences being non-significant. PBF can contribute to a better management of malnutrition at HC level; yet, to address the huge problem of child malnutrition in Burundi, additional strategies are urgently required.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Reembolso de Incentivo/economia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Burundi/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Reembolso de Incentivo/tendências , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
JAMA ; 324(10): 975-983, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897345

RESUMO

Importance: The US Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) is a major Medicare value-based payment program aimed at improving quality and reducing costs. Little is known about how physicians' performance varies by social risk of their patients. Objective: To determine the relationship between patient social risk and physicians' scores in the first year of MIPS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of physicians participating in MIPS in 2017. Exposures: Physicians in the highest quintile of proportion of dually eligible patients served; physicians in the 3 middle quintiles; and physicians in the lowest quintile. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the 2017 composite MIPS score (range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better performance). Payment rates were adjusted -4% to 4% based on scores. Results: The final sample included 284 544 physicians (76.1% men, 60.1% with ≥20 years in practice, 11.9% in rural location, 26.8% hospital-based, and 24.6% in primary care). The mean composite MIPS score was 73.3. Physicians in the highest risk quintile cared for 52.0% of dually eligible patients; those in the 3 middle risk quintiles, 21.8%; and those in the lowest risk quintile, 6.6%. After adjusting for medical complexity, the mean MIPS score for physicians in the highest risk quintile (64.7) was lower relative to scores for physicians in the middle 3 (75.4) and lowest (75.9) risk quintiles (difference for highest vs middle 3, -10.7 [95% CI, -11.0 to -10.4]; highest vs lowest, -11.2 [95% CI, -11.6 to -10.8]; P < .001). This relationship was found across specialties except psychiatry. Compared with physicians in the lowest risk quintile, physicians in the highest risk quintile were more likely to work in rural areas (12.7% vs 6.4%; difference, 6.3 percentage points [95% CI, 6.0 to 6.7]; P < .001) but less likely to care for more than 1000 Medicare beneficiaries (9.4% vs 17.8%; difference, -8.3 percentage points [95% CI, -8.7 to -8.0]; P < .001) or to have more than 20 years in practice (56.7% vs 70.6%; difference, -13.9 percentage points [95% CI, -14.4 to -13.3]; P < .001). For physicians in the highest risk quintile, several characteristics were associated with higher MIPS scores, including practicing in a larger group (mean score, 82.4 for more than 50 physicians vs 46.1 for 1-5 physicians; difference, 36.2 [95% CI, 35.3 to 37.2]; P < .001) and reporting through an alternative payment model (mean score, 79.5 for alternative payment model vs 59.9 for reporting as individual; difference, 19.7 [95% CI, 18.9 to 20.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis of physicians who participated in the first year of the Medicare MIPS program, physicians with the highest proportion of patients dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid had significantly lower MIPS scores compared with other physicians. Further research is needed to understand the reasons underlying the differences in physician MIPS scores by levels of patient social risk.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional , Medicare/economia , Médicos , Reembolso de Incentivo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Planos de Incentivos Médicos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
4.
JAMA ; 324(10): 984-992, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897346

RESUMO

Importance: Integration of physician practices into health systems composed of hospitals and multispecialty practices is increasing in the era of value-based payment. It is unknown how clinicians who affiliate with such health systems perform under the new mandatory Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) relative to their peers. Objective: To assess the relationship between the health system affiliations of clinicians and their performance scores and value-based reimbursement under the 2019 MIPS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Publicly reported data on 636 552 clinicians working at outpatient clinics across the US were used to assess the association of the affiliation status of clinicians within the 609 health systems with their 2019 final MIPS performance score and value-based reimbursement (both based on clinician performance in 2017), adjusting for clinician, patient, and practice area characteristics. Exposures: Health system affiliation vs no affiliation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was final MIPS performance score (range, 0-100; higher scores intended to represent better performance). The secondary outcome was MIPS payment adjustment, including negative (penalty) payment adjustment, positive payment adjustment, and bonus payment adjustment. Results: The final sample included 636 552 clinicians (41% female, 83% physicians, 50% in primary care, 17% in rural areas), including 48.6% who were affiliated with a health system. Compared with unaffiliated clinicians, system-affiliated clinicians were significantly more likely to be female (46% vs 37%), primary care physicians (36% vs 30%), and classified as safety net clinicians (12% vs 10%) and significantly less likely to be specialists (44% vs 55%) (P < .001 for each). The mean final MIPS performance score for system-affiliated clinicians was 79.0 vs 60.3 for unaffiliated clinicians (absolute mean difference, 18.7 [95% CI, 18.5 to 18.8]). The percentage receiving a negative (penalty) payment adjustment was 2.8% for system-affiliated clinicians vs 13.7% for unaffiliated clinicians (absolute difference, -10.9% [95% CI, -11.0% to -10.7%]), 97.1% vs 82.6%, respectively, for those receiving a positive payment adjustment (absolute difference, 14.5% [95% CI, 14.3% to 14.6%]), and 73.9% vs 55.1% for those receiving a bonus payment adjustment (absolute difference, 18.9% [95% CI, 18.6% to 19.1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Clinician affiliation with a health system was associated with significantly better 2019 MIPS performance scores. Whether this represents differences in quality of care or other factors requires additional research.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Assistência à Saúde , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional , Medicare/economia , Reembolso de Incentivo , Estudos Transversais , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Afiliação Institucional , Planos de Incentivos Médicos , Médicos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Estados Unidos
5.
Tex Med ; 116(8): 43-44, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866277

RESUMO

First, the bad news: Physicians need to take some serious time between now and Jan 1, 2021, to study changes that are coming to Medicare outpatient evaluation and management (E&M) codes - changes most private insurers likely will follow. Now the good news: The changes should reduce the amount of documentation needed with each patient.


Assuntos
Medicare/normas , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Avaliação de Sintomas/normas , Documentação , Controle de Formulários e Registros , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Visita a Consultório Médico/economia , Reembolso de Incentivo , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003333, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is among the most effective contraceptive methods, but uptake remains low even in high-income settings. In 2009/2010, a target-based pay-for-performance (P4P) scheme in Britain was introduced for primary care physicians (PCPs) to offer advice about LARC methods to a specified proportion of women attending for contraceptive care to improve contraceptive choice. We examined the impact and equity of this scheme on LARC uptake and abortions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined records of 3,281,667 women aged 13 to 54 years registered with a primary care clinic in Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland) using Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. We used interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to examine trends in annual LARC and non-LARC hormonal contraception (NLHC) uptake and abortion rates, stratified by age and deprivation groups, before and after the P4P was introduced in 2009/2010. Between 2004/2005 and 2013/2014, crude LARC uptake rates increased by 32.0% from 29.6 per 1,000 women to 39.0 per 1,000 women, compared with 18.0% decrease in NLHC uptake. LARC uptake among women of all ages increased immediately after the P4P with step change of 5.36 per 1,000 women (all values are per 1,000 women unless stated, 95% CI 5.26-5.45, p < 0.001). Women aged 20 to 24 years had the largest step change (8.40, 8.34-8.47, p < 0.001) and sustained trend increase (3.14, 3.08-3.19, p < 0.001) compared with other age groups. NLHC uptake fell in all women with a step change of -22.8 (-24.5 to -21.2, p < 0.001), largely due to fall in combined hormonal contraception (CHC; -15.0, -15.5 to -14.5, p < 0.001). Abortion rates in all women fell immediately after the P4P with a step change of -2.28 (-2.98 to -1.57, p = 0.002) and sustained decrease in trend of -0.88 (-1.12 to -0.63, p < 0.001). The largest falls occurred in women aged 13 to 19 years (step change -5.04, -7.56 to -2.51, p = 0.011), women aged 20 to 24 years (step change -4.52, -7.48 to -1.57, p = 0.030), and women from the most deprived group (step change -4.40, -6.89 to -1.91, p = 0.018). We estimate that by 2013/2014, the P4P scheme resulted in an additional 4.53 LARC prescriptions per 1,000 women (relative increase of 13.4%) more than would have been expected without the scheme. There was a concurrent absolute reduction of -5.31 abortions per 1,000 women, or -38.3% relative reduction. Despite universal coverage of healthcare, some women might have obtained contraception elsewhere or had abortion procedure that was not recorded on CPRD. Other policies aiming to increase LARC use or reduce unplanned pregnancies around the same time could also explain the findings. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that LARC uptake increased and abortions fell in the period after the P4P scheme in British primary care, with additional impact for young women aged 20-24 years and those from deprived backgrounds.


Assuntos
Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/psicologia , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/tendências , Reembolso de Incentivo/tendências , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
8.
Health Syst Reform ; 6(1): e1745580, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521206

RESUMO

Heterogeneity of effects produced by performance-based incentives (PBIs) at different levels of care provision is not well understood. This study analyzes effect heterogeneities between different facility types resulting from a PBI program in Malawi. Identical PBIs were applied to both district hospitals and health centers to improve the performance of essential health services provision. We conducted two complementary quasi-experiments comparing all 17 interventions with 17 matched independent control facilities (each 12 health centers, five hospitals). A pre- and post-test design with difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate effects on 14 binary quality indicators; interrupted time series analysis of monthly routine data was used to estimate effects on 11 continuous quantity indicators. Effects were estimated separately for health centers and hospitals. Most quality indicators performed high at baseline, producing ceiling effects on further measurable improvements. Significant positive effects were observed for stocks of iron supplements (hospitals) and partographs (health centers). Four quantity indicators showed similar positive trend improvements across facility types (first-trimester antenatal visits, voluntary HIV-testing of couples, iron supplementation in pregnancy, vitamin A supplementation of children); two showed no change for either type of facility (skilled birth attendance, fully immunized one-year-olds); five indicators revealed different effect patterns for health centers and hospitals. In both health centers and hospitals, the largely positive PBI effects on antenatal care included resilience against interrupted supply chains and improvements in attendance rates. Observed heterogeneity might have been influenced by the availability of specific resources or the redistribution of service use.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Hospitais/tendências , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Reembolso de Incentivo , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/tendências , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malaui , Motivação , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/tendências
11.
Inquiry ; 57: 46958020917491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448014

RESUMO

Incentive-based pay-for-performance (P4P) models have been introduced during the last 2 decades as a mechanism to improve the delivery of evidence-based care that ensures clinical quality and improves health outcomes. There is mixed evidence that P4P has a positive effect on health outcomes and researchers cite lack of engagement from health care professionals as a limiting factor. This qualitative metasynthesis of existing qualitative research was conducted to integrate health care professionals' perceptions of P4P in clinical practice. Four themes emerged during the research process: positive perceptions of the value of performance measurement and associated financial incentives; negative perceptions of the performance measurement and associated financial incentives; perceptions of how P4P programs influence the quality/appropriateness of care; and perceptions of the influence of P4P program on professional roles and workplace dynamics. Identifying factors that influence health care professionals' perceptions about this type of value-based payment model will guide future research.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reembolso de Incentivo/economia , Participação dos Interessados , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(6): 1062-1067, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In traditional behavioral weight loss (BWL) programs, young adults fare worse than older adults with respect to engagement, retention, and weight loss, but money and use of technology have been cited as program factors that might improve outcomes for this population. This study evaluated young adult performance in internet-based BWL (IBWL) offering financial incentives for self-monitoring and weight loss. METHODS: Participants (N = 180; BMI = 33.2 ± 6.0 kg/m2 ) were randomly assigned to a 12-week IBWL or IBWL + incentives (IBWL + $) group. This secondary data analysis compared young adults (ages 18-35) in IBWL (n = 16) with young adults in IBWL + $ (n = 12) on percent weight loss, engagement, and retention. Young adults (n = 28) were also compared with older adults (ages 36-70; n = 152) on these outcomes. RESULTS: Young adult weight loss was -2.8% ± 5.2% in IBWL and -5.4% ± 5.7% in IBWL + $ (P = 0.23, partial η2 = 0.06). A greater proportion of young adults in IBWL + $ achieved a 10% weight loss compared with IBWL (42% vs. 6%, P = 0.02). Compared with older adults, young adults were less engaged, but there were no differences for retention or weight loss (P values > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that technology-based BWL has the potential to eliminate weight loss disparities observed between young adults and older adults in in-person BWL trials. Moreover, adding financial incentives holds promise for promoting clinically meaningful weight loss for young adults.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Reembolso de Incentivo/normas , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(6): 697-705, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459532

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Quality measures are a cornerstone in measuring physicians' performance within the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Quality Payment Program (QPP). Clinicians' performance on quality measures and other categories within the QPP determines Medicare part B payment adjustments. Driven by evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, quality measures should focus on high-priority facets of health care, support a desired patient outcome, and address an area with evidence of a gap or variation in provider performance. OBJECTIVE.­: To meet the goals of the QPP, a broad array of quality measures must be developed that allows pathologists the flexibility to choose activities and measures most meaningful to their practice and patient population while also trying to mitigate the challenges of implementation and data collection. DESIGN.­: In this second manuscript of the series, we present the development of additional College of American Pathologists-developed quality payment measures for use in the QPP. We also discuss the relationship of quality measure reporting with reimbursement and the challenges with capturing data for quality reporting. RESULTS.­: The College of American Pathologists identified 23 new measures for quality performance reporting that reflect rigorous clinical evidence and address areas in need of performance improvement. CONCLUSIONS.­: Development of quality measures is a necessary and ongoing effort within the College of American Pathologists. Increased awareness about pathology-specific issues in measure development and reporting is essential to ensuring pathology's ability to demonstrate value and meaningfully participate in the QPP.


Assuntos
Patologistas/normas , Patologia/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Reembolso de Incentivo , Humanos , Medicaid , Medicare , Estados Unidos
16.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(6): 686-696, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459533

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Quality measures assess health care processes, outcomes, and patient perceptions associated with high-quality health care, which is commonly defined as care that is effective, safe, efficient, patient centered, equitable, and timely. Such measures are now being used in order to incentivize provision of high-quality health care. OBJECTIVE.­: To meet the goals of the Quality Payment Program, quality measures will be developed from clinical practice guidelines and relevant, peer-reviewed research identifying evidence that the measure addresses 3 areas: a high-priority aspect of health care or a specific national health goal or priority; a meaningful focus, such as leading to a desired health outcome; and a gap or variation in care. DESIGN.­: Within the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the Measures and Performance Assessment Subcommittee is tasked with developing useful performance measures. Participating practitioners can then select measures that are meaningful to their respective patients and practices, and reflect the quality of the services they provide. RESULTS.­: The CAP developed 23 quality measures for reporting to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services that reflect rigorous clinical evidence and address areas in need of performance improvement. CONCLUSIONS.­: Because the implications of reporting on these pathology-specific metrics are significant, these measures and the process by which they were designed are presented here in peer-reviewed fashion. The measures described in this article (part 1) represent recent efforts by the CAP to develop meaningful measures that reflect rigorous clinical evidence and highlight areas with opportunities for performance improvement.


Assuntos
Medicare , Patologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Reembolso de Incentivo , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(6): 679-685, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459534

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Within Medicare's Quality Payment Program, and more specifically the Merit-based Incentive Payment System, pathologists stand to potentially lose or gain approximately $2 billion during the initial 7 years of the program. If you or your group provides services to Medicare beneficiaries, you will likely need to comply with the program. OBJECTIVE.­: To avoid potential reductions in Medicare reimbursement, pathologists need to understand the requirements of these new payment programs. DATA SOURCES.­: Each year the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services publish a Final Rule detailing the program requirements and updates. 2020 marks the fourth reporting year for the Merit-based Incentive Payment System. Performance this year will impact 2022 Medicare Part B distributions by up to ±9%. CONCLUSIONS.­: By staying up to date with the ever-evolving Merit-based Incentive Payment System requirements, pathologists will be better equipped to successfully comply with this relatively new payment system, reduce the burden of participating, understand the reporting differences of the various performance categories, and thereby be able to maximize their scoring and incentive potential.


Assuntos
Medicare , Patologistas , Patologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Reembolso de Incentivo , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369830

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Quality indicators and pay-for-performance schemes aim to improve processes and outcomes in clinical practice. However, general practitioner and patient characteristics influence quality indicator performance. In Switzerland, no data on the pay-for-performance approach exists and the use of quality indicators has been marginal. The aim of this study was to describe quality indicator performance in diabetes care in Swiss primary care and to analyze associations of practice, general practitioner and patient covariates with quality indicator performance. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we used medical routine data from an electronic medical record database. Data from 71 general practitioners and all their patients with diabetes were included. Starting in July 2018, we retrieved 12-month retrospective data about practice, general practitioner and patient characteristics, laboratory values, comorbidities and co-medication. Based on this data, we assessed quality indicator performance of process and intermediate outcomes for glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, cholesterol and associations of practice, general practitioner and patient characteristics with individual and cumulative quality indicator performance. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using regression methods. RESULTS: We assessed 3,383 patients with diabetes (57% male, mean age 68.3 years). On average, patients fulfilled 3.56 (standard deviation: 1.89) quality indicators, whereas 17.2% of the patients fulfilled all six quality indicators. On practice and general practitioner level, we found no associations with cumulative quality indicator performance. On patient level, gender (ref = male) (OR: 0.83, CI: 0.78-0.88), number of treating general practitioners (OR: 0.94, CI: 0.91-0.97), number of comorbidities (OR: 1.43, CI: 1.38-1.47) and number of consultations (OR: 1.02, CI: 1.02-1.02) were associated with cumulative quality indicator performance. CONCLUSION: The influence of practice, general practitioner and patient characteristics on quality indicator performance was surprisingly small and room for improvement in quality indicator performance of Swiss general practitioners seems to exist in diabetes care.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reembolso de Incentivo , Suíça/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 291, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pay for performance (P4P) schemes provide financial incentives to health workers or facilities based on the achievement of pre-specified performance targets and have been widely implemented in health systems across low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The growing evidence base on P4P highlights that (i) there is substantial variation in the effect of P4P schemes on outcomes and (ii) there appears to be heterogeneity in incentive design. Even though scheme design is likely a key determinant of scheme effectiveness, we currently lack systematic evidence on how P4P schemes are designed in LMICs. METHODS: We develop a typology to classify the design of P4P schemes in LMICs, which highlights different design features that are a priori likely to affect the behaviour of incentivised actors. We then use results from a systematic literature review to classify and describe the design of P4P schemes that have been evaluated in LMICs. To capture academic publications, Medline, Embase, and EconLit databases were searched. To include relevant grey literature, Google Scholar, Emerald Insight, and websites of the World Bank, WHO, Cordaid, Norad, DfID, USAID and PEPFAR were searched. RESULTS: We identify 41 different P4P schemes implemented in 29 LMICs. We find that there is substantial heterogeneity in the design of P4P schemes in LMICs and pinpoint precisely how scheme design varies across settings. Our results also highlight that incentive design is not adequately being reported on in the literature - with many studies failing to report key design features. CONCLUSIONS: We encourage authors to make a greater effort to report information on P4P scheme design in the future and suggest using the typology laid out in this paper as a starting point.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Reembolso de Incentivo/organização & administração , Humanos
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