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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769883

RESUMO

Overqualification is prevalent in times of economic downturn, and research has increasingly focused on its outcomes. This study aimed to explore the psychological burden caused by perceived overqualification (POQ) and its impact on creativity among high-tech enterprise employees. Drawing from effort-reward imbalance theory, we examined the effect of POQ on emotional exhaustion, along with the mediating role of emotional exhaustion in the POQ-creativity relationship and the moderating role of pay for performance (PFP) in strengthening the link between POQ and emotional exhaustion. Using cross-sectional data from a sample of 359 employees in China, we found that (1) POQ was positively related to emotional exhaustion; (2) emotional exhaustion was negatively related to creativity; (3) PFP moderated the effect of POQ on emotional exhaustion as well as the indirect effect of POQ on creativity via emotional exhaustion. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications.


Assuntos
Emoções , Reembolso de Incentivo , Criatividade , Estudos Transversais , Recompensa
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 650452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722429

RESUMO

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) often experience depression during treatment, negatively influencing their treatment compliance and clinical outcomes. Recently, the pay-for-performance (P4P) program for chronic diseases, with high-cost and high-risk feature, such as T2DM, has been implemented and has been operational for several years. Nevertheless, its effect on the risk of developing depression among T2DM cases is unknown. This study aims to explore the association of P4P use with the subsequent risk of developing depression among these patients. Methods: This cohort study used a nationwide health insurance database to identify patients 20-70 years of age newly diagnosed with T2DM who enrolled in the P4P program between 2001 and 2010. From this group, we enrolled 17,022 P4P users and then 17,022 non-P4P users who were randomly selected using propensity-score-matching. Enrolled patients were followed until the end of 2012 to record the occurrence of depression. The Cox proportional hazards regression was utilized to obtain the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for P4P use. Results: During the study period, a total of 588 P4P users and 1,075 non-P4P users developed depression at incidence rates of 5.89 and 8.41 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. P4P users had a lower depression risk than did non-P4P users (aHR, 0.73; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.65-0.80). This positive effect was particularly prominent in those receiving high-intensity use of the P4P program. Conclusion: Integrating P4P into routine care for patients with T2DM may have beneficial effects on curtailing the subsequent risk of depression.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Reembolso de Incentivo , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750122, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778183

RESUMO

Background: The benefits of prevention are widely recognized; ranging from avoiding disease onset to substantially reducing disease burden, which is especially relevant considering the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases. However, its delivery has encountered numerous obstacles in healthcare. While healthcare professionals play an important role in stimulating prevention, their behaviors can be influenced by incentives related to reimbursement schemes. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to obtain a detailed description and explanation of how reimbursement schemes specifically impact primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary prevention. Methods: Our study takes a mixed-methods approach. Based on a rapid review of the literature, we include and assess 27 studies. Moreover, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eight Dutch healthcare professionals and two representatives of insurance companies, to obtain a deeper understanding of healthcare professionals' behaviors in response to incentives. Results: Nor fee-for-service (FFS) nor salary can be unambiguously linked to higher or lower provision of preventive services. However, results suggest that FFS's widely reported incentive to increase production might work in favor of preventive services such as immunizations but provide less incentives for chronic disease management. Salary's incentive toward prevention will be (partially) determined by provider-organization's characteristics and reimbursement. Pay-for-performance (P4P) is not always necessarily translated into better health outcomes, effective prevention, or adequate chronic disease management. P4P is considered disruptive by professionals and our results expose how it can lead professionals to resort to (over)medicalization in order to achieve targets. Relatively new forms of reimbursement such as population-based payment may incentivize professionals to adapt the delivery of care to facilitate the delivery of some forms of prevention. Conclusion: There is not one reimbursement scheme that will stimulate all levels of prevention. Certain types of reimbursement work well for certain types of preventive care services. A volume incentive could be beneficial for prevention activities that are easy to specify. Population-based capitation can help promote preventive activities that require efforts that are not incentivized under other reimbursements, for instance activities that are not easily specified, such as providing education on lifestyle factors related to a patient's (chronic) disease.


Assuntos
Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Reembolso de Incentivo , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , Salários e Benefícios
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1113, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high costs of chronic conditions call for new treatment approaches that reduce costs while ensuring desirable health outcomes. There has been a growing transformation of care delivery models from conventional referral systems to integrated care models. This study seeks to evaluate the cost-saving impact of integrated care delivery model under pay-for-performance (P4P) scheme with continuity of care at institution level (ICOC). METHODS: We analyzed the Taiwan National Health Insurance claim data of 21,725 diabetic patients who visited clinics and/or hospitals at least four times a year for 8 years. Using average local provider P4P participation rate (for each accreditation level) as an instrumental variable in two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions, we have estimated consistent estimates of the ICOC elasticities for all-cause inpatient and outpatient costs. RESULTS: Our results show that ICOC significantly reduced inpatient costs but increased outpatient costs with the elasticity for treatment costs of -11.6 and 1.03, respectively. The decrease in inpatient costs offset the increase in outpatient costs and the resulting total cost saving showed significant association with ICOC. The saving effect of ICOC is especially robust among patients who used clinics as their principal source of care. CONCLUSIONS: Institutional continuity of care has a substantial impact on the treatment costs of diabetes patients. In the context where inpatient care costs are significantly higher than that of the outpatient care, ICOC would lead to a meaningful cost-saving effect. For new diabetes patients, care by clinics demonstrated the strongest saving effect.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Reembolso de Incentivo , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos
5.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 61, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid-related overdoses and harms have been declared a public health emergency in the United States, highlighting an urgent need to implement evidence-based treatments. Contingency management (CM) is one of the most effective behavioral interventions when delivered in combination with medication for opioid use disorder, but its implementation in opioid treatment programs is woefully limited. Project MIMIC (Maximizing Implementation of Motivational Incentives in Clinics) was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse to identify effective strategies for helping opioid treatment programs improve CM implementation as an adjunct to medication. Specific aims will test the impact of two different strategies on implementation outcomes (primary aim) and patient outcomes (secondary aims), as well as test putative mediators of implementation effectiveness (exploratory aim). METHODS: A 3-cohort, cluster-randomized, type 3 hybrid design is used with the opioid treatment programs as the unit of randomization. Thirty programs are randomized to one of two conditions. The control condition is the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network implementation strategy, which consists of three core approaches: didactic training, performance feedback, and on-going consultation. The experimental condition is an enhanced ATTC strategy, with the same core ATTC elements plus two additional theory-driven elements. The two additional elements are Pay-for-Performance, which aims to increase implementing staff's extrinsic motivations, and Implementation & Sustainment Facilitation, which targets staff's intrinsic motivations. Data will be collected using a novel, CM Tracker tool to document CM session delivery, session audio recordings, provider surveys, and patient surveys. Implementation outcomes include CM Exposure (number of CM sessions delivered per patient), CM Skill (ratings of CM fidelity), and CM Sustainment (number of patients receiving CM after removal of support). Patient outcomes include self-reported opioid abstinence and opioid-related problems (both assessed at 3- and 6-months post-baseline). DISCUSSION: There is urgent public health need to improve the implementation of CM as an adjunct to medication for opioid use disorder. Consistent with its hybrid type 3 design, Project MIMIC is advancing implementation science by comparing impacts of these two multifaceted strategies on both implementation and patient outcomes, and by examining the extent to which the impacts of those strategies can be explained by putative mediators. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03931174). Registered April 30, 2019. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03931174?term=project+mimic&draw=2&rank=1.


Assuntos
Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Reembolso de Incentivo , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
6.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2869-2881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703221

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has also imposed a substantial economic and social burden on the health care system. In Taiwan, a nationwide COPD pay-for-performance (P4P) program was designed to improve the quality of COPD-related care by introducing financial incentives for health care providers and employing a multidisciplinary team to deliver guideline-based, integrated care for patients with COPD, reducing adverse outcomes, especially COPD exacerbation. However, the results of a survey of the effectiveness of the pay-for-performance program in COPD management were inconclusive. To address this knowledge gap, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the COPD P4P program in Taiwan. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database and nationwide COPD P4P enrollment program records from June 2016 to December 2018. Patients with COPD were classified into P4P and non-P4P groups. Patients in the P4P group were matched at a ratio of 1:1 based on age, gender, region, accreditation level, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and inhaled medication prescription type to create the non-P4P group. A difference-in-difference analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the P4P program on the likelihood of COPD exacerbation, namely COPD-related emergency department (ED) visit, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or hospitalization. Results: The final sample of 14,288 patients comprised 7144 in each of the P4P and non-P4P groups. The prevalence of COPD-related ED visits, ICU admissions, and hospitalizations was higher in the P4P group than in the non-P4P group 1 year before enrollment. After enrollment, the P4P group exhibited a greater decrease in the prevalence of COPD-related ED visits and hospitalizations than the non-P4P group (ED visit: -2.98%, p<0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.277 to -0.086; hospitalization: -1.62%, p<0.05, 95% CI: -0.232 to -0.020), whereas no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of the changes in the prevalence of COPD-related ICU admissions. Conclusion: The COPD P4P program exerted a positive net effect on reducing the likelihood of COPD exacerbation, namely COPD-related ED visits and hospitalizations. Future studies should examine the long-term cost-effectiveness of the COPD P4P program.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Reembolso de Incentivo , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
7.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; 22(4): 245-252, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678085

RESUMO

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Pay-for-Performance (P4P) programs aim to improve hospital care through financial incentives for care quality and patient outcomes. Magnet® recognition-a potential pathway for improving nurse work environments-is associated with better patient outcomes and P4P program scores, but whether these indicators of higher quality are substantial enough to avoid penalties and thereby impact hospital reimbursements is unknown. This cross-sectional study used a national sample of 2,860 hospitals to examine the relationship between hospital Magnet® status and P4P penalties under P4P programs: Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, Hospital-Acquired Conditions (HAC) Reduction Program, Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. Magnet® hospitals were matched 1:1 with non-Magnet hospitals accounting for 13 organizational characteristics including hospital size and location. Post-match logistic regression models were used to compute a hospital's odds of penalties. In a national sample of hospitals, 77% of hospitals experienced P4P penalties. Magnet® hospitals were less likely to be penalized in the VBP program compared to their matched non-Magnet counterparts (40% vs. 48%). Magnet® status was associated with 30% lower odds of VBP penalties relative to non-Magnet hospitals. Lower P4P program penalties is one benefit associated with achieving Magnet® status or otherwise maintaining high-quality nurse work environments.


Assuntos
Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Reembolso de Incentivo , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , Medicare , Estados Unidos
8.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1099-1106, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Skilled Nursing Facility Value-based Purchasing Program (SNF-VBP) incentivizes facilities to coordinate care, improve quality, and lower hospital readmissions. However, SNF-VBP may unintentionally punish facilities with lower profit margins struggling to invest resources to lower readmissions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the SNF-VBP penalty amounts by skilled nursing facility (SNF) profit margin quintiles and examine whether facilities with lower profit margins are more likely to be penalized by SNF-VBP. RESEARCH DESIGN: We combined the first round of SNF-VBP performance data with SNF profit margins and characteristics data. Our outcome variables included estimated penalty amount and a binary measure for whether facilities were penalized by the SNF-VBP. We categorized SNFs into 5 profit margin quintiles and examined the relationship between profit margins and SNF-VBP performance using descriptive and regression analysis. RESULTS: The average profit margins for SNFs in the lowest profit margin quintile was -14.4% compared with the average profit margin of 11.1% for SNFs in the highest profit margin quintile. In adjusted regressions, SNFs in the lowest profit margin quintile had 17% higher odds of being penalized under SNF-VBP compared with facilities in the highest profit margin quintile. The average penalty for SNFs in the lowest profit margin quintile was $22,312. CONCLUSIONS: SNFs in the lowest profit margins are more likely to be penalized by the SNF-VBP, and these losses can exacerbate quality problems in SNFs with lower quality. Alternative approaches to measuring and rewarding SNFs under SNF-VBP or programs to assist struggling SNFs is warranted, particularly considering the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, which requires resources for prevention and management.


Assuntos
Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/economia , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/economia , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/organização & administração , Reembolso de Incentivo/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497046

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Using data from a a primary care pay-for-performance scheme targeting quality indicators, the objective of this study was to assess if people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and severe mental illnesses (SMI) experienced poorer glycemic management compared with people living with T2DM alone, and if observed differences varied by race/ethnicity, deprivation, gender, or exclusion from the scheme. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Primary care data from a cohort of 56 770 people with T2DM, including 2272 people with T2DM and SMI, from London (UK), diagnosed between January 17, 2008 and January 16, 2018, were used. Adjusted mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and HbA1c differences were assessed using multilevel regression models. RESULTS: Compared with people with T2DM only, people with T2DM/SMI were more likely to be of an ethnic minority background, excluded from the pay-for-performance scheme and residing in more deprived areas. Across the sample, mean HbA1c was lower in those with T2DM and SMI (mean HbA1c: 58 mmol/mol; 95% CI 57 to 59), compared with people with T2DM only (mean HbA1c: 59 mmol/mol; 95% CI 59 to 60). However, HbA1c levels were greater in Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Chinese people compared with the White British reference in the T2DM/SMI group. People with T2DM/SMI who had been excluded from the pay-for-performance scheme, had HbA1c levels which were +7 mmol/mol (95% CI 2 to 11) greater than those with T2DM/SMI not excluded. Irrespective of SMI status, increasing deprivation and male gender were associated with increased HbA1c levels. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a pay-for-performance scheme to improve quality standards, inequalities in glycemic management in people with T2DM and SMI persist in those excluded from the scheme and by gender, ethnicity, and area-level deprivation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transtornos Mentais , Glicemia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Grupos Minoritários , Reembolso de Incentivo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 990, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality improvement (QI) initiatives such as accreditation, public reporting, inspection and pay-for-performance are increasingly being implemented globally. In Flanders, Belgium, a government policy for acute-care hospitals incorporates aforementioned initiatives. Currently, questions are raised on the sustainability of the present policy. OBJECTIVE: First, to summarise the various initiatives hospitals have adopted under government encouragement between 2008 and 2019. Second, to study the perspectives of healthcare stakeholders on current government policy. METHODS: In this multi-method study, we collected data on QI initiative implementation from governmental and institutional sources and through an online survey among hospital quality managers. We compiled an overview of QI initiative implementation for all Flemish acute-care hospitals between 2008 (n = 62) and 2019 (n = 53 after hospital mergers). Stakeholder perspectives were assessed via a second survey available to all healthcare employees and a focus group with healthcare policy experts was consulted. Variation between professions was assessed. RESULTS: QI initiatives have been increasingly implemented, especially from 2016 onwards, with the majority (87%) of hospitals having obtained a first accreditation label and all hospitals publicly reporting performance indicators, receiving regular inspections and having entered the pay-for-performance initiative. On the topic of external international accreditation, overall attitudes within the survey were predominantly neutral (36.2%), while 34.5% expressed positive and 29.3% negative views towards accreditation. In examining specific professional groups in-depth, we learned 58% of doctors regarded accreditation negatively, while doctors were judged to be the largest contributors to quality according to the majority of respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals have demonstrated increased efforts into QI, especially since 2016, while perceptions on currently implemented QI initiatives among healthcare stakeholders are heterogeneous. To assure quality of care remains a top-priority for acute-care hospitals, we recommend a revision of the current multicomponent quality policy where the adoption of all initiatives is streamlined and co-created bottom-up.


Assuntos
Melhoria de Qualidade , Reembolso de Incentivo , Acreditação , Hospitais , Humanos , Percepção , Políticas
12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 224, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health system financing presents a challenge in many developing countries. We assessed two reform packages, performance-based financing (PBF) and direct facility financing (DFF), against each other and business-as-usual for maternal and child healthcare (MCH) provision in Nigeria. METHODS: We sampled 571 facilities (269 in PBF; 302 in DFF) in 52 districts randomly assigned to PBF or DFF, and 215 facilities in 25 observable-matched control districts. PBF facilities received $2 ($1 for operating grants plus $1 for bonuses) for every $1 received by DFF facilities (operating grants alone). Both received autonomy, supervision, and enhanced community engagement, isolating the impact of additional performance-linked facility and health worker payments. Facilities and households with recent pregnancies in facility catchments were surveyed at baseline (2014) and endline (2017). Outcomes were Penta3 immunization, institutional deliveries, modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR), four-plus antenatal care (ANC) visits, insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) use by under-fives, and directly observed quality of care (QOC). We estimated difference-in-differences with state fixed effects and clustered standard errors. RESULTS: PBF increased institutional deliveries by 10% points over DFF and 7% over business-as-usual (p<0.01). PBF and DFF were more effective than business-as-usual for Penta3 (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively); PBF also for mCPR (p<0.05). Twenty-one of 26 QOC indicators improved in both PBF and DFF relative to business-as-usual (p<0.05). However, except for deliveries, PBF was as or less effective than DFF: Penta3 immunization and ITN use were each 6% less than DFF (p<0.1 for both) and QOC gains were also comparable. Utilization gains come from the middle of the rural wealth distribution (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that both PBF and DFF represent significant improvements over business-as-usual for service provision and quality of care. However, except for institutional delivery, PBF and DFF do not differ from each other despite PBF disbursing $2 for every dollar disbursed by DFF. These findings highlight the importance of direct facility financing and decentralization in improving PHC and suggest potential complementarities between the two approaches in strengthening MCH service delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03890653 ; May 8, 2017. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reembolso de Incentivo , Criança , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
15.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This qualitative narrative review aims to identify and evaluate the potential, challenges and pitfalls of pay-for-performance (P4P) schemes for the home care of adults with a disability. Due to a limited experimentation with P4P schemes in the context of the home and disability care sectors, the authors conducted a narrative review focusing on related areas of care, primarily nursing home care, to better understand the effectiveness of P4P schemes as a care intervention and evaluate the challenges associated with the introduction of these schemes. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors employed a narrative review approach to examine the effectiveness of P4P schemes as a care intervention. The approach included a manual content analysis of the relevant academic and grey literature, focusing on the potential, challenges and pitfalls of P4P for care funders and providers. FINDINGS: There is some, albeit limited, evidence from other related areas of care to support the effectiveness of P4P to improve the quality of care or the efficiency of its delivery for the home care sector. The results of prior studies are, however, often mixed and inconclusive, due to flaws with the design of schemes, including the nature of the incentives. Limited duration and poor-quality evaluations have further hampered the ability of studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of P4P schemes, which diminishes the credibility of these care interventions. When undertaken systematically, there seems to be some evidence that P4P can work; however, it requires careful design, implementation, measurement and evaluation. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Based on the challenges associated with the successful implementation of P4P schemes, the authors identified lessons for the design, implementation, measurement and evaluation of P4P schemes for care funders and policymakers. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study critically evaluates the potential of P4P as a care intervention for the home care and disability sectors. By evaluating the potential, challenges and pitfalls associated with P4P in related areas of care, the study provides guidance to home care funders, providers and policymakers in care settings.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Reembolso de Incentivo , Austrália , Humanos
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 285: 114277, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343830

RESUMO

Payment for performance (P4P) has been employed in low and middle-income (LMIC) countries to improve quality and coverage of maternal and child health (MCH) services. However, there is a lack of consensus on how P4P affects health systems. There is a need to evaluate P4P effects on health systems using methods suitable for evaluating complex systems. We developed a causal loop diagram (CLD) to further understand the pathways to impact of P4P on delivery and uptake of MCH services in Tanzania. The CLD was developed and validated using qualitative data from a process evaluation of a P4P scheme in Tanzania, with additional stakeholder dialogue sought to strengthen confidence in the diagram. The CLD maps the interacting mechanisms involved in provider achievement of targets, reporting of health information, and population care seeking, and identifies those mechanisms affected by P4P. For example, the availability of drugs and medical commodities impacts not only provider achievement of P4P targets but also demand of services and is impacted by P4P through the availability of additional facility resources and the incentivisation of district managers to reduce drug stock outs. The CLD also identifies mechanisms key to facility achievement of targets but are not within the scope of the programme; the activities of health facility governing committees and community health workers, for example, are key to demand stimulation and effective resource use at the facility level but both groups were omitted from the incentive system. P4P design considerations generated from this work include appropriately incentivising the availability of drugs and staffing in facilities and those responsible for demand creation in communities. Further research using CLDs to study heath systems in LMIC is urgently needed to further our understanding of how systems respond to interventions and how to strengthen systems to deliver better coverage and quality of care.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Gravidez , Reembolso de Incentivo , Tanzânia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26644, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260563

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Studies have provided promising outcomes of the pay-for-performance (P4P) program or with good continuity of care levels in diabetes control.We investigate the different exposures in continuity of care (COC) with their providers and those who participate in the P4P program and its effects on the risk of diabetes diabetic nephropathy in the future.We obtained COC and P4P information from the annual database, to which we applied a hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) in 3 levels adjusted to account for other covariates as well as the effects of hospital clustering and accumulating time.Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in 2003At the individual level, those with a higher Diabetes Complications Severity Index (DCSI) score have a higher likelihood of diabetic nephropathy than those with a lower DCSI (OR, 1.46), whereas contrasting results were obtained for the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) (odds ratio[OR], 0.88). Patients who visited family physicians, endocrinologists, and gastroenterologists showed a lower likelihood of diabetic nephropathy (OR, 0.664, 0.683, and 0.641, respectively), whereas those who continued to visit neurologists showed an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy by 4 folds. At the hospital level, patients with diabetes visiting primary care clinics had a lower risk of diabetic nephropathy with an OR of 0.584 than those visiting hospitals of other higher levels. Regarding the repeat time level, the patients who had a higher COC score and participated in the P4P program had a reduced diabetic nephropathy risk with an OR of 0.339 and 0.775, respectively.Diabetes control necessitates long-term care involving the patients' healthcare providers for the management of their conditions to reduce the risk of diabetic nephropathy. Indeed, most contributing factors are related to patients, but we cannot eliminate the optimal outcomes related to good relationships with healthcare providers and participation in the P4P program.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Reembolso de Incentivo/organização & administração , Diálise Renal , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração
18.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04049, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326996

RESUMO

Background: Due to ongoing insecurity, the government of Afghanistan delivers health care to the country's population by contracting out service delivery to non-governmental organization service providers (SPs). In 2018, major changes to SP contracts were introduced, resulting in a new pay-for-performance service delivery model. This model, called "Sehatmandi", pays SPs based on the volume of 11 key services they provide. Methods: A narrative review of Sehatmandi's key features is presented, as well as lessons learned during implementation. Counterfactual comparisons of service delivery data for 10 payment-related service indicators are made. The first comparison is between the rate of change in the volume of services delivered from 2018 to 2019 (ie, the first year of Sehatmandi implementation) relative to the rate change from 2017 to 2018 (ie, prior to the program). The second comparison is between the rate of change in the volume of services delivered in provinces under the pay-for-performance mechanism relative to provinces which were not financed using pay-for-performance. Time trends in non-payment service indicators and service quality are also examined. Results: The increase in service volume in Sehatmandi provinces from 2018 to 2019 was higher than the increase from 2017 to 2018 for 8 out of 10 indicators. The median increase in the rate of change was 10 percentage points. Similar results were obtained when comparing pay-for-performance provinces to those not financed using pay-for-performance. Improvements were also observed for services that were not directly compensated by the pay-for-performance approach. Payment for service volume was not associated with reduced service quality. The narrative review suggests that the pay-for-performance system has stimulated more effective oversight of SPs by the government of Afghanistan and has incentivized innovative service delivery strategies by SPs. Sehatmandi may benefit from re-structuring its financial incentives to stimulate improved service quality and accelerate delivery of lagging services. Conclusions: The available evidence - though subject to some limitations - suggests that the introduction of a pay-for-performance system was associated with an expanded volume of service delivery in Afghanistan. This approach may be beneficial in other conflict-affected countries.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Reembolso de Incentivo , Afeganistão , Conflitos Armados , Humanos
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of pay-for-performance (P4P) schemes on provider performance is mixed in low-income and middle-income countries. Brazil introduced its first national-level P4P scheme in 2011 (PMAQ-Brazilian National Programme for Improving Primary Care Access and Quality). PMAQ is likely one of the largest P4P schemes in the world. We estimate the association between PMAQ and hospitalisations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) based on a panel of 5564 municipalities. METHODS: We conducted a fixed effect panel data analysis over the period of 2009-2018, controlling for coverage of primary healthcare, hospital beds per 10 000 population, education, real gross domestic product per capita and population density. The outcome is the hospitalisation rate for ACSCs among people aged 64 years and under per 10 000 population. Our exposure variable is defined as the percentage of family health teams participating in PMAQ, which captures the roll-out of PMAQ over time. We also provided several sensitivity analyses, by using alternative measures of the exposure and outcome variables, and a placebo test using transport accident hospitalisations instead of ACSCs. RESULTS: The results show a negative and statistically significant association between the rollout of PMAQ and ACSC rates for all age groups. An increase in PMAQ participating of one percentage point decreased the hospitalisation rate for ACSC by 0.0356 (SE 0.0123, p=0.004) per 10 000 population (aged 0-64 years). This corresponds to a reduction of approximately 60 829 hospitalisations in 2018. The impact is stronger for children under 5 years (-0.0940, SE 0.0375, p=0.012), representing a reduction of around 11 936 hospitalisations. Our placebo test shows that the association of PMAQ on the hospitalisation rate for transport accidents is not statistically significant, as expected. CONCLUSION: We find that PMAQ was associated with a modest reduction in hospitalisation for ACSCs.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reembolso de Incentivo , Assistência Ambulatorial , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitalização , Humanos
20.
Popul Health Manag ; 24(5): 528-530, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227894
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