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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125547, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639582

RESUMO

Functional properties and antioxidant activity of soybean meal extracts obtained by conventional chemical method were compared to those obtained by using electro-activated solutions. The conventional extract obtained at pH8 had the highest WAC (400 ±â€¯7 g/100 g), while the lowest was that of samples extracted under pH3. Extract obtained using electro-activated solution Anolyte_300mA-30 min had WAC value (25 ±â€¯1 g/100 g). OAC was the highest for samples extracted under alkaline conditions whatever the extraction mode used with values of 5.50 ±â€¯0.54 to 6.85 ±â€¯0.62 mL/g. FC of the conventional extracts was higher compared to those extracted by electro-activation with maximal value of 52% for the conventional sample obtained at pH9, whereas the maximal FC of 28% was observed for the electro-activated sample obtained by using Anolyte_450mA-50 min. Electro-activated showed higher EP. Conventional extracts showed higher antioxidant activity (92.31 ±â€¯1.5%) than those obtained by electro-activation (47.46 ±â€¯0.94%).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Soja/química , Elétrons , Refeições , Extratos Vegetais/química , Soluções
2.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 693-702, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seventy four percent of Chileans replaced the traditional dinner for the consumption of "five o'clock tea" (5CT), a mealtime that includes bread and is simliar to western breakfast. The latter favors the intake of unhealthy foods. AIM: To study whether the consumption of "5CT", instead of dinner, could be a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometric parameters, mean blood pressure, lipid profile, thyroid stimulating hormone and fasting glucose were measured in 489 subjects aged 39 ± 12 years (33% women) who attended a primary cardiovascular prevention (CV) program. A 24-hour recall and usual meal times were registered during a dietary interview. To determine the association between the consumption of "5CT" or dinner and the probability of presenting two or more components of MetSyn, we built an odds proportional model adjusted by age and sex. In addition, severity for MetSyn was calculated. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of participants had MetSyn and 39%, two or more MetSyn components. Those who consumed "5CT" instead of dinner, had 54% more probability of having 2 or more MetSyn components (Odds ratio = 1.54, confidence intervals 1.032.32, p = 0.04). Participants who included processed carbohydrates in their last meal had a higher probability of having components of MetSyn. This probability decreased among participants who ate dinner with a low proportion of refined carbohydrates. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects who eat "5CT", instead of dinner as the last meal, have a higher cardiometabolic risk and MetSyn severity.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Chá/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593113

RESUMO

Lifestyle in preschool children is associated with the onset of childhood obesity. However, the effect of environmental factors in childcare facilities on lifestyle and obesity in preschool children is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of environmental factors in childcare facilities on the association between obesity and individual lifestyle in preschool children.Subjects included 2902 infants, aged 4 to 6 years old in Kitakyushu City, Japan. A stratified multilevel analysis was conducted with 2 strata: factors related to individual lifestyle and maternal factors as the individual level and factors related to the childcare facility as the environmental level. Two-level multilevel regression analysis was conducted with the presence or absence of obesity.The proportion of infants with obesity was 4.2%. The childhood obesity was significantly associated with the mastication, nutritional methods during infancy, absence of breakfast, presence of skipping meals due to overeating of snacks, usual play activity, screen time on weekdays, maternal body mass index, and maternal weight increase during pregnancy at the individual level. On the other hand, childhood obesity had a significantly negative association with the receiving snacks in facilities by using multilevel analysis.The present study revealed that establishing and maintaining environmental factors in childcare facilities may play important roles in the prevention of obesity from early childhood.


Assuntos
Creches , Meio Ambiente , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Análise Multinível , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 32-48, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021750

RESUMO

Introdução:A contabilidade de custos é uma etapa importante na gestão pública para otimizar os gastos e diminuir desperdícios, representando um indicador de eficiência econômica. Contudo, é uma atividade complexa, onde a maioria dos custos é de difícil obtenção, especialmente em Unidades de alimentação e nutrição (UANs), devido à variação no número de refeições e matéria prima, e indisponibilidade de custos indiretos individualizados. Objetivo:Apresentar uma proposta metodológica para cálculo do custo-refeição em UANs vinculadas a serviços públicos.Método:Esta proposta surgiu de um estudo prático realizado no restaurante da Escola Agrícola de Jundiaí/UFRN. Para a composição do custo-refeição foram observados os componentes dos custos diretos e indiretos. Os preços unitários por material/serviço foram obtidos por meio das atas de licitações e contratos.Resultados:A análise individual de cada componente permitiu verificar a necessidade de estabelecer diretrizes para os custos, obtendo-se os seguintes direcionamentos: gêneros de alimentação ­elaboração das fichas técnicas de preparação de, no mínimo, dois cardápios semanais completos e preços por gênero calculados por média ponderada; material de limpeza, telefonia, gás de cozinha e água mineral -análise do gasto trimestral; energia elétrica ­análise da potência, tempo e horário de funcionamento de cada equipamento e cálculo do gasto de energia conforme tarifas na "ponta" e "fora da ponta"; despesas com manutenção de equipamentos e instalações, material de expediente e descartável ­análise semestral e, todos os cálculos efetuados utilizando a média mensal. Por fim, a partir do custo com gêneros alimentícios foram calculados os pesos de cada refeição e gerada a unidade-refeição, obtendo-se o custo final por meio da soma do custo de cada refeição com o produto de seu peso vezes a unidade-refeição.Conclusão:A presente proposta apresenta uma perspectiva prática e fidedigna para o cálculo de custo-refeição (AU).


Introduction:Costs accountancy is an important step on public management to optimize expenses and reduce wasting, representing an economicalefficiency index. However, that is a complex activity, which the most of costs is hard to obtain, especially in Food Services due the variability on number of meals and raw material, and individualized indirect costs unavailable.Objective:To present a methodological proposal to compute meal-cost in public Food Services. Methods:This proposal emerged from a practical study performed in the restaurant of Jundiai Agricultural School (Escola Agrícola de Jundiai/UFRN). To compose meal-cost, direct and indirect components were observed. Material/services unitary prices were obtained through bidding and contracts records. Results:Individual analysis of each component allowed to verify the necessity of establishment guidelines for cost, obtaining the following directions: groceries -technical cards elaboration of, at least, two full weekly menus and groceries prices computed by weighted average; cleaning stuff, telephony, cooking gas and mineral water ­three months expenses analysis; electrical energy ­analysis of power, time and shift of working for each equipment and energy expenses calculation "on the tip" and "out of the tip"; equipment and installation maintenance expenses, office stuff and disposable stuff ­six months expenses analysis and, all calculations using monthly average. Finally, from groceries costs weighs were computed of each meal and the meal-unit was generated, obtaining the final cost by summing the cost of each meal with the product of its weight multiplied by the meal-unit. Conclusion:The present proposal shows a practical and reliable perspective for meal-cost calculation (AU).


Assuntos
Restaurantes/normas , Universidades , Custos e Análise de Custo , Alimentação Coletiva , Brasil , Relatos de Casos , Consumo de Alimentos , Refeições
6.
Health Psychol ; 38(12): 1137-1149, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A greater frequency of family meals is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index (BMI) in children. However, the effect sizes are small, and it remains unclear which qualitative components of family meals contribute to these positive health outcomes. This meta-analysis synthesizes studies on social, environmental, and behavioral attributes of family meals and identifies components of family meals that are related to better nutritional health in children. METHOD: A systematic literature search (50 studies; 49,137 participants; 61 reported effect sizes) identified 6 different components of healthy family mealtimes. Separate meta-analyses examined the association between each component and children's nutritional health. Age (children vs. adolescents), outcome type (BMI vs. diet quality), and socioeconomic status (SES; controlled vs. not controlled for SES) were examined as potential moderators. RESULTS: Positive associations consistently emerged between 5 components and children's nutritional health: turning the TV off during meals (r = .09), parental modeling of healthy eating (r = .12), higher food quality (r = .12), positive atmosphere (r = .13), children's involvement in meal preparation (r = .08), and longer meal duration (r = .20). No moderating effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: How a family eats together shows significant associations with nutritional health in children. Randomized control trials are needed to further verify these findings. The generalizability of the identified mealtime components to other contexts of social eating is also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Saúde da Família/normas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Refeições/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 81, 2019 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In light of recent theories in behavioural economics, an intervention program with monetary incentives could be effective for helping patrons order healthy food, even if the incentive is small and less than one's perceived marginal value. METHODS: In this single-arm cluster crossover trial at 26 local restaurants, a 1-week campaign offered a 50-yen (approximately 0.5 US dollars) cash-back payment to customers ordering vegetable-rich meals, while no pre-order incentives were offered during the control period. RESULTS: In total, 511 respondents out of 7537 customers (6.8%), and 704 respondents out of 7826 customers (9.0%), ordered vegetable-rich meals during the control and intervention periods, respectively. During the intervention period, the covariate-adjusted proportion of vegetable-rich meal orders was 1.50 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29 to 1.75), which increased daily sales by 1.77 times (95% CI: 1.11 to 2.83), even when subtracting the cost of cash-back payments. Respondents who reported spending the least amount of money on eating out (used as a proxy measure for income) were the least likely to order vegetable-rich meals during the control period. However, these individuals increased their proportion of purchasing such meals during the intervention period (a 3.8 percentage point increase (95% CI: 2.82 to 4.76) among those spending the least vs a 2.1 percentage point increase (95% CI: 1.66 to 2.62) among those spending the most; P for interaction = 0.001). Similarly, irregular employees exhibited a larger increase (+ 5.2 percentage points, 95% CI: 4.54 to 5.76) than did regular workers (- 1.4, 95% CI: - 1.66 to - 1.05, P for interaction = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A program with an immediate low-value monetary incentive could be a public health measure for reducing inequalities in making healthy food choices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000022396 . Registered 21 May 2016.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Preferências Alimentares , Refeições , Restaurantes/economia , Verduras , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Motivação , Prática de Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484676

RESUMO

More than 21 million low-income children rely on free or reduced-price meals during the school year. The US Department of Agriculture Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) provides meals to children during the summer months, but these programs are underused. The emergency department (ED) of urban medical centers is 1 of the few establishments that children access during the summer months, and as such, it may be a prime point of entry for such programs. This advocacy case study describes the implementation and evaluation of situating an SFSP in the pediatric ED and explores the impact on participant intention to connect with community resources after the ED visit. In this 7-week pilot, we partnered with a community agency to provide free lunch to all children ages 2 to 18 during their ED visit at an urban, freestanding children's hospital. After patient rooming and clarification of nil per os status, boxed meals were delivered to patients and siblings along with information regarding the SFSP and how to access community program sites. Parents completed a survey about the experience with the meal program in the ED, previous knowledge of the SFSP, and intention to use community SFSP sites in the future. This case study demonstrates that situating the SFSP in the acute-care clinical setting is acceptable and has strong potential to improve the historically poor connection between families and critical community resources. Additionally, this project highlights the potential of community-clinical partnerships to improve family resources and enhance the reach of established programs.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Serviços de Alimentação , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Refeições , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitais Pediátricos , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pobreza , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture , População Urbana
9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 82, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests eating home-prepared food (HPF) is associated with increased dietary quality, while dietary quality varies across socio-demographic factors. Although it has been hypothesised that variation in HPF consumption between population sub-groups may contribute to variation in dietary quality, evidence is inconclusive. This study takes a novel approach to quantifying home-prepared food (HPF) consumption, and describes HPF consumption in a population-representative sample, determining variation between socio-demographic groups. It tests the association between HPF consumption and dietary quality, determining whether socio-demographic characteristics moderate this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of UK survey data (N = 6364, aged≥19; collected 2008-16, analysed 2018). High dietary quality was defined as 'DASH accordance': the quintile most accordant with the Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) diet. HPF consumption was estimated from 4-day food diaries. Linear regressions were used to determine the association between HPF consumption and socio-demographic variables (household income, education, occupation, age, gender, ethnicity and children in the household). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance. Interaction terms were introduced, testing for moderation of the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance by socio-demographic variables. RESULTS: HPF consumption was relatively low across the sample (Mean (SD) % of energy consumption = 26.5%(12.1%)), and lower among white participants (25.9% v 37.8 and 34.4% for black and Asian participants respectively, p < 0.01). It did not vary substantially by age, gender, education, income or occupation. Higher consumption of HPF was associated with greater odds of being in the most DASH accordant quintile (OR = 1.2 per 10% increase in % energy from HPF, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). Ethnicity was the only significant moderator of the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance, but this should be interpreted with caution due to high proportion of white participants. CONCLUSIONS: While an association exists between HPF consumption and higher dietary quality, consumption of HPF or HPF's association with dietary quality does not vary substantially between socio-demographic groups. While HPF may be a part of the puzzle, it appears other factors drive socio-demographic variation in dietary quality.


Assuntos
Culinária , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Refeições , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Características da Família , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(3): 72-77, Set. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1022496

RESUMO

La necesidad de tomar acciones que fortalezcan la promoción y prevención en salud ha permitido redescubrir a las comidas tradicionales como una opción para una alimentación saludable. Las comidas típicas permiten la convergencia de aspectos dietéticos y nutricionales, pero también de elementos sociales y culturales que se asocian a un plato culinario, lo que enriquece y da identidad a una persona, familias y comunidades. Esta revisión teoriza y reflexiona sobre la relación entre comidas tradicionales y alimentación saludable con base en uno de los patrones alimentarios más reconocido a nivel global, que es la dieta mediterránea. Esta forma de alimentación reúne a los alimentos y a las preparaciones culinarias saludables, incentiva un estilo de vida que previene la aparición de enfermedades crónicas y tiene una connotación sociocultural, que se basa en su denominación como patrimonio gastronómico de la humanidad, que da identidad a los países del Mediterráneo. El trabajo presenta las características de este patrón alimentario y su empleo clásico como dieta saludable. Así mismo, profundiza en su rol como parte del patrimonio cultural inmaterial de la humanidad, además de su empleo actual y su representación como alimentación saludable y sustentable, y plantea en la necesidad de reconocer a las comidas tradicionales como una oportunidad para la alimentación saludable.


The necessity for taking actions that strengthen activities intended for health promotion and disease prevention has allowed the rediscovery of traditional dishes as an option for healthy diet. Traditional dishes not only gather dietary and nutritional aspects, but also social and cultural elements associated with a culinary dish, all of which enrich and give identity to people, families and communities. This review theorizes and reflects on the relationship between traditional dishes and healthy diet based on one of the most well-known dietary patterns worldwide: the Mediterranean diet. This feeding regime allows the rendezvous between healthy food and culinary preparations, promotes a lifestyle that prevents the onset of chronic diseases, and has a sociocultural connotation based on its designation as culinary heritage of humanity, which gives identity to the Mediterranean nations. This article presents the characteristics of such feeding regime and its classic application as a healthy diet. It also goes more deeply into its role as part of the cultural intangible heritage of humanity, as well as its current application and representation as a healthy and sustainable diet, and poses the need for recognizing traditional dishes as an opportunity for healthy diet.


Assuntos
Humanos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Refeições , Dieta Saudável
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 69, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing healthy eating behaviours in early life has implications for health over the life course. As the majority of Australian children aged five and under regularly attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) services, mealtimes at ECEC settings present opportunities to promote healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore children's eating behaviours and interactions between peers and educators during mealtimes in ECEC settings, with the aim of constructing a grounded theory of children's mealtimes in ECEC. METHODS: In-depth qualitative case studies were undertaken at two ECEC centres. Each centre had been assessed as meeting national quality standards and were located in a lower socioeconomic status area. Data collection consisted of direct observation, video recording, written memos, and daily field notes. The analysis included open coding of video recorded mealtimes and field notes resulting in the allocation of initial codes and focused codes. Codes were grouped to form thematic categories and emergent themes. Theoretical sampling was used to identify mealtime interactions exemplifying thematic categories. RESULTS: Data from 47 mealtimes was available. A grounded theory of children's mealtimes was developed to demonstrate children's outcomes at mealtimes. Outcomes were represented by five thematic categories: rituals, learning moments, food preference development, socialisation and child agency. Mealtimes offered opportunities for children to construct a community of peers with their educators by sharing information, stories and occasionally their food. Each centre established its own unique culture within mealtimes observed as the children were involved in routines and rituals. CONCLUSIONS: Mealtimes in ECEC settings are a unique cultural phenomenon co-constructed by the ECEC community of children and educators. The findings highlight the importance of mealtimes as a time for learning and socialization. The routine and rituals of mealtimes provide an opportunity for educators to support the development of healthy food preferences.


Assuntos
Creches , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Refeições , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373293

RESUMO

The objective was to determine if cooking skills and meal planning behaviors are associated with greater fruit and vegetable intake and lower body mass index (BMI) in first-year college students who are at risk for excessive weight gain. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline data from a multi-state research project aimed at preventing weight gain in first-year college students. Cooking type, frequency and confidence, self-instruction for healthful mealtime behavior intention, self-regulation of healthful mealtime behavior, and cup equivalents of fruits and vegetables (FV) were measured using validated surveys. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. First-year students (n = 1108) considered at risk for weight gain from eight universities completed baseline assessments within the first month of entering college. Multiple linear regression was used to determine associations among independent variables of cooking patterns, meal planning behaviors, and dependent variables of fruit and vegetable intake and BMI, after controlling for the influence of sex. Cooking more frequently, cooking with greater skills, and practicing meal planning behaviors are associated with greater fruit and vegetable intake and lower BMI in first-year college students. Interventions aimed at improving health in college students may be enhanced by incorporating cooking and meal planning components.


Assuntos
Culinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Frutas , Refeições/psicologia , Verduras , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Med Inform ; 129: 275-284, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a serious clinical issue associated with adverse patient and hospital outcomes. Hospitals need to consider interventions that support the provision of optimal nutritional management and care for patients. Electronic meal ordering (EMO) systems provide an alternative to traditional paper-based meal ordering with the capacity to support appropriate orders, monitor nutritional status, and potentially improve clinical outcomes. METHODS: This review aimed to identify the impact of EMO systems on hospital and patient outcomes. We sought quantitative evidence (peer-reviewed and grey literature) from studies evaluating EMO systems in healthcare facilities, published after 1999 and available in the English language. RESULTS: We identified 23 studies evaluating one of three distinct EMO system-supported models: spoken menu, room service, and self-service. While limited, the evidence indicated that EMO systems were associated with: improved patient satisfaction; decreased food waste; increased consumption; and, for spoken menus, more time with patients. There was no substantive evidence of impact on clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Whether EMO systems meet their potential to support nutritional monitoring and positively impact clinical outcomes remains unanswered within the evidence. Thus, policy makers and hospital management currently have a poor evidence base upon which to make decisions about the value of implementing EMO. Whether these systems can provide support and guidance to patients during meal ordering, improve order appropriateness and accuracy through compliance checking, identify patients in need of dietary education or those at risk of malnutrition are critical areas of focus for future research.


Assuntos
Refeições , Dieta , Hospitais , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Satisfação do Paciente
14.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 75, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable uncertainty regarding the impact of tableware size on food consumption. Most existing studies have used small and unrepresentative samples and have not followed recommended procedures for randomised controlled trials, leading to increased risk of bias. In the first pre-registered study to date, we examined the impact on consumption of using larger versus smaller plates for self-served food. We also assessed impact on the underlying meal micro-structure, such as number of servings and eating rate, which has not previously been studied. METHODS: The setting was a purpose-built naturalistic eating behaviour laboratory. A general population sample of 134 adult participants (aged 18-61 years) was randomly allocated to one of two groups varying in the size of plate used for self-serving lunch: large or small. The primary outcome was amount of food energy (kcal) consumed during a meal. Additionally, we assessed impact on meal micro-structure, and examined potential modifying effects of executive function, socio-economic position, and sensitivity to perceptual cues. RESULTS: There was no clear evidence of a difference in consumption between the two groups: Cohen's d = 0.07 (95% CI [- 0.27, 0.41]), with participants in the large plate group consuming on average 19.2 (95% CI [- 76.5, 115.0]) more calories (3%) compared to the small plate group (large: mean (SD) = 644.1 (265.0) kcal, versus small: 624.9 (292.3) kcal). The difference between the groups was not modified by individual characteristics. There was no evidence of impact on meal micro-structure, with the exception of more food being left on the plate when larger plates were used. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that previous meta-analyses of a low-quality body of evidence may have considerably overestimated the effects of plate size on consumption. However, the possibility of a clinically significant effect - in either direction - cannot be excluded. Well-conducted trials of tableware size in real-world field settings are now needed to determine whether changing the size of tableware has potential to contribute to efforts to reduce consumption at population-level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol ( https://osf.io/e3dfh/ ) and data analysis plan ( https://osf.io/sh5u7/ ) were pre-registered on the Open Science Framework.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Refeições , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Refeições/fisiologia , Refeições/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(7): 1022-1031, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The energy imbalance produced by an increase in caloric intake and/or decrease in energy expenditure induces obesity. However, the fatty acid composition of a diet can affect the metabolism in different ways, having a role in the development of obesity. AIM: To determine the effect of different fatty acids types and composition on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT) and postprandial energy expenditure in humans. METHODS: A search in the PubMed and Web of Science databases, yielded a total of 269 potential articles as a first result; 254 were excluded according to the criteria. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were used for this systematic review. The studies analyzed report different effects of the fatty acids of the treatment on the diet-induced thermogenesis. Evidence indicates that the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids causes a greater DIT than saturated fatty acids. Also, the consumption of medium-chain fatty acids compared to long-chain fatty acids has been shown to increase DIT. Likewise, the use of certain oils has shown positive effects on postprandial energy expenditure, as is the case of olive oil, compared to rapeseed oil. CONCLUSIONS: The use of specific types of fatty acids in the everyday diet can increase postprandial energy expenditure in humans. Nevertheless, longer-term studies are required.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Termogênese/fisiologia
16.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382624

RESUMO

The definition of neighborhoods as areas of exposure to the food environment is a challenge in food environment research. We aimed to test the association of density of restaurants with home cooking using four different definitions of residential neighborhoods. We also tested effect modification by age, length of residency, education, and income. This innovative cross-sectional study was conducted in the Netherlands (N = 1245 adults). We calculated geographic information system-based measures of restaurant density using residential administrative neighborhood boundaries, 800 m and 1600 m buffers around the home and respondents' self-defined boundaries (drawn by the respondents on a map of their residential area). We used adjusted Poisson regression to test associations of restaurant density (tertiles) and the outcome "weekly consumption of home-cooked meals" (six to seven as compared to five days per week (day/week) or fewer). Most respondents reported eating home-cooked meals for at least 6 day/week (74.2%). Regardless of the neighborhood definition used, no association between food environment and home cooking was observed. No effect modification was found. Although exposure in terms of density of restaurants was different according to the four different neighborhood definitions, we found no evidence that the area under study influences the association between density of restaurants and home cooking among Dutch adults.


Assuntos
Culinária , Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Refeições , Características de Residência , Restaurantes , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295897

RESUMO

The achievement of optimal post-prandial (PP) glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) remains a great challenge. This review summarizes the main factors contributing to PP glucose response and discusses the likely reasons why PP glucose control is rarely achieved in T1DM patients. The macronutrient composition of the meal, the rate of gastric emptying and premeal insulin administration are key factors affecting the PP glucose response in T1DM. Although the use of continuous insulin infusion systems has improved PP glucose control compared to conventional insulin therapy, there is still need for further ameliorations. T1DM patients frequently present a delayed gastric emptying (GE) that produces a lower but more prolonged PP hyperglycemia. In addition, delayed GE is associated with a longer time to reach the glycemic peak, with a consequent mismatch between PP glucose elevation and the timing of premeal insulin action. On this basis, including GE time and meal composition in the algorithms for insulin bolus calculation of the insulin delivery systems could be an important step forward for optimization of PP glucose control in T1DM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Insulina/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 975, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary guidelines typically specify rather complex goals and indicators for healthy food choices, such as nutrient and energy content patterns. However, translating these complex goals into practice in real life is often a major obstacle for many people. The present studies propose an intervention strategy for boosting healthy food choices by prompting consumers at a meaningful moment with a simple behavioural trigger, that is to eat a colourful lunch. Effectivity and feasibility of this intervention strategy were tested in two laboratory experiments and one real-life, smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Intervention. METHODS: In Studies 1 and 2, 83 / 42 participants self-served four meals (colourful, typical, healthy, and low-calorie) / three meals (colourful, typical, and varied) from a Fake Food Buffet. In Study 3, 80 participants recorded images of 1,210 lunch meals over a period of 3 weeks using mobile visual food recording. In the second week, participants additionally received a daily smartphone prompt to eat a colourful lunch. In all studies, participants were asked to rate the prompts' feasibility. RESULTS: Prompting participants to eat a colourful meal increased the proportion of healthy foods consumed compared to typical meals in all three studies. In Studies 1 and 2, colourful meals contained more fruit and vegetables, while in Study 3 the prompt increased vegetable consumption. Furthermore, participants evaluated colourful meals to be the tastiest (Study 1) and most pleasant, and reported that the prompt was easy to follow and act upon. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that prompting individuals to eat colourful meals is a promising strategy to facilitate healthy food choices in daily life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00017552 (Study 3; retrospectively registered on 24th June 2019).


Assuntos
Cor , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Refeições , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Almoço , Masculino , Mensagem de Texto , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311102

RESUMO

Implementation of efficacious dietary interventions to regulate energy balance requires understanding of the determinants of individual response. To date, information regarding individual variability in response to elevated meal protein content is lacking. This study investigates whether sex and/or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use play a role in the response to elevated meal protein in 21 healthy young adults (seven men, seven women not taking OCP, and seven women who were OCP users). Participants consumed each of three standardized isocaloric (590 kcal) meals of differing protein content (11, 23, 31% kcal protein). Resting energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), hunger and satiety were measured at baseline (fasting) and during 180 min postprandial. Whilst significant dose-response increases in EE were observed in men, meal protein-induced EE in women without OCP reached a maximum at <23% protein. Women taking OCP reported lower postprandial fullness than women without OCP, despite similar body size, but also, most notably, no significant difference in EE response between any of the meals. Whilst the mechanisms underpinning this thermogenic inflexibility in response across a wide-range (three-fold) of protein meal content require further investigation, this highlights the need for careful consideration of factors that may influence an individual's metabolic response to dietary interventions aimed at optimising postprandial thermogenesis for body weight regulation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Refeições , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109865, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279278

RESUMO

Consumption of curry containing poppy seeds has raised an issue concerning the opiate content in the urine that might exceed the cut-off value (300ng/mL). The main objective of this study was to examine the morphine and codeine contents in the urine of the consumers after partaking poppy seed-enriched curry in. The volunteers were asked to partake: (a) a single meal and their urines were collected within 24h, or (b) Two meals a day for three consecutive days and their urines were collected within 72h. Two different dosages were also tested in this study: (a) low dosage: 1g/100ml curry (containing 138µg of morphine and 66µg of codeine) and (b) high dosage: 5g/100ml curry (containing 690µg of morphine and 330µg of codeine). The subjects were randomised into the groups using the method of stratified randomization with age and gender groups as covariates. A total of 6 subjects was allocated for each group and placebos were used as control. Results showed that all subjects who consumed low dosage of poppy seeds either in single meal or multiple meals experiment were found negative. However, 1 out of 6high dosage subjects was confirmed positive at a period of 3-6h after the consumption of curry in the single meal study. This outlier maybe due to the lack of water consumption after consuming the curry, thus the low volume of urine was collected and the opiate was concentrated in the urine. On the other hand, 5 out of 6high dosage subjects in the multiple meals experiment were found positive. Majority of these subjects were found positive on the second and third day of the experiment after the second curry meal was consumed. The outlier (negative) in this group might be due to the high consumption of water throughout the experiment and the subject's urine volumes and frequency of urine collection were much higher compared to other subjects. From the result of this study, it can be concluded that partaking high dosages of poppy seed in curry could give a positive response (>300ng/ml+uncertainty of measurement) in the urine, and the water consumption after partaking curry has significant influence for the opiate contents in the urine.


Assuntos
Codeína/urina , Refeições , Morfina/urina , Papaver/química , Sementes/química , Adulto , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Distribuição Aleatória , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Adulto Jovem
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