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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 494-497, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018035

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, associated, among others, with motor symptoms such as resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. At the same time, early diagnosis of PD is hindered by a high misdiagnosis rate and the subjective nature of the diagnosis process itself. Recent developments in mobile and wearable devices, such as smartphones and smartwatches, have allowed the automated detection and objective measurement of PD symptoms. In this paper we investigate the hypothesis that PD motor symptom degradation can be assessed by studying the in-meal behavior and modeling the food intake process. To achieve this, we use the inertial data from a commercial smartwatch to investigate the in-meal eating behavior of healthy controls and PD patients. In addition, we define and provide a methodology for calculating Plate-to-Mouth (PtM), an indicator that relates with the average time that the hand spends transferring food from the plate towards the mouth during the course of a meal. The presented experimental results, using our collected dataset of 28 participants (7 healthy controls and 21 PD patients), support our hypothesis. Results initially point out that PD patients have a higher PtM value than the healthy controls. Finally, using PtM we achieve a precision/recall/F1 of 0.882/0.714/0.789 towards classifying the meals from the PD patients and healthy controls.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Hipocinesia , Refeições , Boca , Movimento
2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 749-754, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of comprehensive intervention measures mainly consisting of salt reduction health education and labeling less salt foods among catering units. METHODS: The total of 36 catering units were selected randomly and divided into intervention group A, B and control group in August of 2015. Health education was initiated in the intervention group A, including the training of knowledge on salt reduction for managers, cooks and service personnel of catering units every month; distribution of special salt control spoon for cooks; the arrangement of environment of salt reduction in catering units. And health education and labeling less salt foods was provided to the intervention group B, The control group C did not actively provide any intervention. The cook records the quantity of low-salt dishes sold, salt collection and the number of persons per meal in according to the requirements. Questionnaire survey and physical examination were performed to evaluate the effects of comprehensive intervention measures among catering units in the three groups of staffs in the catering units in a baseline study and an evaluation survey six months after the intervention. RESULTS: Compared with group C, the knowledge, attitude and behavior of salt reduction was significantly improved in intervention group A and B(P<0. 05). The behavior towards salt reduction improved much better in group B than in group A(P<0. 05), and using salt spoon when cooking and recommending less salt food to customer improved 32. 1%(χ~2=51. 72, P<0. 05)and 24. 2%(χ~2=30. 01, P<0. 05)separately. The proportion of sales of low salt dishes in the unit canteen has increased steadily, reaching 16. 8% while the proportion of sales has dropped to 9. 2% in the hotel by the end of the intervention period(χ~2=44. 66, P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge of reducing salt was improved by health education, and labeling less salt foods can promote reducing salt related behavior. The effect of comprehensive intervention measures for salt reduction in unit canteen is better than in the hotel. It was suggested that comprehensive intervention measures mainly consisting of salt reduction health education and labeling less salt foods should be used together in the catering units.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Humanos , Refeições , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5892-5895, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019315

RESUMO

This study aims at developing an unannounced meal detection method for artificial pancreas, based on a recent extension of Isolation Forest. The proposed method makes use of features accounting for individual Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) profiles and benefits from a two-threshold decision rule detection. The advantage of using Extended Isolation Forest (EIF) instead of the standard one is supported by experiments on data from virtual diabetic patients, showing good detection accuracy with acceptable detection delays.


Assuntos
Pâncreas Artificial , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Florestas , Humanos , Refeições
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5093-5096, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019132

RESUMO

The daily challenge for people with type 1 diabetes is maintaining glycaemia in the "normal" range after meals, by injecting themselves the correct amount of insulin. Artificial pancreas systems were developed to adjust insulin delivery based on real-time monitoring of glycaemia and meal patient's report. Meal reporting is a heavy burden for patients as it requires carbohydrate estimation several times per day. To improve patient's quality of life and treatment, several methods aim at detecting unannounced meals. While untreated meals lead to hyperglycaemia and in the long-term to comorbidities, treating falsely detected meals can cause hypoglycaemia and coma. In this paper, we propose to customise the meal detection to the patient's hourly meal probability in order to limit false detection of unannounced meals.


Assuntos
Pâncreas Artificial , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina , Refeições , Qualidade de Vida
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053099

RESUMO

3D food printing, a part of additive manufacturing technique is used to modify the process of the food manufacturing in terms of color, shape, flavor, texture and nutrition. It liberates the user to identify and modify their meal according to one's desire, matching to the very minute details. Currently, it is used in decorating and fabricating, food products such as chocolate, cookies and cakes. The process of printing foods depends on several factors such as the physical state of food (whether powder, liquid or semi-solid), size and shape of the syringes to be used and the composition of the ingredients such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Apart from the use of 3D food printing for fabrication, it can also play an important role in solving malnutrition by enhancing the nutritional profile of the meal. The objective of this review is to highlight the different methods used in 3D food printing, 3D food printers, benefits of 3D food printing and challenges faced while food printing. Moreover, the paper discusses the applications of 3D food printing and its scope in the near future.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Refeições , Impressão Tridimensional
6.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050404

RESUMO

Unexpected isolation, which has not yet been seen on a global scale, has created the conditions for evaluating nutrition in a situation of reduced spatial activity. The study aimed to assess the influence of lockdown on selected eating habits of Polish adults. An anonymous questionnaire was conducted, including questions about eating habits and self-reported anthropometric measurements, referring to "before" and "during" lockdown. We reported the findings of 312 adults (aged 41.12 ± 13.05 years). Overall, 64.1% of the participants were women, 77.7% urban inhabitants and 78.6% employed. The average length of social isolation was 50.79 ± 10.53 days. The majority (51.6%) of the respondents did not eat outside the house during lockdown (p < 0.0001). The number of meals eaten during the day during lockdown increased significantly, 11.2% of the respondents ate 5 and more meals (p < 0.0001). The percentage of people snacking between meals increased by 5.1% during lockdown (p = 0.0001). Eggs, potatoes, sweets, canned meat and alcohol were consumed considerably more commonly during lockdown, while fast-food products, instant soups and energy drinks were eaten or drunk significantly less frequently. A marked decrease in the number of daily servings of the following products was observed: bakery products, red meat, fast food, instant soups, sweet beverages and energy drinks. Conversely, the number of daily servings of sweets and canned meat significantly increased. Two thirds of the respondents reported body weight changes, with 45.86% of the participants being overweight during lockdown. Significant changes in the diet of Polish adults were found during lockdown due to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fast Foods , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239274, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946506

RESUMO

This systematic review evaluated the association between frequency of family meals (FFM) and nutritional status (NS) and/or food consumption (FC) in adolescents. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017062180) and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. No publication date, language, or meal type restrictions were imposed. Only full-text original articles were included; qualitative studies were excluded. Studies were identified by searching 5 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, BVS Brazil, and Adolec) and gray literature (Google Scholar) and by scanning reference lists of included articles. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort and cross-sectional studies. Initial search yielded 2001 results and 47 articles were included. An updated literature search added 3 articles. Of the 50 studies included, 25 studied the association between FFM and NS, 32 investigated the association between FFM and FC, being that seven studies analyzed both outcomes. Thirty-four were cross-sectional studies, 12 were longitudinal studies, and 4 studies analyzed both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Thirty-five studies were rated as having good quality, whereas 19 were of fair quality. Sample size ranged from 140 to 102 072 participants. Most investigations evaluated the frequency of breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner/supper/evening meals over a 1-week period. Seventeen studies identified a positive relationship between high FFM and better NS, and 26 found a positive association between high FFM and better FC. In conclusion, this review showed an association between FFM and healthy dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Further research is needed to understand the association between FFM and NS, since some studies showed a protective role of family meals against obesity in this age group, whereas other studies identified no significant association between these variables.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Gerenciamento de Dados , Dieta , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Almoço , Masculino , Refeições , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency is highly prevalent in low-income countries and is a major public health problem worldwide. Lactating mothers are the most vulnerable population group to vitamin A deficiency. Despite this, there is limited study on vitamin A-rich food consumption by lactating mothers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess adequate vitamin A rich food consumption and associated factors among lactating mothers visiting child immunization and postnatal care centers in health institutions of Gondar Town. METHODS: An Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed at a health institution in Gondar Town from February to March 2019, and included 631 study participants. Simple random sampling followed by a systematic sampling technique was used to select participants. The data were collected using the Helen Keller International Food Frequency Questionnaire, entered using Epi-Info 7 statistical software and exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the outcome variable and variables with p-value <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 624 lactating mothers participated in the study giving a response rate of 98.89%. The study shows adequate consumption of vitamin A-rich food was 38.94% (95% CI: 35%- 43%). Predictors such as attending college diploma and above (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI; 1.02-4.99), having household family size ≤ 3 (AOR = 4.04, 95% CI; 1.60-10.17), being in higher economic class (AOR = 1.93, 95% CI; 1.18-3.14), having dietary diversity score of ≥ 5 (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI; 1.09-2.32) and meal frequency of ≥ 4 (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI; 1.09-2.32) were statistically significant. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The majority of respondents had inadequate consumption of foods rich in vitamin A. Educational status, family size, wealth index, dietary diversity, and meal frequency were found to be factors that affect adequate consumption of vitamin A-rich foods. Encouraging and educating lactating mothers to consume foods rich in vitamin A is crucial.


Assuntos
Dieta , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Vitamina A/dietoterapia , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Lactação/fisiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza , Prevalência , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/metabolismo
10.
Intern Med ; 59(18): 2229-2235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938850

RESUMO

Objective The measurement of C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) is essential for evaluating the pancreatic ß-cell function and selecting appropriate therapeutic agents in patients with diabetes mellitus. The meal tolerance test (MTT) is simple to administer physiological insulin-stimulating test. Previous studies have reported that several CPR-related indices are useful markers for predicting insulin requirement in type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the serum CPR response during the MTT in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in order to clarify the clinical utility of the MTT. Methods We performed the MTT using a test meal with timed measurements of the serum CPR level based on the oral glucose tolerance test over 180 minutes and tested the correlation of various CPR-related indices and clinical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients The subjects were patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had been admitted to our hospital for diabetes management and education. The final study population consisted of 68 patients. Results The fasting CPR level was correlated with the 24-hour urinary CPR excretion and body mass index. The serum CPR level at 120 minutes in the MTT was strongly correlated with the area under the curve of CPR during the MTT. The patients who needed insulin therapy at 6 months after hospitalization showed a significant lower incremental CPR value from 0 to 120 minutes in the MTT than those who did not need insulin therapy. Conclusion The plasma C-peptide levels at 0 and 120 minutes in the MTT provide essential information for the clinical management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Peptídeo C/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial
11.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756458

RESUMO

The present study aimed to identify patterns of dietary changes during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associations with sociodemographics, body mass index (BMI) before pandemic, and lifestyle changes in Polish adults and to examine the effects of lockdowns on dietary-lifestyle changes. This study used a cross-sectional online survey to collect data. The k-means algorithm was used to determine of patterns of dietary changes, and logistic regression analyses were performed. During the study period, 43% of respondents decreased physical activity (PA), 49%-increased screen time, and 34%-increased food consumption. Among the three dietary changes patterns, two opposite patterns were found: Prohealthy (28% participants) and Unhealthy (19% participants).The adherence to the Prohealthy pattern was negatively associated with age, but positively with being overweight (aOR 1.31) or obese before pandemic (aOR 1.64). Residing in a macroeconomic region with GDP > 100% decreased adherence to the Prohealthy (aOR 0.73) but increased adherence to the Unhealthy pattern (aOR 1.47). Adults over 40 years old, those living with children, unemployed, those living in a region with a higher GDP, and those not consuming homemade meals could be more exposed to unhealthy behaviors. From a public health perspective, enhancing the message "to be active" during the compulsory isolation period should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polônia , Isolamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784530

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many aspects of daily life. The purpose of this study was to identify how health behaviors, level of stress, financial and food security have been impacted by the pandemic among Canadian families with young children. Parents (mothers, n = 235 and fathers, n = 126) from 254 families participating in an ongoing study completed an online survey that included close and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the quantitative data and qualitative responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. More than half of our sample reported that their eating and meal routines have changed since COVID-19; most commonly reported changes were eating more snack foods and spending more time cooking. Screen time increased among 74% of mothers, 61% of fathers, and 87% of children and physical activity decreased among 59% of mothers, 52% of fathers, and 52% of children. Key factors influencing family stress include balancing work with childcare/homeschooling and financial instability. While some unhealthful behaviors appeared to have been exacerbated, other more healthful behaviors also emerged since COVID-19. Research is needed to determine the longer-term impact of the pandemic on behaviors and to identify effective strategies to support families in the post-COVID-19 context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento Alimentar , Declarações Financeiras , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Renda , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Mães , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tempo de Tela , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 61(3): 161-168, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801259

RESUMO

Dental treatment improves the experience of eating by healing illnesses in the oral cavity or through the installation of special devices. However, mastication can often prove difficult for short periods of time after dental treatment, potentially limiting the types of food that can be consumed. Therefore, we proposed a highly nutritious meal strategy for dental outpatients (hereafter, "easy-to-eat meals"). We previously reported patients' subjective assessment of these easy-to-eat meals as determined through a questionnaire survey. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how differences in age affected such assessments. The study participants comprised patients scheduled to undergo dental treatment. They were divided into 2 groups: one of patients aged above and one of those aged below 70 years. All were required to consume provided easy-to-eat meals at the dental hospital directly after treatment and then answer a questionnaire. The questionnaire included items on patient satisfaction with the meals, taste, portion size, convenience, reduction in discomfort, and whether they would consume them again. The format of the questionnaire was a visual analog scale (VAS), ranging from 0 (negative) to 10 (positive). Portion size was to be rated on a scale from 0 ("Not enough") to 10 ("Too much"), with 5 being "Just right". Correlations between the questionnaire items were investigated to determine how they influenced each other. The VAS average for "Reduction in discomfort" was 8.45±1.39 in the non-elderly group and 6.07±2.92 in the elderly group, and the difference was significant (p=0.02); the VAS average for "Taste" was 6.49±2.32 in the non-elderly group and 4.91±0.98 in the elderly group, and the difference was significant (p=0.04). The results of this study suggest that providing such meal plans as nutritional guidance after dental treatment can influence quality of life in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Mastigação , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyles at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020, in seven languages, to elucidate the behavioural and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the results from the first thousand responders on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours. METHODS: Following a structured review of the literature, the "Effects of home Confinement on multiple Lifestyle Behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak (ECLB-COVID19)" Electronic survey was designed by a steering group of multidisciplinary scientists and academics. The survey was uploaded and shared on the Google online survey platform. Thirty-five research organisations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia and the Americas promoted the survey in English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese and Slovenian languages. Questions were presented in a differential format, with questions related to responses "before" and "during" confinement conditions. RESULTS: 1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%) were included in the analysis. The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on all PA intensity levels (vigorous, moderate, walking and overall). Additionally, daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 h per day. Food consumption and meal patterns (the type of food, eating out of control, snacks between meals, number of main meals) were more unhealthy during confinement, with only alcohol binge drinking decreasing significantly. CONCLUSION: While isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, results indicate that it alters physical activity and eating behaviours in a health compromising direction. A more detailed analysis of survey data will allow for a segregation of these responses in different age groups, countries and other subgroups, which will help develop interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviours that have manifested during the COVID-19 confinement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyles at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020, in seven languages, to elucidate the behavioural and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the results from the first thousand responders on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours. METHODS: Following a structured review of the literature, the "Effects of home Confinement on multiple Lifestyle Behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak (ECLB-COVID19)" Electronic survey was designed by a steering group of multidisciplinary scientists and academics. The survey was uploaded and shared on the Google online survey platform. Thirty-five research organisations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia and the Americas promoted the survey in English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese and Slovenian languages. Questions were presented in a differential format, with questions related to responses "before" and "during" confinement conditions. RESULTS: 1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%) were included in the analysis. The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on all PA intensity levels (vigorous, moderate, walking and overall). Additionally, daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 h per day. Food consumption and meal patterns (the type of food, eating out of control, snacks between meals, number of main meals) were more unhealthy during confinement, with only alcohol binge drinking decreasing significantly. CONCLUSION: While isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, results indicate that it alters physical activity and eating behaviours in a health compromising direction. A more detailed analysis of survey data will allow for a segregation of these responses in different age groups, countries and other subgroups, which will help develop interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviours that have manifested during the COVID-19 confinement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(3): 261-267, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) rapidly inactivates incretin hormones and several chemokines, thus influencing chemokine function. There have recently been several reports that DPP-4 inhibitor therapy is associated with an increased risk of bullous pemphigoid (BP), an autoimmune skin disease. Previous studies have demonstrated an increase of CCL11/Eotaxin, a DPP-4 substrate, in serum and blister fluid from patients with BP. Serum levels of CCL22/macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and CXCL10/IP-10, other DPP-4 substrates, are also elevated in BP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the effect of treatment with teneligliptin (a DPP-4 inhibitor) for 24 weeks on plasma levels of CCL11/Eotaxin, CCL22/MDC and CXCL10/IP-10 during a meal test. Ten consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes who showed inadequate glycemic control by metformin and/or sulfonylureas were recruited. A standard meal test was performed at baseline and after 24 weeks of treatment with teneligliptin at 20 mg/day. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion of the meal. In addition to plasma levels of the 3 chemokine, plasma DPP-4 enzyme activity and soluble DPP-4 antigen were measured. RESULTS: Treatment with teneligliptin decreased hemoglobin A1c and reduced fasting plasma DPP-4 activity by 90.1% compared with baseline. Unexpectedly, plasma levels of all 3 chemokines (including CCL11/Eotaxin) were not increased after teneligliptin treatment, and instead were significantly lower at every point during the meal test. CONCLUSIONS: Teneligliptin reduced the plasma concentrations of 3 chemokines (DPP-4 substrates) that may be related to the occurrence of DPP4 inhibitor-associated BP (UMIN000012508).


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Refeições , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Tiazolidinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Quimiocina CCL11/sangue , Quimiocina CCL22/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/sangue , Jejum , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(6): 804-808, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516020

RESUMO

COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome are devastating pandemics. Effective control of metabolic parameters and their dysfunction may help prevent or minimize the acute and devastating effects of SARS-CoV-2 by reducing the local inflammatory response and blocking the entry of the virus into cells. With such consideration in mind, we gathered data from dietary surveys conducted in nine European countries to explore the relationship between actual clock hour of the large dinner meal and also interval in minutes between it and sunset in the respective countries and death rate above the median rate of per one million people as an index of mortality due to COVID-19 infection. Clock time of the dinner meal varied between 16:00 and 21:00 h across the European counties sampled, and the correlation between dinner mealtime and death rate was strongly correlated, R = 0.7991 (two-tailed p = 0.0098), with R 2 explaining 63% of the variation within the data. This strong linear positive correlation indicates that the later the clock time of the dinner meal, the higher is the death rate (and vice versa). The relationship between meal timing in reference to sunset, utilized as a gross surrogate marker of the activity/rest synchronizer of circadian rhythms, and death rate was negative and even slightly stronger, R = -0.8025 (two-tailed p = 0.0092), with R 2 explaining 64% of the variation within the data. This strong linear negative correlation indicates that the shorter the interval between the dinner meal and sunset, i.e., the closer the time of the largest meal of the day to bedtime, the greater is the death rate (and vice versa). Our preliminary approach to nighttime eating, in terms of the day's largest caloric intake, as a risk factor for the predisposing conditions of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other commonly associated comorbidities of being overweight, and death from COVID-19 infection reveals strong correlation with the time of the dinner meal, both in terms of its actual clock and circadian time.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Tempo
19.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 87-93, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of obesity and overweight among children is rising worldwide. Thus, the importance of restaurants as food environments is also growing. Considering these developments, the present study describes and evaluates menus and meals offered to children in German full-service restaurants. METHODS: Using quota sampling procedure, a representative sample of German full-service restaurants was identified. The individual meals were then assessed, using the Children's Menu Assessment tool (CMA). A total of 500 restaurants and 1,877 individual meals were analyzed. RESULTS: On average, every menu included 3.76 ± 1.31 meals for children. The arithmetic mean of the CMA score was 0.73 ± 0.85. Around 80% of all offered meals were limited to eight typical dishes and over 50% included French fries or another form of fried potatoes. Not one of the meals included any nutritional information. Healthy entrees were never marked (e.g. by an optional qualitative information such as healthy food symbol or a healthier choice tag). Eighty-one percent of all the main components in the meals were rated as unhealthy and none of the meals used wholegrain products. The automatic inclusion of a drink and free refill options are both rather unusual in Germany, as well as the use of cartoon characters and product logos or giving away promotional toys. A positive correlation was found between the price of the food and its quality. The majority of dishes feature a high energy density while simultaneously having a low nutrient density. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the range of food on offer for children in German restaurants is unhealthy and lacking in variety. There is an urgent need for improvement of both the menus themselves as well as the offered meals. Our study is not only by far the most comprehensive study, but also the study with the worst CMA score values worldwide.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Refeições , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Planejamento de Cardápio , Jogos e Brinquedos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234379, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511277

RESUMO

Eating alone while living with family members is a risk factor for mental health decline in old age. However, little is known as to why older adults choose to eat alone, even with family present. This study therefore aimed to explore reasons for older adults eating alone despite living with family members, using a qualitative approach. Fifteen people aged 65 years and older (11 men and 4 women) who were eating alone while living with family members were included in the study. These individuals were selected from the participants of the Kashiwa cohort study conducted in 2016. Individual interviews were conducted using an open-ended format. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were further thematically analyzed using a qualitative software package, NVivo 11. We extracted six themes as reasons for eating alone and hypothesized interactions among these themes. The extracted themes were: "age-related changes," "solo-friendly environment," "family structure changes," "time lag for eating," "bad relationships with family members" and "routinization." To assess interactions, the themes were categorized as "background factors," "triggers," and "stabilizers." The aforementioned themes could lead to the development and sustained behavior of eating alone among older adults living with family members. As most themes describe conditions that are likely to remain static, it may not be realistic to encourage such individuals to begin eating with family members. The promotion of meals with neighbors or friends could be effective in alleviating the negative consequences of eating alone.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Refeições/psicologia
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