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1.
Nervenarzt ; 92(2): 169-180, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523263

RESUMO

Spinal automatisms and reflexes, peripheral neurogenic and myogenic reactions are common in patients with irreversible brain death. They are therefore compatible and are even understood by experienced investigators as confirmation of irreversible brain death. This article provides an overview of the phenomenology of irreversible brain death and discusses it from a neuropathological perspective. Furthermore, irreversible brain death is described in order to distinguish it from pathological movements and motor reactions in comatose patients or patients with disturbed consciousness due to severe brain disorders.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica , Reflexo , Coma , Humanos , Movimento
2.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 320(3): R331-R341, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470183

RESUMO

Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is used clinically to promote proximal GI emptying and motility. In acute experiments, we measured duodenal motor responses elicited by GES applied at 141 randomly chosen electrode sites on the stomach serosal surface. Overnight-fasted (H2O available) anesthetized male rats (n = 81) received intermittent biphasic GES for 5 min (20-s-on/40-s-off cycles; I = 0.3 mA; pw = 0.2 ms; 10 Hz). A strain gauge on the serosal surface of the proximal duodenum of each animal was used to evaluate baseline motor activity and the effect of GES. Using ratios of time blocks compared with a 15-min prestimulation baseline, we evaluated the effects of the 5-min stimulation on concurrent activity, on the 10 min immediately after the stimulation, and on the 15-min period beginning with the onset of stimulation. We mapped the magnitude of the duodenal response (three different motility indices) elicited from the 141 stomach sites. Post hoc electrode site maps associated with duodenal responses suggested three zones similar to the classic regions of forestomach, corpus, and antrum. Maximal excitatory duodenal motor responses were elicited from forestomach sites, whereas inhibitory responses occurred with stimulation of the corpus. Moderate excitatory duodenal responses occurred with stimulation of the antrum. Complex, weak inhibitory/excitatory responses were produced by stimulation at boundaries between stomach regions. Patterns of GES efficacies coincided with distributions of previously mapped vagal afferents, suggesting that excitation of the duodenum is strongest when GES electrodes are situated over stomach concentrations of vagal intramuscular arrays, putative stretch receptors in the muscle wall.


Assuntos
Duodeno/inervação , Estimulação Elétrica , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Estômago/inervação , Animais , Masculino , Fusos Musculares/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/fisiologia , Inibição Neural , Pressão , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo , Fatores de Tempo , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429857

RESUMO

Opioid peptides and their receptors are expressed in the mammalian retina; however, little is known about how they might affect visual processing. The melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which mediate important non-image-forming visual processes such as the pupillary light reflex (PLR), express ß-endorphin-preferring, µ-opioid receptors (MORs). The objective of the present study was to elucidate if opioids, endogenous or exogenous, modulate pupillary light reflex (PLR) via MORs expressed by ipRGCs. MOR-selective agonist [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) or antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP) was administered via intravitreal injection. PLR was recorded in response to light stimuli of various intensities. DAMGO eliminated PLR evoked by light with intensities below melanopsin activation threshold but not that evoked by bright blue irradiance that activated melanopsin signaling, although in the latter case, DAMGO markedly slowed pupil constriction. CTAP or genetic ablation of MORs in ipRGCs slightly enhanced dim-light-evoked PLR but not that evoked by a bright blue stimulus. Our results suggest that endogenous opioid signaling in the retina contributes to the regulation of PLR. The slowing of bright light-evoked PLR by DAMGO is consistent with the observation that systemically applied opioids accumulate in the vitreous and that patients receiving chronic opioid treatment have slow PLR.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Opioides/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Retina/metabolismo , Percepção Visual/genética , Animais , Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-Encefalina/farmacologia , Encefalinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Encefalinas/genética , Humanos , Luz , Camundongos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/antagonistas & inibidores , Reflexo/genética , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Endorfina/genética
4.
Neuron ; 109(1): 3-5, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412095

RESUMO

In this issue of Neuron, Gatto et al. (2021) demonstrate that tactile reflexes are driven by excitatory modules defined by location, while Peirs et al. (2021) show that the circuits implicated in the conversion of touch to pain are defined by the nature of the injury.


Assuntos
Reflexo , Medula Espinal , Humanos , Neurônios , Dor , Tato
5.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(10): 660-664, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030842

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury can have widespread consequences beyond the disruption of sensory and motor functions. Injury at or above the sixth thoracic spinal cord segment frequently leads to dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system, which results in a syndrome called autonomic hyperreflexia or dysreflexia. It is a hypertensive crisis triggered by visceral or somatic stimuli below the level of the injury and caused by sympathetic spinal reflexes not modulated by regulatory centers in the brain. Patients with spinal cord injuries frequently undergo surgery for multiple reasons. Because of the potentially lethal complications of autonomic hyperreflexia, physicians, and in particular anaesthesiologists, must be aware of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and adequate perioperative management.


Assuntos
Disreflexia Autonômica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Disreflexia Autonômica/etiologia , Disreflexia Autonômica/terapia , Humanos , Reflexo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5208-5211, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019158

RESUMO

The "diving reflex" (DR) is a very powerful autonomic reflex that facilitates survival in hypoxic/anoxic conditions and could trigger multifaceted physiologic effects for the treatment of various diseases by modulating the cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous systems. The DR can be induced by cold water or noxious gases applied to the anterior nasal mucosa and paranasal regions, which can stimulate trigeminal thermo- or chemo-receptors to send afferent signals to medullary nuclei which mediate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Although promising, these approaches have yet to be adopted in routine clinical practice due to the inability to precisely control exposure-response relationships, lack of reproducibility, and difficulty implementing in a clinical setting. In this study, we present the ability of electrical Trigeminal (Infraorbital) Nerve Stimulation (eTINS) to induce the DR in a dose-controllable manner. We found that eTINS not only triggered specific physiological changes compatible with the pattern of "classic" DR observed in animals/humans, but also controlled the induced-DR at varying levels. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the intensity of the DR is controllable by dose and opens possibility to investigate its protective mechanism against various pathologies in well-controlled research settings.


Assuntos
Reflexo de Mergulho , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Nervo Maxilar , Reflexo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 49-55, 21/10/2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123581

RESUMO

La aparición progresiva de habilidades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivo-afectivas en el humano a lo largo de su desarrollo es un reflejo de cambios fisiológicos que se gestan al interior del sistema nervioso. Dichos cambios hacen parte de procesos dinámicos y dependen, después del nacimiento, de la actividad eléctrica inducida por la experiencia. Considerando lo anterior, el sistema nervioso en desarrollo constituye una especie de protomapa, sobre el que la experiencia moldea características moleculares, neuroquímicas y de conectividad, que se reflejan en las actividades emergentes del sistema. La evidencia que soporta la importancia que la influencia experiencial tiene sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso viene en aumento. Esta revisión reúne información sobre estudios en modelos biológicos y en humanos sometidos a privación sensorial y ambiental. Se enfatiza en la caracterización de los rasgos cognitivos y sociales.


The progressive advent of sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive skills in the human being through its development, demonstrate physiological changes that are gestated within the nervous system. These processes are dynamic and dependent postnatally on electrical activity induced by experience. Taking this into account, the developing nervous system constitutes a protomap molded by experience dependent molecular, physiological and connectivity characteristics, which are reflected in the emergent principles of the system. The evidence that supports the importance of experience as influence over the development of this system has increased in the past years. This document gathers information about animal models and human studies enduring sensory and environmental deprivation, emphasizing in the characterization of their cognitive and social remarks.


O aparecimento progressivo de habilidades sensoriais, motoras e cognitivo-afetivas no humano ao longo do seu desenvolvimento é um reflexo de mudanças fisiológicas que se gestam no interior do sistema nervoso. Ditas mudanças fazem parte de processos dinâmicos e dependem, depois do nascimento, da atividade elétrica induzida pela experiência. Considerando o anterior, o sistema nervoso em desenvolvimento constitui uma espécie de "protomapa", sobre o que a experiência molda características moleculares, neuroquímicas e de conectividade, que se refletem nas atividades emergentes do sistema. A evidência que suporta a importância que a influência experiencial tem sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso vem em aumento. Esta revisão reúne informação sobre estudos em modelos biológicos e em humanos submetidos a privação sensorial e ambiental. Se enfatiza na caracterização das características cognitivas e sociais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Reflexo , Privação Sensorial , Sinapses , Cognição , Modelos Animais , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Sistema Nervoso , Plasticidade Neuronal
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976529

RESUMO

The levels and activity of the enzyme paraoxonase 1 affect the vulnerability to the teratogenic effects of organophosphate pesticides. Mutant mice lacking the gene for paraoxonase1 (PON1-/-) are more susceptible to the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos, and were hypothesized to be more vulnerable to social behavior deficits induced by exposure to chlorpyrifos during gestation. Three experiments were performed comparing PON1-/- mice to PON1+/+ mice born to dams treated with 0.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos or cornoil vehicle on gestational days 12-15. Chlofpyrifos-exposed male PON1-/- mouse pups had delayed development of reflexes in in the first experiment. In the second experiment, adult male and female PON1-/- mice and the female PON1+/+ mice all displayed lower social preference than the male vehicle-treated PON1+/+ mice. The PON1-/- mice and the female PON1+/+ mice displayed lower social preference compared to the PON1+/+ male mice. Male adult mice that had been exposed in utero to chlorpyrifos showed less conditioned social preference regardless of genotype. In the third study, the delayed reflex development was replicated in male and female PON1-/- mice, but chlorpyrifos did not augment this effect. Nest Odor Preference, a test of early social attachment to dam and siblings, was lower in PON1-/- mouse pups compared to PON1+/+ pups. This study shows for the first time that PON1-/- mice have a behavioral phenotype that indicates impaired reflex development and social behavior. Chlorpyrifos exposure during gestation tended to augment some of these effects.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Comportamento Social , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Animais , Arildialquilfosfatase/deficiência , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Reflexo
12.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 6(3): 517-532, sept. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-197062

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of an acute local vibration exercise on the visual reaction time of a fencer's upper body extremities. Twenty-six male fencers between the ages of 15 and 23 (mean age, 17.38 ± 2.13 years, height: 173.6±9.1 cm, body mass: 70.2 ±14.1 kg) volunteered for this study. The reaction time test was applied before and after the vibration exercise (applied for 30 seconds in 27 Hz with a 2-mm amplitude). After 25 min. standard warming up, fencers were informed about the test, and three repeated reaction tests were performed to provide familiarization. The fencers started the reaction test in the standard fencing guard position. According to five signals coming at two to five second intervals from the target monitor, the fencers made touché by bending (attacking). The reaction time test had five trials. The average reaction time values pre-vibration, and post-vibration were compared. The visual reaction time measured pre-vibration were significantly longer than those measured post-vibration (p < 0.001). Acute local vibration exercise applied to fencers shortened the visual reaction time. Given the fact that vibration can improve RT, the use of vibration in training has the potential to provide an advantage to fencers


El propósito de este estudio es determinar el efecto de un ejercicio de vibración local aguda en el tiempo de reacción visual de las extremidades superiores de un esgrimidor. Veintiséis esgrimidores masculinos entre las edades de 15 y 23 (edad media, 17.38 ± 2.13 años, altura: 173.6 ± 9.1 cm, masa corporal: 70.2 ± 14.1 kg) se ofrecieron como voluntarios para este estudio. La prueba del tiempo de reacción se aplicó antes y después del ejercicio de vibración (aplicado durante 30 segundos en 27 Hz con una amplitud de 2 mm). Después de 25 min. calentamiento estándar, se informó a los esgrimidores sobre la prueba y se realizaron tres pruebas de reacción repetidas para proporcionar familiarización. Los esgrimidores comenzaron la prueba de reacción en la posición estándar de protección de esgrima. De acuerdo con cinco señales que vienen a intervalos de dos a cinco segundos desde el monitor objetivo, los esgrimistas hicieron un toque al doblarse (atacar). La prueba del tiempo de reacción tuvo cinco ensayos. Se compararon los valores promedio de tiempo de reacción pre-vibración y post-vibración. El tiempo de reacción visual medido antes de la vibración fue significativamente mayor que el medido después de la vibración (p <0.001). El ejercicio de vibración local aguda aplicado a los esgrimidores acortó el tiempo de reacción visual. Dado que la vibración puede mejorar la RT, el uso de la vibración en el entrenamiento tiene el potencial de proporcionar una ventaja a los esgrimidores


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Vibração , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Software , Antropometria
13.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(3): R358-R365, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726156

RESUMO

Studies have shown that early-stage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) leads to an exaggerated reflex pressor response to both static muscle contraction and tendon stretch. However, whether similar responses are present during dynamic exercise (i.e., intermittent contraction) is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether T1DM leads to an exaggerated reflex pressor response to intermittent muscle contraction. We measured the exercise pressor reflex in unanesthetized, decerebrated T1DM (50 mg/kg streptozotocin; STZ) and healthy control (CTL) Sprague-Dawley rats by intermittently contracting the hindlimb muscles for 30 s while measuring mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and heart rate (HR). Intermittently contracting the hindlimb muscles evoked exaggerated mean RSNA (STZ: Δ109 ± 21%, n = 4 rats; CTL: Δ61 ± 8%, n = 5 rats, P < 0.05), peak MAP (STZ: Δ32 ± 2 mmHg, n = 9 rats; CTL: Δ12 ± 2 mmHg, n = 6 rats, P < 0.05), blood pressure index (STZ: Δ625 ± 60 mmHg/s, n = 9 rats; CTL: Δ241 ± 46 mmHg/s, n = 6 rats, P < 0.05), and HR (STZ: Δ24 ± 3 beats/min, n = 9 rats; CTL: Δ9 ± 3 beats/min, n = 6 rats, P < 0.05) responses to similar developed tensions (P > 0.05) in T1DM compared with CTL rats. T1DM rats also exhibited exaggerated early-onset sympathetic (onset: 1 s) and pressor (onset: 5 s) responses. These data show that early-stage T1DM leads to an exaggerated pressor reflex evoked by intermittent muscle contraction. The early onset and greater blood pressure index suggest that cardiovascular strain during dynamic exercise may be significantly higher in individuals with T1DM.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to provide evidence that early-stage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) leads to an exaggerated exercise pressor reflex evoked by intermittent muscle contraction, resulting in substantially higher cardiovascular strain. These findings are significant as they indicate that interventions targeting the exercise pressor reflex may work to alleviate the increased cardiovascular strain and overall burden during exercise in T1DM.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
14.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(4): 502-508, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inotersen, an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of transthyretin (TTR) protein production, demonstrated significant benefit versus placebo in the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS) +7 neurophysiologic tests (mNIS+7) in patients with hereditary TTR-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR) with polyneuropathy. This analysis assessed the mNIS+7 components by anatomic location and the lower limb function (LLF) test. METHODS: Adults with hATTR in the NEURO-TTR trial (NCT01737398) were randomly assigned to receive weekly doses of subcutaneous inotersen 300 mg or placebo for 65 weeks. The mNIS+7 and LLF were assessed at 35 and 66 weeks. RESULTS: All major mNIS+7 components (muscle weakness, muscle stretch reflexes, sensation) and the LLF showed significant efficacy in patients receiving inotersen versus placebo; however, NIS-reflexes (upper limb), touch pressure (upper and lower limbs), and heart rate during deep breathing did not show significant effects. DISCUSSION: The results of this analysis reinforce the beneficial effect of inotersen on slowing neuropathy progression in patients with hATTR polyneuropathy.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/tratamento farmacológico , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630679

RESUMO

Gait is one of the examined functions in child development. It should be economical and symmetrical. One test increasingly used by physiotherapists and pediatricians is asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR). Physiologically, it is observed from in utero up to six postnatal months. This reaction is inhibited with the growing maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). In some children, when the natural process of development is incorrect, ATNR manifests later in life, when it is observed as an automatic response of muscle tension to head rotation. Analysis of pelvis symmetry in the gait of children with active ATNR is important for better understanding their specific movements. In the gait of children with persistent ATNR, some variations are observed. The aim of the study was to investigate the gait symmetry of preschool children and the influence of persistent ATNR. Fifty preschool children with a trace form of ATNR were examined. The distribution of the gait parameters was determined using a BTS G-SENSOR measurement instrument. ATNR negatively influences pelvic obliquity and pelvic rotation (p < 0.01). Younger children have a statistically higher symmetry index of pelvis obliquity in the examined group (p = 0.015). Boys obtain a higher result of symmetry in pelvic tilt than girls in the group (p = 0.027). ATNR affects walking symmetry in preschool children, thus evaluation of the reflex activity and then proper therapy is required to support proper development.


Assuntos
Marcha , Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Reflexo , Caminhada
17.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(2): R223-R232, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609538

RESUMO

Purinergic 2X (P2X) receptors on the endings of group III and IV afferents play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex. Particular attention has been paid to P2X3 receptors because their blockade in the periphery attenuated this reflex. In contrast, nothing is known about the role played by P2X receptors in the spinal cord in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in rats. P2X7 receptors, in particular, may be especially important in this regard because they are found in abundance on spinal glial cells and may communicate with neurons to effect reflexes controlling cardiovascular function. Consequently, we investigated the role played by spinal P2X7 receptors in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrated rats. We found that intrathecal injection of the P2X7 antagonist brilliant blue G (BBG) attenuated the exercise pressor reflex (blood pressure index: 294 ± 112 mmHg·s before vs. 7 ± 32 mmHg·s after; P < 0.05). Likewise, intrathecal injection of minocycline, which inhibits microglial cell output, attenuated the reflex. In contrast, intrathecal injection of BBG did not attenuate the pressor response evoked by intracarotid injection of sodium cyanide, a maneuver that stimulated carotid chemoreceptors. Moreover, injections of BBG either into the arterial supply of the contracting hindlimb muscles or into the jugular vein did not attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. Our findings support the hypothesis that P2X7 receptors on microglial cells within the spinal cord play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/administração & dosagem , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes de Rosanilina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Estado de Descerebração/fisiopatologia , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Minociclina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(7): 513-514, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611193

RESUMO

Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the primary indication for liver transplant in Europe. The highly effective direct-acting antivirals currently available make it possible to achieve the hepatitis C elimination targets set by the World Health Organization. For this, population screening and reflect testing are fundamental strategies.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Reflexo
20.
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