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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435420

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) describes a common pediatric anomaly in pediatric urology with a prevalence of 1-2%. In diagnostics, in addition to the gold standard of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), contrast-enhanced urosonography (ceVUS) offers a radiation-free procedure, which, despite its advantages, is not yet widely used. In the present single-center study, subsequent therapeutic procedures and outcomes after ceVUS of 49 patients were investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of ceVUS with the intention of broader clinical implementation. Materials and Methods: Between 2016 and 2020, 49 patients were retrospectively included and received a ceVUS to evaluate VUR. With a distribution of 47:2 (95.9%), a clear female predominance was present. The age of the patients varied between 5 months and 60 years at the time of ceVUS. All examinations were all performed and subsequently interpreted by a single experienced radiologist (EFSUMB level 3). Results: Compared to intraoperative findings, ceVUS shows a sensitivity of 95.7% with a specificity of 100%. Allergic reactions to the contrast medium could not be observed. Conclusion: With its high sensitivity and intraoperative validation, ceVUS offers an excellent alternative to VCUG, the gold standard in the diagnosis of VUR. In addition, ceVUS is a radiation-free examination method with a low risk profile that offers an exceptional diagnostic tool in the diagnostic clarification of recurrent urinary tract infections with the suspected diagnosis of VUR and should also be included in the consideration of a diagnosis next to the established VCUG, especially in younger children.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cistografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Injeções , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfolipídeos , Politetrafluoretileno , Exposição à Radiação , Recidiva , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Hexafluoreto de Enxofre , Ureteroscopia , Uretra/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Urografia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Bol. pediatr ; 59(248): 98-107, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190954

RESUMO

El reflujo vesicoureteral (RVU) es la malformación nefrourológica más frecuente del recién nacido, pudiendo aparecer de forma secundaria en otras patologías malformativas, como en el caso de las valvas de uretra posterior, o ser secundario a una disfunción de la unión ureterovesical. De esta manera se distinguen dos fenotipos de pacientes, por un lado los diagnosticados en época prenatal o neonatal, generalmente varones, con afección anatómica y/o funcional de la unión ureterovesical, lo que se conoce con el nombre de "RVU primario", frente a formas postnatales en el escolar mayor, generalmente mujeres con disfunción vesical y de la unión ureterovesical, conocidas como "RVU secundario". Estas formas clínicas presentan distinta evo-lución clínica y pronóstico, con desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) debida a un mal desarrollo nefrourológico asociado o no a infecciones urinarias recurrentes. La técnica gold standard para diagnosticar daño renal es la gammagrafía renal DMSA Tc99 mientras que la prueba diagnóstica de RVU es la cistouretrografía miccional seriada (CUMS). El tratamiento inicial debe ser conservador optimizando medidas higiénicas, dada la posibilidad de resolución espontánea del mismo con el tiempo, principalmente de las formas leves de RVU, reservando el tratamiento quirúrgico correctivo en las formas severas y con mala evolución clínica, por el probable desarrollo de ERC que puede conducir al paciente a una enfermedad renal terminal con necesidad de técnicas de depuración extrarrenal o incluso trasplante renal. Dicho tratamiento quirúrgico será preferentemente endoscópico. Aún existe controversia en el uso de profilaxis antibiótica, recomendándose en casos concretos. Un manejo integral multidisciplinar del paciente mejorará su pronóstico renal y vital, así como su calidad de vida y la de su familia


Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most frequent nephrourological malformation of the newborn, and may appear secondary in other malformative pathologies, such as in the case of the posterior urethral leaflets, or be secondary to a dysfunction of the ureterovesical junction. In this way, two phenotypes of patients are distinguished, on the one hand those diagnosed in the prenatal or neonatal period, generally males, with anatomical and/or functional affection of the ureterovesical junction, which is known as the "primary VUR", compared to postnatal forms in the older schoolchild, generally women with bladder and ureterovesical junction dysfunction, known as "secondary VUR". These clinical forms present different clinical and prognostic evolution, with development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to poor nephrourological development frequently associated with recurrent urinary infections. The gold standard technique for diagnosing kidney damage is nuclear renal scanning with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), while the diagnostic test for VUR is voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). Initial treatment should be conservative, optimizing hygienic measures, given the possibility of spontaneous resolution of it over time, mainly in mild forms of VUR, reserving corrective surgical treatment in severe forms and with poor clinical evolution, due to the probable development of CKD that can lead the patient to end-stage kidney disease with the need for extrarenal clearance techniques or even kidney transplantation. Surgical treatment will preferably be endoscopic. There is still controversy in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, being recommended in specificcases. A comprehensive multidisciplinary management of the patient will improve their renal and vital prognosis, as well as their quality of life and that of their family


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/epidemiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Cintilografia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Proteinúria/complicações
3.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(7): 566-570, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical spectrum and patterns of clinical presentation in congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract. METHODS: We enrolled 307 consecutively presenting children with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract at the pediatric nephrology clinic. Patients were evaluated clinically, with serum biochemistry, appropriate imaging and radionuclide scans. RESULTS: The most common anomaly was primary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) (87, 27.3%), followed by pelviureteral junction obstruction (PUJO) (62,20.1%), multicystic dysplastic kidney (51 16.6%), non-obstructive hydronephrosis (32, 10.4%) and posterior urethral valves (PUV) (23, 7.4%). 247 (80.4%) anomalies had been identified during the antenatal period. Another 33 (10.7%) were diagnosed during evaluation of urinary tract infection, and 21 (6.8%) during evaluation for hypertension at presentation. Obstructive anomalies presented earlier than non-obstructive (7 (3, 22.5) vs 10 (4, 24) mo: (P=0.01)). The median (IQR) ages of presentation for children with PUV (n=23), VUR (n=87) and PUJO (n=62) were 4 (2, 14) mo, 10 (5, 27) mo, and 7 (3, 22.5) mo, respectively. Nine (2.9%) children had extrarenal manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: The median age at clinical presentation for various subgroups of anomalies indicates delayed referral. We emphasize the need for prompt referral in order to initiate appropriate therapeutic strategies in children with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract.


Assuntos
Obstrução Ureteral , Sistema Urinário , Anormalidades Urogenitais , Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Urogenitais/classificação , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/fisiopatologia , Urografia/métodos , Urografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/epidemiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia
4.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 31(6): 957-64, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26781473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the questionable clinical role of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and the search for noninvasive, radiation-free procedures sufficiently reliable to detect VUR, we compared the correlation between the midline-to-orifice distance (MOD) measured by ultrasonography (US) and echo-enhanced voiding urosonography (VUS) for detecting VUR in children. The aim of the study was to determine whether measuring MOD by US could be a reliable predictor of VUR in children. METHODS: A total of 116 children, aged 0.25-84 months, with 232 potentially refluxing units were investigated simultaneously by measuring the MOD and performing VUS. Indications for cystography were urinary tract infection and follow-up of a previously detected VUR. VUS was performed after the MOD measurement. The results were analyzed with VUS as the reference method. RESULTS: The MOD was significantly larger in VUR grade III (10.7 mm; p = 0.003) and VUR grade II (9.9 mm; p = 0.001) refluxing units than in non-refluxing units (7.8 mm), even when controlling for the estimated volume/expected maximal capacity (Vest/Vmax) ratio. A MOD cutoff value of 7.4 mm was chosen as a predictor of either the presence or absence of VUR; the sensitivity and specificity of this cutoff measurement for VUR detection were found to be 89 and 24%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the statistically significant difference between the MOD of refluxing versus non-refluxing units identified in our study, the MOD measurement needs further evaluation to determine its potential value as a diagnostic tool for the detection of VUR.


Assuntos
Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Cistografia/efeitos adversos , Cistografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ureter/anatomia & histologia , Bexiga Urinária/anatomia & histologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação
5.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 57(2): 113-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to examine the capability of renal ultrasonography (US) for predicting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal scarring (RS), and to assess, using initial US, the significant urologic abnormalities that impact on management of children hospitalized with a first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: Hospitalized children aged ≤ 2 years with a first febrile UTI were prospectively evaluated using imaging studies, including (99m)Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan, US, and voiding cystourethrography. RESULTS: Of the 310 children analyzed (195 boys and 115 girls), 105 (33.9%) had abnormal US. Acute DMSA scans were abnormal in 194 children (62.6%), including 89 (45.9%) with concomitant abnormal US. There was VUR in 107 children (34.5%), including 79 (25.5%) with Grades III-V VUR. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of US were 52.3% and 75.1%, respectively, for Grades I-V VUR and 68.4% and 87.8%, respectively, for Grades III-V VUR. Eighty-five children (27.4%) had RS, including 55 (64.7%) with abnormal US. Of the 105 children with abnormal US, 33 (31.4%) needed subsequent management (surgical intervention, parental counseling, or follow up of renal function). Nephromegaly on initial US and Grades III-V VUR were risk factors of RS. CONCLUSION: Abnormal US may carry a higher probability of Grades III-V VUR and RS, and can affect subsequent management in a significant number of children. Nephromegaly on initial US and Grades III-V VUR are strongly associated with an increased risk for RS. Thus, US should be performed on children after a first febrile UTI and children with normal US may not require voiding cystourethrography.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação
6.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 20(6): 413-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25645028

RESUMO

AIM: Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) comprise various entities of structural malformations that result from defects in morphogenesis of the kidney and/or urinary tract. These anomalies are the most commonly diagnosed malformations in the prenatal period and constitute the leading cause of end-+stage renal disease (ESRD) in children, worldwide. This prospective study was performed to report the patterns of clinical presentation and diagnosis of infants and children with such malformations. METHODS: Patients with suggestive features of CAKUT, presenting to Cairo University Children Hospital over one year duration were investigated and categorized based on underlying renal structural/functional malformation and associated extra-renal anomalies. RESULTS: One hundred and seven CAKUT children were enrolled in the study. Familial clustering was identified in 14% of the cohort and syndromic CAKUT accounted for 31.8% of cases. Different anomaly entities have been identified; posterior urethral valves (PUV) being the commonest detected abnormality (36.4%). Of note, 9.3% of cohort patients had ESRD at presentation, of which 60% had PUV as their primary renal disease. Obstructive cases were noted to present significantly earlier and attain advanced CKD stages rather than non-obstructive ones. CONCLUSION: CAKUT is a clinically heterogeneous group of diseases with diverse clinical phenotypes. More efforts should be aimed at improving antenatal detection as well as classification with comprehensive reference to the clinical, genetic and molecular features of the diseases. The high frequency of familial and syndromic CAKUT among studied patients is seemingly a convincing reason to pursue the underlying genetic defect in future studies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Anormalidades Urogenitais/classificação , Anormalidades Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/epidemiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/genética
8.
Urologia ; 81(2): 76-87, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25083520

RESUMO

Although the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux and of reflux nephropathy is a well-established and shared procedure, its treatment nowadays is still very controversial. New developments on the knowledge of pathophysiology of renal damage associated to reflux opened the way towards a different diagnostic work-up and different therapeutic approaches. Recently, the "top-down" diagnostic approach has gained wider interest, versus the "down-top" protocol. The attention has recently focused on the renal parenchyma damage and less interest has been given to the presence and the radiological degree of vesicoureteral reflux. The review criteria were based on an in-depth search of references conducted on PubMed, using the terms "vesicoureteral reflux", "children", "incidence", "etiology", "diagnosis", "treatment" and "outcomes". The selection of the papers cited in this review was influenced by the content and the relevance to the points focused in the article.Conservative approaches include no treatment option with watchful waiting, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and bladder rehabilitation. The operative treatment consists of endoscopic, open, laparoscopic and robotic procedures to stop the refluxing ureter.No final consensus has been achieved in literature yet, and further studies are necessary in order to better define the subset of children at risk of developing progression of renal damage.This review aims to clarify the diagnostic management and the urological-nephrological treatment of reflux in pediatric age, on the basis of a review of the best-published evidence.


Assuntos
Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidronefrose/embriologia , Hidronefrose/etiologia , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/embriologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/epidemiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia , Conduta Expectante , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Pediatr Urol ; 9(6 Pt A): 731-7, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23044377

RESUMO

Despite several recent studies, the advisability of antimicrobial prophylaxis and certain imaging studies for urinary tract infections (UTIs) remains controversial. The role of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on the severity and re-infection rates for UTIs is also difficult to assess. Registries and repositories of data and biomaterials from clinical studies in children with VUR are valuable. Disease registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition or procedure. Registries differ from indices in that they contain more extensive data. A research repository is an entity that receives, stores, processes and/or disseminates specimens (or other materials) as needed. It encompasses the physical location as well as the full range of activities associated with its operation. It may also be referred to as a biorepository. This report provides information about some current registries and repositories that include data and samples from children with VUR. It also describes the heterogeneous nature of the subjects, as some registries and repositories include only data or samples from patients with primary reflux while others also include those from patients with syndromic or secondary reflux.


Assuntos
Pediatria , Sistema de Registros , Infecções Urinárias , Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Urinárias/classificação , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/terapia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia
10.
J Urol ; 188(4 Suppl): 1490-2, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22906646

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The International Reflux Committee proposed a grading system for vesicoureteral reflux in 1985 which has been used extensively in everyday practice and research studies. Despite widespread use, based mainly on face validity, the interrater and intrarater reliability of this tool are not known. A tool cannot be considered valid unless it is reliable. Therefore, we estimated the interrater and intrarater reliability of the international grading system for vesicoureteral reflux. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 28 voiding cystourethrogram studies were selected. The images were assembled in an electronic presentation in random fashion. Four pediatric radiologists, 5 pediatric urologists and 4 senior urology residents graded the studies. The images were then shuffled in a random fashion and re-rated after 7 days (total 728 observations). Cohen weighted kappa statistics were used to determine interrater and intrarater reliability. Subgroup analysis was then performed comparing the variability among the 3 groups of raters and different grades. RESULTS: The average interrater reliability was 0.53 (95% CI 0.52-0.55, p <0.0001). Agreement in subgroups was 0.61 for urologists, 0.59 for residents and 0.56 for radiologists. The lowest agreement was shown in grade III (0.36) and the highest in grade I (0.98). The intrarater reliability was 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.95, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The international grading system for vesicoureteral reflux shows low interrater reliability for moderate degrees of vesicoureteral reflux whereas the intrarater reliability is high. Modification of this system may improve its reproducibility.


Assuntos
Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Criança , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
J Urol ; 188(4 Suppl): 1485-9, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22906657

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In recent years the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and the surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. We determined the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid as first line treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2001 and 2010, 1,551 children (496 male, 1,055 female, median age 1.6 years) underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid soon after the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux on initial voiding cystourethrogram. Vesicoureteral reflux was unilateral in 761 children and bilateral in 790. Renal scarring was detected in 369 (26.7%) of the 1,384 patients who underwent dimercapto-succinic acid imaging. Reflux grade in the 2,341 ureters was II in 98 (4.2%), III in 1,340 (57.3%), IV in 818 (34.9%) and V in 85 (3.6%). Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure, and renal ultrasound was performed annually thereafter. Patients were followed for 3 months to 10 years (median 5.6 years). RESULTS: Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first, second and third endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 2,039 (87.1%), 264 (11.3%) and 38 (1.6%) ureters, respectively. Febrile urinary tract infections developed during followup in 69 (4.6%) patients. None of the patients in the series needed reimplantation of ureters or experienced any significant complications. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in the eradication of high grade vesicoureteral reflux. We recommend this 15-minute outpatient procedure as the first line of treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux.


Assuntos
Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cistoscopia , Dextranos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Injeções/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
J Urol ; 188(2): 576-81, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22704090

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Screening for vesicoureteral reflux in asymptomatic infants with low grade hydronephrosis is unjustified if this condition is benign. We present a cohort with prenatally detected hydronephrosis, some observed without voiding cystourethrography, and compare outcomes to a classic, screened group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 206 consecutive children presenting with postnatally confirmed prenatally detected hydronephrosis (47% bilateral) were included in the study. Cases with associated renal or bladder anomalies were excluded. Children with low grade hydronephrosis either underwent screening voiding cystourethrography or did not, largely based on whether care was managed by a urologist or a nephrologist. Patients with high grade hydronephrosis routinely underwent voiding cystourethrography. Primary outcome was a symptomatic or febrile urinary tract infection. We used Mantel-Haenszel analysis to determine urinary tract infection risk factors during the first 2 years of life. RESULTS: No urinary tract infection was observed in patients with grade I hydronephrosis. Urinary tract infections in low grade hydronephrosis were only seen in the voiding cystourethrogram group (7 patients), including 1 infection following voiding cystourethrogram. Urinary tract infection rate was 3.52 infections per 100 patient-years in children with low grade hydronephrosis and 11.1 infections per 100 patient-years in those with high grade hydronephrosis (p = 0.02). This increased risk of urinary tract infection in high grade hydronephrosis persisted after correcting for gender and circumcision status (IRR 3.17, p = 0.01). The association remained strong (IRR 2.48, 95% CI 0.96-6.44) but was not statistically significant (p = 0.053) after additionally correcting for vesicoureteral reflux status. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that children with low grade hydronephrosis and otherwise normal kidneys and bladder do not benefit from voiding cystourethrographic screening. Interestingly high grade hydronephrosis appears to carry a threefold greater risk of urinary tract infection compared to low grade hydronephrosis.


Assuntos
Hidronefrose/congênito , Triagem Neonatal , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/congênito , Circuncisão Masculina , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hidronefrose/classificação , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Urografia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico
13.
Pediatrics ; 129(2): e356-63, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22271698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, grade IV or V) is a risk factor for renal scarring, impaired renal function, and arterial hypertension. Voiding cystourethrography is the gold standard for detecting the severity of VUR. High-grade VUR is present in the minority of children with urinary tract infection (UTI), thus exposing the majority to invasive diagnostics that have no surgical consequence. We therefore aimed at establishing a noninvasive test to identify children with high-grade VUR. METHODS: In a case-control study, a specific urinary proteome pattern was established by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry in 18 patients with primary VUR grade IV or V, distinguishing these from 19 patients without VUR after UTI. This proteome pattern was independently validated in a blinded cohort of 17 patients with VUR grade IV or V and 19 patients without VUR. RESULTS: Sensitivity in detecting VUR grade IV or V in the blinded study was 88%, specificity was 79%. The test's accuracy was independent of age, gender, and grade of VUR in the contralateral kidney. The odds ratio of suffering from VUR grade IV or V when tested positive was 28 (95% confidence interval: 4.5 to 176.0). CONCLUSIONS: This noninvasive test is ready for prospective validation in large cohorts with the aim of identifying those children with UTI and hydronephrosis in need of further invasive diagnostics, such as voiding cystourethrography, thus sparing most children without pathologic urinary proteome patterns from additional diagnostics.


Assuntos
Proteoma/análise , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/urina , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroforese Capilar , Feminino , Humanos , Hidronefrose/classificação , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico , Hidronefrose/urina , Lactente , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Peptídeos/urina , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ultrassonografia , Infecções Urinárias/classificação , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/urina , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação
14.
Pediatrics ; 125(5): 1010-9, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20368325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Published success rates of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) injection for pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) vary widely. Our objective of this study was to assess whether underlying patient or study factors could explain the heterogeneity in reported Dx/HA success rates. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases from 1990 to 2008 for reports in any language, along with a hand search of included study bibliographies. Articles were assessed and data abstracted in duplicate, and differences were resolved by consensus. Conflict of interest (COI) was determined by published disclosure. Meta-regression was performed to adjust for patient as well as study-level factors. RESULTS: We identified 1157 reports, 89 of which were reviewed in full with 47 included in the pooled analysis. Of 7303 ureters that were injected with Dx/HA, 5633 (77%) were successfully treated according to the authors' definition. Injection success seemed to vary primarily on the basis of the preoperative reflux grade. After adjustment for VUR grade, other factors, such as the presence or absence of COI disclosure, were not significant. Studies were markedly heterogeneous overall. CONCLUSIONS: The overall per-ureter Dx/HA success rate was 77% after 3 months, although success rates varied widely among studies. Increased VUR grade negatively affected success rates, whereas COI, patient age, and injected Dx/HA volume were not significantly associated with treatment outcome after adjustment for VUR grade. There is a significant need for improved reporting of VUR treatments, including comparative studies of Dx/HA and other VUR treatments.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Ácido Hialurônico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter , Ureteroscopia , Urodinâmica/fisiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico
15.
Urologe A ; 49(4): 536-9, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20063087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of bulking agents have been used for the endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux in children. We present the long-term results of endoscopic use of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) for VUR grade I-IV in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2004 and 2008, 21 children underwent endoscopic subureteral injection of Deflux in 30 ureters as an outpatient procedure. Twelve children had a unilateral reflux (two duplicated systems) and nine had a bilateral reflux. The median age was 5 years (6 months to 14.9 years). Six weeks postoperatively a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was performed. This study examined the disappearance of VUR and urinary tract infection (UTI) as well as the quality of life (parents' questionnaire) during long-term follow-up. RESULTS: No intra- and postoperative complications were noticed. In 25 ureters (83%) VCUG showed no VUR 6 weeks postoperatively. In three children a second injection was done (two were successful). After a median follow-up of 2.5 years 27 ureters in 17 children (90%) had no UTI and VUR. The results of the questionnaire regarding quality of life were very good in the successfully treated children and the parents would choose the same treatment option again. CONCLUSION: Subureteral injection of Deflux for children with VUR is an effective treatment option for VUR with a low complication rate.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Próteses e Implantes , Ureteroscopia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Urodinâmica/fisiologia , Urografia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/psicologia
16.
J Urol ; 183(2): 709-13, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20022026

RESUMO

PURPOSE: When children are initially diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux most undergo a period of antibiotic prophylaxis followed by serial imaging. Although improvement in reflux grade through time presumably predicts eventual resolution, the significance of changing grade through time is unknown. We examined whether improvement in reflux on serial imaging predicts resolution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1,761 children diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux, of whom 965 had a minimum of 2 years of followup. We examined initial reflux grade and grade on serial imaging up to 5 years after the original diagnosis. For each child it was determined whether reflux was resolved, eventually resolved or never resolved. Groups were further stratified by clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender (HR 1.33, p = 0.05), age younger than 1 year at diagnosis (HR 1.35, p = 0.004), lower grade at presentation (grade I HR 2.2, grade II HR 1.96, grade III HR 1.33; p <0.001) and unilateral reflux (HR 1.39, p = 0.001) were all independent predictors of reflux resolution. Multivariate analysis also showed that reflux improvement on imaging 1 year after diagnosis (HR 3.14, p <0.0001) and improvement from the previous year at any point during followup (HR 1.8, p = 0.009) were independent predictors of reflux resolution. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous findings, male gender, lower reflux grade at presentation, age less than 1 year at presentation and unilateral reflux were all predictive of reflux resolution. Our analysis also demonstrated that improvement in reflux grade on imaging study 1 year after diagnosis was predictive of resolution, and that reflux improvement from the previous year at any point during followup was an independent predictor of resolution. This information will prove valuable in clinical counseling and therapeutic decision making.


Assuntos
Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Radiografia , Cintilografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação
17.
N Engl J Med ; 361(18): 1748-59, 2009 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19864673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are widely administered to children with the intention of preventing urinary tract infection, but adequately powered, placebo-controlled trials regarding efficacy are lacking. This study from four Australian centers examined whether low-dose, continuous oral antibiotic therapy prevents urinary tract infection in predisposed children. METHODS: We randomly assigned children under the age of 18 years who had had one or more microbiologically proven urinary tract infections to receive either daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole suspension (as 2 mg of trimethoprim plus 10 mg of sulfamethoxazole per kilogram of body weight) or placebo for 12 months. The primary outcome was microbiologically confirmed symptomatic urinary tract infection. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed with the use of time-to-event data. RESULTS: From December 1998 to March 2007, a total of 576 children (of 780 planned) underwent randomization. The median age at entry was 14 months; 64% of the patients were girls, 42% had known vesicoureteral reflux (at least grade III in 53% of these patients), and 71% were enrolled after the first diagnosis of urinary tract infection. During the study, urinary tract infection developed in 36 of 288 patients (13%) in the group receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic group) and in 55 of 288 patients (19%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the antibiotic group, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.93; P = 0.02 by the log-rank test). In the antibiotic group, the reduction in the absolute risk of urinary tract infection (6 percentage points) appeared to be consistent across all subgroups of patients (P > or = 0.20 for all interactions). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term, low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a decreased number of urinary tract infections in predisposed children. The treatment effect appeared to be consistent but modest across subgroups. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12608000470392.)


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/administração & dosagem , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações
18.
J Urol ; 182(4 Suppl): 1688-92, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19692002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the usefulness and interobserver concordance of a novel grading system for dynamic ureteral hydrodistention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 1, 2002 and July 1, 2008 the hydrodistention grade in 697 ureters was prospectively assigned and recorded, including H0-no hydrodistention, H1-ureteral orifice open but tunnel not evident, H2-tunnel seen only and H3-extravesical ureter visualized. Specifically 489 refluxing ureters (vesicoureteral reflux group) were compared to 100 normal control ureters (normal control group). Additionally, the posttreatment hydrodistention grade in 56 ureters in which surgery for reflux failed was compared to that in 52 ureters with successful surgery. Hydrodistention grades assigned to an additional 77 ureters by 3 blinded observers were compared to assess the interobserver concordance of this system. RESULTS: Vesicoureteral reflux and hydrodistention grades correlated significantly (p <0.001). Ureters with a higher reflux grade also showed a higher hydrodistention grade. The normal control group (mean +/- SEM hydrodistention grade 0.62 +/- 0.07) showed a statistically lower hydrodistention grade than the reflux groups (overall mean hydrodistention grade 2.26 +/- 0.01). Mean posttreatment hydrodistention grade in the failed reflux surgery group was statistically higher than that in the mean successful reflux surgery group (2.03 +/- 0.09 vs 1.33 +/- 0.08). By defining the degree of hydrodistention as normal (H0-H1) and abnormal (H2-H3) the concordance between observers was 95% and 96%. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic hydrodistention classification is a reliable method of evaluating the presence or absence of vesicoureteral reflux as it correlates significantly with radiographic reflux grade. It has high interobserver concordance.


Assuntos
Uretra/fisiopatologia , Urodinâmica , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Arch Esp Urol ; 61(8): 882-7, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19040157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this monograph is to familiarize the reader with dynamic hydrodistention classification of the ureter and Hydrodistention Implantation Technique (HIT) methodology for the endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). The indications, current success rates, complications, and potential future applications of these methods are reviewed. METHODS: Hydrodistention (HD) of the ureteral orifice and distal ureter permits visualization of the intraureteral submucosal injection site and assessment of the degree of ureteral coaptation. We have designated 4 levels of HD. HO denotes absence of ureteral dilation, H1 indicates dilation of the ureteral orifice only. H2 allows visualization of the intramural ureter, and H3 allows visualization of the extramural ureter. The Double HIT method is a systematic technique that utilizes HD to both classify the ureter and gauge the degree of ureteral coaptation secondary to bulking during endoscopic injection. The needle is inserted at the mid ureteral tunnel at the 6 o'clock position. The first injection coapts the detrusor tunnel (until H1 or H0 is achieved), while a second implant within the most distal intramural tunnel leads to complete coaptation of the ureteral orifice (H0). RESULTS: HD grade correlated significantly with VUR grade. Normal ureters rarely hydrodistended. While non-refluxing contralateral ureters demonstrated low HD grades, all contralateral ureters that subsequently developed VUR showed H2 or H3. The HIT method has not only been employed for primary VUR (90% cure), but also for repeat endoscopic injections (90%), VUR associated with paraureteral diverticula (81%), complex cases such as post-reimplantation (88%), neurogenic bladders (78%), duplication anomalies (80%), and in adults (88%). Furthermore, injection of contralateral VUR-negative but hydrodistending ureters may be treated to prevent new contralateral VUR. While decreasing success was seen with increasing VUR grade with the STING method, superior success rates have been realized with the HIT method. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic hydrodistention classification reflects the competency of the ureterovesical junction. The HIT and Double HIT methods achieve superior cure rates and are likely to become the method of choice for the treatment of primary as well as complex cases of VUR.


Assuntos
Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Ureter , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Dilatação/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/métodos , Masculino , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Água
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