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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435420

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) describes a common pediatric anomaly in pediatric urology with a prevalence of 1-2%. In diagnostics, in addition to the gold standard of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), contrast-enhanced urosonography (ceVUS) offers a radiation-free procedure, which, despite its advantages, is not yet widely used. In the present single-center study, subsequent therapeutic procedures and outcomes after ceVUS of 49 patients were investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of ceVUS with the intention of broader clinical implementation. Materials and Methods: Between 2016 and 2020, 49 patients were retrospectively included and received a ceVUS to evaluate VUR. With a distribution of 47:2 (95.9%), a clear female predominance was present. The age of the patients varied between 5 months and 60 years at the time of ceVUS. All examinations were all performed and subsequently interpreted by a single experienced radiologist (EFSUMB level 3). Results: Compared to intraoperative findings, ceVUS shows a sensitivity of 95.7% with a specificity of 100%. Allergic reactions to the contrast medium could not be observed. Conclusion: With its high sensitivity and intraoperative validation, ceVUS offers an excellent alternative to VCUG, the gold standard in the diagnosis of VUR. In addition, ceVUS is a radiation-free examination method with a low risk profile that offers an exceptional diagnostic tool in the diagnostic clarification of recurrent urinary tract infections with the suspected diagnosis of VUR and should also be included in the consideration of a diagnosis next to the established VCUG, especially in younger children.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cistografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Injeções , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfolipídeos , Politetrafluoretileno , Exposição à Radiação , Recidiva , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Hexafluoreto de Enxofre , Ureteroscopia , Uretra/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Urografia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/classificação , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int Braz J Urol ; 46(4): 523-537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) is characterized by a retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the ureters and kidneys. It is one of the most common urinary tract anomalies and the major cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the first years of life. If not properly diagnosed and treated can lead to recurrent UTI, renal scar and, in severe cases, to end stage renal disease. Despite recent advances in scientific and technological knowledge, evaluation and treatment of VUR is still controversial and there is still considerable heterogeneity in evaluation methods and therapeutic approaches. The aim of the present consensus is to give a practical orientation on how to evaluate and treat VUR. METHODS: The board of Pediatric Urology of the Brazilian Society of Urology joined a group of experts and reviewed all important issues on Vesicoureteral Refl ux evaluation and treatment and elaborated a draft of the document. On November 2017 the panel met to review, discuss and write a consensus document. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Vesicoureteral Reflux is a common and challenging problem in children. Children presenting with Vesicoureteral Reflux require careful evaluation and treatment to avoid future urinary tract infections and kidney scars. The panel addressed recommendations on up to date choice of diagnosis evaluation and therapies.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias , Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Brasil , Consenso , Humanos , Ultrassonografia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/terapia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia
4.
J Urol ; 203(4): 826-831, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We studied the effect of oxybutynin on bladder and upper urinary tract outcomes in infants following posterior urethral valve ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients younger than 12 months old who had undergone primary endoscopic valve ablation for posterior urethral valves were screened for eligibility. Patients who had undergone urinary diversion or had other conditions that could affect lower urinary tract function were excluded. Study patients were randomized to either oxybutynin (0.2 mg/kg 3 times daily) until toilet training or active observation. The study end points were serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hydronephrosis improvement, vesicoureteral reflux resolution, febrile urinary tract infection and toilet training. RESULTS: A total of 49 infants (24 receiving oxybutynin and 25 undergoing observation) were enrolled between December 2013 and September 2015 and completed at least 1 year of followup. Oxybutynin was discontinued before toilet training in 5 patients due to facial flushing in 2, bladder and upper tract dilatation in 2, and cognitive changes in 1. After a median followup of 44.2 months (range 12 to 57.6) median serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate were not significantly different between the groups (p=0.823 and p=0.722, respectively). Renal units in the oxybutynin group had a greater likelihood of hydronephrosis improvement (61.9% vs 34.8%, p=0.011) and resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (62.5% vs 25%, p=0.023). Febrile urinary tract infection (29.2% vs 40%, p=0.404), completion of toilet training (70.8% vs 76%, p=0.748) and age at toilet training (p=0.247) did not differ significantly between the oxybutynin and observation groups. CONCLUSIONS: Oxybutynin enhances hydronephrosis improvement and vesicoureteral reflux resolution following primary endoscopic valve ablation in infants but periodic monitoring is warranted.


Assuntos
Hidronefrose/terapia , Ácidos Mandélicos/administração & dosagem , Uretra/anormalidades , Obstrução Uretral/cirurgia , Agentes Urológicos/administração & dosagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Creatinina/sangue , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidronefrose/etiologia , Hidronefrose/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Uretral/etiologia , Obstrução Uretral/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia
5.
J Pediatr Urol ; 15(5): 484-490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the literature to compare the efficacy and complications of polyacrylate-polyalcohol copolymer (PPC) and polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG) with the current standard of care, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA), when used to treat VUR in the paediatric population. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. Keywords included Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), endoscopic; endoscopic injection, endoscopic treatment, dulking material, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer, polyacrylate-polyalcohol copolymer, Deflux, Dexell, Vantris, Bulkamid, outcome, treatment and children. Prospective or retrospective studies comparing PAHG/PPC directly with Dx/HA were included for review. RESULTS: Four studies were identified comparing PPC with Dx/HA. All studies showed superior efficacy (on micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) at 3 months) of PPC over Dx/HA. However, 1 study identified a significantly higher rate of vesicoureteric junction obstruction (VUJO) in the PPC group. One study was identified comparing PAHG with Dx/HA which showed similar efficacy on 3-month MCUG. CONCLUSIONS: Current data suggest PPC confers a higher resolution rate of VUR and PAHG confers comparable resolution rates for VUR compared with Dx/HA in the paediatric population. However, the incidence of late-onset VUJO in one study is concerning, and high-quality randomised controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed before making further recommendations.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/uso terapêutico , Dextranos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Criança , Humanos
6.
J Pediatr Urol ; 15(5): 515.e1-515.e8, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of distal ureteral diameter ratio (UDR) on outcome of primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux resolution after endoscopic injection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred eighty-three patients treated for primary VUR between January 2010 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The parameters analyzed were age at diagnosis, sex, grade and lateralite of VUR, complaints at admission (febrile urinary tract infection, antenatal hydronephrosis, family history),bladder-bowel dysfunction (urgency, incontinence, constipation), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy findings, follow-up period, clinical course (spontaneous resolution or surgical correction), time of spontaneous resolution, surgical treatment time and age, materials used for injection and success of endoscopic injection. Ureteral diameter ratio was calculated on the initial VCUG at the time of the diagnosis as the largest ureteral diameter within the false pelvis divided by the distance between L1-L3.The correlation between UDR, clinical outcome (spontaneous resolution/surgical correction) and success of endoscopic injection was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. To compare the effect of UDR and grade of reflux on spontaneous resolution, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed in three models together with sex, age, resolution time, presence of febrile UTI and DMSA scan findings. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-three patients were enrolled. There was a strong correlation between UDR and grade of reflux (p < 0,0001). Ureteral diameter ratio was higher in patients whose complaints at admission were family history and febrile UTI, but this correlation was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). When the correlation between UDR and the DMSA scan findings was evaluated, UDR was found to be significantly higher in patients with moderate and severe scarring. Bladder-bowel dysfunction was present in 111 patients (28.9%). There was no significant correlation between BBD and UDR (p > 0.05). 62 patients showed spontaneous resolution in a median duration of 1.55 years. The predictive value of UDR for spontaneous resolution was more significant than grade (p < 0.001).There was no spontaneous resolution in patients with UDR over 0.45.321 patients underwent operation (248 endoscopic injection, 17 ureteroneocystostomy, 56 endoscopic injection+ureteroneocystostomy). When the predictive value of the reflux grade and UDR in the success rate of endoscopic correction was compared, UDR was shown to be significantly more predictive than the grade of reflux (p < 0.05). Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly higher in patients whose injection treatment was unsuccessful. Each 0.05 unit increase in UDR affected the success of endoscopic injection negatively (95% CI:<0.001-0.071). CONCLUSION: Ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measurement of VUR and appears to be a new predictive tool for clinical outcome and success after endoscopic injection.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/administração & dosagem , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Urografia/métodos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Injeções , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Urodinâmica/fisiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia
7.
J Pediatr Urol ; 15(4): 385.e1-385.e6, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pediatric urologic condition associated with urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis. It can be diagnosed via fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and, more recently, contrast-enhanced voiding ultrasonography (ceVUS), which does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation. Voiding urosonography contrast agents used for the diagnosis of VUR have been widely available in Europe but were approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States only in 2016. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to optimize a protocol and compare the diagnostic performance of ceVUS to fluoroscopic VCUG in an academic medical center naïve to previous use of contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-nine patients referred for clinically indicated evaluation of VUR were enrolled between September 2016 and March 2017. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with prediluted Lumason and under the same catheterization underwent fluoroscopic VCUG. Comparative grading was performed by pediatric radiologists on-site at the time of examination. RESULTS: Reflux was observed in 16 of 39 patients (20 of 64 renal units) ranging from grades 1 through 5. VCUG and ceVUS were concordant for detecting reflux in 10 of 39 patients (14 of 84 renal units) and excluding reflux in 23 of 39 patients (64 of 84 renal units) (Fig. 1). Using contrast enhanced voiding urosonography, 1 of 20 renal units had high-grade and 2 of 20 renal units had low-grade reflux that was not found on fluoroscopy. Using fluoroscopy, 1 of 20 renal units had high-grade and 2 of 20 renal units had low-grade reflux that had not been found on ceVUS. Two of 20 renal units were upgraded from low-grade on ceVUS to high-grade on fluoroscopy. This corresponds to a Cohen's kappa of 0.72 (confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.91) or 'moderate.' DISCUSSION: During our investigation, we noted that there was a technical learning curve related to poor contrast mixing and the need to titrate the concentration of Lumason. However, over the course of the study, we were able to correct the technical aspects. Ultimately, our results showed good correlation between VCUG and Lumason ceVUS and only slightly less correlation than published studies by experienced centers. Future studies with voiding should allow for improved urethral visualization. CONCLUSION: While there is a considerable learning curve to the implementation of ceVUS for the diagnosis of pediatric VUR, these technical aspects can be corrected. Even a center previously naïve to contrast-enhanced ultrasound technology can, over a short period of time, demonstrate good correlation between VCUG and ceVUS in the diagnosis of VUR. Translation of ceVUS into clinical practice is an alternative to VCUG for diagnosis of reflux, is feasible, and can eliminate the radiation exposure associated with a VCUG.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Cistografia/métodos , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Curva de Aprendizado , Masculino , Pielonefrite/etiologia , Pielonefrite/prevenção & controle , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Radiografia , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos , Micção/fisiologia , Urodinâmica/fisiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia
8.
J Pediatr Urol ; 15(3): 204-212, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the "gold standard" methodology for examining the effects of clinical interventions, yet only 1% of urology literature employs this design. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement contains a standardized checklist of 37 items to be included when reporting RCTs to ensure transparency and completeness of information [2]. Despite the robust design of RCTs, the number of events can greatly change the significance of the results, which can be represented by the fragility index (FI). OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the quality of reporting of RCTs in the pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) literature using the 2010 CONSORT statement and, for studies with significant positive findings, to determine the FI as a measure of robustness of the results. STUDY DESIGN: A comprehensive search was conducted through MEDLINE® and Embase® to identify RCTs in VUR literature from 2000 to 2016. Two reviewers independently selected articles, which were evaluated using the CONSORT checklist. An overall quality of reporting score (OQS) (%) was calculated by dividing the number of checklist items present in each study by the maximum possible score (34) and expressed as a percentage. Studies were classified as low (<40%), moderate (40-70%) and high quality (>70%) based on the modified assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews (AMSTAR) checklist. Of the 2052 initial matches, 98% were excluded due to methodology or content, a further 28 studies were found not to meet inclusion criteria after full text review. The FI was calculated for the 7 studies that met inclusion criteria with significantly different results by manually adding events to the study groups until p>0.05. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met inclusion criteria. The mean OQS was 46+17% with 9 (41%) identified as low quality (score <40%), 11 (50%) as moderate (40-70%) and 2 (9%) as high quality (>70%). There was no significant difference in OQS between RCTs with a sample size > 100 (n=15) versus <100 patients (n=7) (45+17% vs. 47+17%, p=0.7). However, we noted a difference when we compared RCTs with biostatistician support (n=4) vs. those without (n=18) (59+20% vs. 43+15%, p<0.05). Seven studies reported significant positive results making calculation of FI possible. The mean FI was 5.8+5.1 indicating that most studies were fragile. There was no correlation between the OQS and FI. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The mean OQS of VUR RCTs was suboptimal (46%), with most studies having low FI scores indicating the instability of the findings. The only variable that significantly impacted the OQS was biostatistician support. Implementation of the CONSORT checklist with a minimum of 50% inclusion as a prerequisite for submission of manuscripts may improve the quality and transparency of reporting. Calculation of the FI could provide readers with an objective measure of robustness for the published trials, allowing for appropriate interpretation of the results.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Urologia/métodos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Humanos
9.
Actas Urol Esp ; 43(5): 262-268, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the results of polydimethylsiloxane application in the endourological management of symptomatic vesicoureteral reflux to the kidney graft and to determine the factors associated with persistent symptoms and with vesicoureteral reflux. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 23 patients diagnosed with symptomatic VUR in kidney graft, evaluated from January 2010 to August 2018 in the High Specialty Medical Unit # 14 in Veracruz. These patients received endourological application of polydimethylsiloxane. The descriptive analysis was carried out, and, if possible, the relative risk measures for clinical failure (CF) were determined with odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: 18 (78.3%) patients presented clinical success (CS). There was a significant difference in the mean age (CS 30.61±9.7, CF 46.0±11.46; U Mann Whitney, P=.037), and in the number of episodes of AGPN prior to the application of PDMS (CS 2.27±1.27, CF 3.6±0.89, U Mann Whitney, P=.019). The most frequently identified pathogen was E. Coli, with 45.4%. VUR resolution was observed in 47.8% of the cases. There was a decreased degree of VUR in 73.9% of cases. A lower degree of VUR was determined as a protective factor for CF (OR: 0.031, 95% CI: 0.002-0.437, with P=.008). CONCLUSIONS: The endourological application of PDMS proved to be useful in the management of patients with symptomatic VUR in kidney graft, as it decreased the VUR degree and allowed CS in most cases.


Assuntos
Dimetilpolisiloxanos/uso terapêutico , Rim , Transplantes , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pielonefrite/epidemiologia , Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD001532, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) results in urine passing retrograde up the ureter. Urinary tract infections (UTI) associated with VUR have been considered a cause of permanent renal parenchymal damage in children with VUR. Management has been directed at preventing UTI by antibiotic prophylaxis and/or surgical correction of VUR. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and updated in 2007 and 2011. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to evaluate the available evidence for both benefits and harms of the currently available treatment options for primary VUR: operative, non-operative or no intervention. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 3 May 2018 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies contained in the Specialised Register are identified through search strategies specifically designed for CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE; handsearching conference proceedings, and searching the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs in any language comparing any treatment of VUR and any combination of therapies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed quality and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and continuous data as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI. Data were pooled using the random effects model. MAIN RESULTS: Thirty four studies involving 4001 children were included. Interventions included; long-term low-dose antibiotics, surgical reimplantation of ureters, endoscopic injection treatment, probiotics, cranberry products, circumcision, and oxybutynin. Interventions were used alone and in combinations. The quality of conduct and reporting of these studies was variable, with many studies omitting crucial methodological information used to assess the risk of bias. Only four of the 34 studies were considered at low risk of bias across all fields of study quality. The majority of studies had many areas of uncertainty in the risk of bias fields, reflecting missing detail rather than stated poor design.Low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis compared to no treatment/placebo may make little or no difference to the risk of repeat symptomatic UTI (9 studies, 1667 children: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.09; low certainty evidence) and febrile UTI (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.21; low certainty evidence) at one to two years. At one to three years, antibiotic prophylaxis made little or no difference to the risk of new or progressive renal damage on DMSA scan (8 studies, 1503 children: RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.61; low certainty evidence). Adverse events were reported in four studies with little or no difference between treatment groups (1056 children: RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.08; ), but antibiotics increased the likelihood of bacterial drug resistance threefold (187 UTIs: RR 2.97, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.74; moderate certainty evidence).Seven studies compared long-term antibiotic prophylaxis alone with surgical reimplantation of ureters plus antibiotics, but only two reported the outcome febrile UTI (429 children). Surgery plus antibiotic treatment may reduce the risk of repeat febrile UTI by 57% (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.70; moderate certainty evidence). There was little or no difference in the risk of new kidney defects detected using intravenous pyelogram at 4 to 5 years (4 studies, 572 children, RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.49; moderate certainty evidence)Four studies compared endoscopic injection with antibiotics alone and three reported the outcome febrile UTI. This analysis showed little or no difference in the risk of febrile UTI with endoscopic injection compared to antibiotics (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.78; low certainty evidence). Four studies involving 425 children compared two different materials for endoscopic injection under the ureters (polydimethylsiloxane (Macroplastique) versus dextranomer/hyaluronic acid polymer (Deflux), glutaraldehyde cross-linked (GAX) collagen (GAX) 35 versus GAX 65 and Deflux versus polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (VANTRIS)) but only one study (255 children, low certainty evidence) had the outcome of febrile UTI and it reported no difference between the materials. All four studies reported rates of resolution of VUR, and the two studies comparing Macroplastique with Deflux showed that Macroplastique was probably superior to dextranomer/hyaluronic acid polymer (3 months: RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.78; 12 months: RR 0.54 95% CI 0.35 to 0.83; low certainty evidence)Two studies compared probiotic treatment with antibiotics and showed little or no difference in risk of repeat symptomatic UTI (RR 0.82 95% CI 0.56 to 1.21; low certainty evidence)Single studies compared circumcision with antibiotics, cranberry products with no treatment, oxybutynin with placebo, two different surgical techniques and endoscopic injection with no treatment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Compared with no treatment, the use of long-term, low-dose antibiotics may make little or no difference to the number of repeat symptomatic and febrile UTIs in children with VUR (low certainty evidence). Considerable variation in the study designs and subsequent findings prevented drawing firm conclusions on efficacy of antibiotic treatment.The added benefit of surgical or endoscopic correction of VUR over antibiotic treatment alone remains unclear since few studies comparing the same treatment and with relevant clinical outcomes were available for analysis.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Resinas Acrílicas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Criança , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Dextranos/uso terapêutico , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Febre/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Rim/anormalidades , Masculino , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reimplante , Ureter/cirurgia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações
11.
Arch Esp Urol ; 72(1): 36-44, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the usefulnessof voiding diary (VD), uroflowmetry with electromyography(UF-EMG), bladder wall thickness (before micturition)(VWTUS) and residual urine (PVR) (ultrasound measure)in predicting the outcome of the first endoscopic treatment(1ENDT) of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children> 3 years. METHODS: Cross-sectional ambispective study of 48children with vesicoureteral reflux. Those with previousendoscopic treatment, age or neurological abnormalities and a history of urethralor abdominal surgery were excluded. The outcomevariable was the correctness (by isotopic cystography)three months after 1ENDT. Univariate and multivariateanalyses were performed through a Multilayer Perceptronnetwork and a logistic regression model EmpiricalBayesian penalized type LASSO Elastic net. Diagnosticaccuracy were determined. RESULTS: Mean age of the sample was 6.8 +/- 2.28years. The rate of VUR correction after 1ENDT was 77%.The variables selected by both methods were: VD-retentionist(OR 3.90), high PVR (OR 2.69), high VWTUS (OR4.44). Normal UF-EMG was a preventive variable (OR0.38). Diagnostic accuracy (pSp=48.7%), UF+EMG (Se=27.3%(Se=72.7% (AUC=0.8 cut point 20 ml),VWTUS (Se=81.8% (AUC=0.8 cut point4.6 mm). There were no statistical differences betweenPVR and VWTUS. Combined use of UF+EMG+PVR(Se=90.9%in predicting the persistence of VUR after 1ENDT inchildren > 3 years. After screening with a VD, UF-EMG+ RPM combination could be useful to detect these patientsand propose a treatment that improves bladdervoiding function prior to surgery.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Micção , Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cistografia , Humanos , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia
12.
Int J Urol ; 26(4): 440-445, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762254

RESUMO

Vesicoureteral reflux, retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract, is one of the most common urological diagnoses in the pediatric population. Diagnosis and subsequent management of urinary reflux have become increasingly debated in the past decade, with divergent opinions over which patients should be evaluated for reflux, and when detected, which children should receive intervention. Although some argue that vesicoureteral reflux is a "phenotype" that often resolves without intervention, others contest that untreated reflux has the potential to cause irreversible renal damage over time. Voiding cystourethrogram images the urethra and bladder during both bladder filling and emptying, as well as the ureters and kidneys when reflux is present, and is considered the gold standard for diagnosing vesicoureteral reflux. Once detected, therapeutic options for urinary reflux are diverse, ranging from observation with or without low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis to a variety of operative interventions. Management should be based on a multitude of factors including patient age, risk of subsequent urinary tract infections, risk of renal parenchymal injury, a given child's projected clinical course and parental preference. Over the past two decades, investigators have elucidated many crucial voiding cystourethrogram findings in addition to grade that provide significant prognostic information and are useful in determining the best course of action for a child on a more individualized basis.


Assuntos
Cistografia/tendências , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Micção/fisiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Criança , Cistografia/métodos , Cistografia/normas , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Ureter/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia
13.
Arch. esp. urol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(1): 36-44, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181058

RESUMO

Objetivos: Determinar la utilidad del diario miccional (DIM), la flujometría asociada a la electromiografía (UF-EMG) y los parámetros ecográficos como son el espesor de la pared vesical premiciconal (EPVECO) y el residuo postmiccional (RPM) en la predicción del resultado del primer tratamiento endoscópico (1TEND) del Reflujo Vesico-Ureteral (RVU) en niños > 3 años. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal ambispectivo de 48 niños con RVU. Criterios de exclusión: 1TEND previo, edad y cirugía uretral o abdominal previas. Variable resultado: corrección del RVU (cistografía isotópica realizada tres meses después del 1TEND). Se realizaron análisis univariante y multivariante mediante una red perceptrón multicapa y un modelo de regresión logística penalizada tipo Empirical Bayesian LASSO Elastic net. Se consideraron significativas las variables elegidas por ambos métodos estadísticos. Se estudió el rendimiento diagnóstico de las pruebas individuales y combinadas. Resultados: Media de edad: 6,8 +/- 2,28 años. Tasa de corrección del RVU tras predictoras de la persistencia del RVU tras 1TEND seleccionadas por ambos métodos: DIM-hábito retencionista (OR 3,90), RPM elevado (OR 2,69), EPVECO aumentado (OR 4,44). La UF-EMG sin alteraciones en el trazado se comportó como variable preventiva (OR 0,38). Rendimiento diagnóstico (p(Se=98% (Se=27,3% RPM (Se=72,7% (AUC=0,8 punto de corte óptimo 20 ml), EPVECO (Se=81,8% (AUC=0,8 punto de corte óptimo 4,6 mm).No existieron diferencias entre el uso del RPM y el EPVECO (p>0,05). Uso conjunto de UF-EMG+RPM (Se=90,9% Es=92%). Conclusiones: El estudio funcional no invasivo de la fase de vaciado es útil en la predicción de la persistencia de RVU tras el 1TEND en niños >3 años. Tras el cribado con un diario miccional, la UF-EMG+RPM podrían ser útiles para detectar a estos pacientes y plantear un tratamiento que mejore el vaciado vesical previo a la cirugía


Objectives: To determine the usefulness of voiding diary (VD), uroflowmetry with electromyography (UF-EMG), bladder wall thickness (before micturition) (VWTUS) and residual urine (PVR) (ultrasound measure) in predicting the outcome of the first endoscopic treatment (1ENDT) of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children > 3 years. Methods: Cross-sectional ambispective study of 48 children with vesicoureteral reflux. Those with previous endoscopic treatment, age <4 years, anatomical or neurological abnormalities and a history of urethral or abdominal surgery were excluded. The outcome variable was the correctness (by isotopic cystography) three months after 1ENDT. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed through a Multilayer Perceptron network and a logistic regression model Empirical Bayesian penalized type LASSO Elastic net. Diagnostic accuracy were determined. Results: Mean age of the sample was 6.8 +/- 2.28 years. The rate of VUR correction after 1ENDT was 77%. The variables selected by both methods were: VD-retentionist (OR 3.90), high PVR (OR 2.69), high VWTUS (OR 4.44). Normal UF-EMG was a preventive variable (OR 0.38). Diagnostic accuracy (p<0.005): VD (Se=98% Sp=48.7%), UF+EMG (Se=27.3% Sp=94.6%), PVR (Se=72.7% Sp=97.3%) (AUC=0.8 cut point 20 ml), VWTUS (Se=81.8% Sp=73%) (AUC=0.8 cut point 4.6 mm). There were no statistical differences between PVR and VWTUS. Combined use of UF+EMG+PVR (Se=90.9% Sp=92%) (p<0.05). Conclusions: Noninvasive voiding study is useful in predicting the persistence of VUR after 1ENDT in children > 3 years. After screening with a VD, UF-EMG + RPM combination could be useful to detect these patients and propose a treatment that improves bladder voiding function prior to surgery


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Endoscopia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Micção , Estudos Transversais , Cistografia
14.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647916

RESUMO

Current management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is the result of a steady albeit controversial evolution of data and thinking related to the clinical impact of VUR and urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, the value of clinical screening, and the relative impact of testing and interventions for VUR. While controversy continues, there is consensus on the importance of bladder dysfunction on VUR outcomes, the likelihood of VUR resolution, and the fact that not all children with VUR require active treatment. Early efforts to define risk stratification hold the most promise to provide more patient-specific treatment of UTI and VUR in children.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias , Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia
15.
Urol J ; 16(3): 279-284, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The cytokine profile and the ultrastructural changes of refluxing ureterovesical junctions(UVJs) of children treated with failed dextranomer/hyaluronic-acid (Dx/HA) injections were investigated using immunohis-tochemical methods and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen children who had undergone injection for reflux were included the study. The smooth muscle arrangement of the ureteral wall, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?1),vascular-endotheli-al-growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 were evaluated immunohistochemically, and the results were compared with 10 age-matched autopsy specimens as controls. The ultrastructural evaluation and morphological description was made semi-quantitatively and compared with published data. RESULT: Four of the patients (22%) were male, and 14 (78%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 105.4 ± 44.5(48-184) months. There was no correlation between the vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade and age (P = 0.85). The mean VEGF and CD34 scores were 16.2 ± 9.6 (0-90) cells per HPF and 10.2 ± 3.5 (4-16) vessels per HPF in ureters with reflux; these values were 60.6±16.4 (32-84) cells per HPF and 17.8 ± 4.1 (12-24) vessels per HPF in the control group. The amount of VEGF and CD34 were significantly decreased in patients compared with the control group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001).The TGF-?1 levels were significantly higher in patients with VUR compared with the control group (34.2 ± 19.9 vs 5.0±1.9; P=0.001).The amount of VEGF, CD34, and TGF-?1 were not correlated with the grade of reflux (P = 0.26, P = 0.94, and P = 0.42, respectively). Ultrastructural changes in the muscle cells were observed in all the VUR specimens (Grade II-IV). CONCLUSION: Refluxing ureters exhibited immune-histopathological abnormalities and ultrastructural changes of the muscle cells in all VUR specimens in the ureterovesical junctions of children treated with failed Dx/HA injec-tions for reflux.


Assuntos
Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/patologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cistoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Masculino , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Falha de Tratamento , Ureter/patologia , Ureter/ultraestrutura , Ureteroscopia , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/ultraestrutura
16.
Urol J ; 16(2): 174-179, 2019 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In recent years, endoscopic subureteral injection has gained popularity as a therapeutic alternative to open surgery because of its high success rates and low morbidity. We compared the success and complication rates of Polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (PPC) and Dextranomer/Hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) in the endoscopic treatment of VUR. MATERIALS & METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent endoscopic correction of their VUR by subureteric injection of PPC or Dx/HA from Jan 2010 to April 2016. The injection technique was STING (subureteric), distal HIT (intraureteric), and double HIT according the hydrodistention (HD) grade. The success rate, injection technique, injection volume, VUR grade, and obstruction rate were evaluated and compared between two groups. RESULTS: 107 renal refluxing units (RRU) with a mean age 55.23±36.58 months and 64 RRU with a mean age 52.13±31.66 months were treated in Dx/HA and PPC groups, respectively. The PPC group showed a more successful outcome in comparison to the Dx/HA group (92.2% versus 75.7% of the RRU with P value<0.001) at 3 months follow up. The injection technique was not significantly different between two groups. In PPC group the success rate was decreased significantly with increasing reflux grade but this reduction was not statistically significant in Dx/HA group. The injected volume was significantly more in PPC group; in addition, there was statistically significant correlation between injected volume of the bulking agent and obstruction rate. However, the obstruction rate did not establish significant difference between the two groups (P value=0.83), however it was earlier in Vantris (4 months versus 22 months). CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation approved PPC as a more effective material, regardless of other confounding variables such as reflux grade, learning cure, and technique of injection, in endoscopic treatment of VUR. In addition, the other remarkable point is this effectiveness is not accompanied by more post-operation obstruction.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/administração & dosagem , Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Polímeros/administração & dosagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Cistoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Urology ; 124: 237-240, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) that occurs during either the filling or voiding phase on voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) has prognostic significance on successful endoscopic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 299 patients (438 ureters) with VUR who underwent endoscopic treatment with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) at a single institution from 2010 to 2013. Success was defined as absence of VUR on 3-month follow-up VCUG. Preoperative VCUGs were analyzed to determine whether the onset of VUR occurred during the filling or voiding phase. Predictor variables to determine success were analyzed, with a specific focus on VUR timing. RESULTS: Success rate was 319/438 (72.8%) by ureter and 202/299 (67.6%) by patient. Reflux was seen during the filling and voiding phases in 290 and 148 ureters, respectively. Success rate was 203/290 (78%) for filling VUR and 116/148 (70%) for voiding VUR. Univariable analysis revealed voiding VUR had significantly increased odds of success (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, P = .049), while high-grade reflux (OR 0.53, P = .005) had significantly decreased odds of success. Multivariable analysis showed that voiding VUR (OR 3.2, P = .005) had significantly higher odds of success while those with high grade reflux (OR 0.42, P = .017) had significantly decreased odds of success. CONCLUSION: The timing of VUR on preoperative VCUG appears to be an important independent predictor of successful endoscopic treatment of VUR. This has important clinical considerations when selecting VUR patients who would be best candidates for endoscopic treatment.


Assuntos
Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Cistografia , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Micção , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Med Arch ; 72(4): 272-275, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514993

RESUMO

Introduction: The objective of this research was to determine whether vesicoureteral reflux(VUR) was associated with evolution to renal scarring (RS) following a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants. Materials and methods: Our research included 100 infants, ages up to 1 year with a first febrile UTI. The diagnostic was based on results of: laboratory findings, ultrasonography (USG), voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and initial and control renal scintigraphy (DMSA renal scan) withtechnetium99mTcsuccimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid), to assess the acute pyelonephritis (APN), VUR and RS. Results: APN was proven with DMSA renal scan in 66 (66%) infants. Twenty-two infants (33.3%) had VUR in-group of patients with APN. On the control DMSA scan, performed 6 months after the first DMSA, the presence of RS was found in 18 (27.27%) infants. In infants with renal scars VUR were discovered in 9 of them (50%). Conclusions: The pathogenesis of RS after febrile UTI in young children is multifactorial. Children with VUR have an increased risk for APN and RS. However, VUR is not the only precondition for RS. Creating a renal scarring cannot be imagined without the inflammatory process of the upper urinary system. Therefore, early detection and treatment of febrile UTIs in children and identify children at risk for RS are of primary importance.


Assuntos
Pielonefrite/etiologia , Pielonefrite/terapia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pielonefrite/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/fisiopatologia
20.
Pediatr Transplant ; 22(8): e13299, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The treatment of VUR in children with UTI has changed significantly, due to studies showing that antibiotic prophylaxis does not decrease renal scarring. As children with kidney transplants are at higher risk for UTI, we investigated if select patients with renal transplant VUR could be managed without surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 patients with VUR into their renal grafts were identified, and 319 patients underwent transplantation from 2006 to 2016. The cause for the detection of the VUR, treatment, and graft function was reviewed. RESULTS: Six boys and 12 girls were identified, 13 of whom had grade 3 or 4 VUR into the renal graft. Nine patients presented with hydronephrosis or abnormal renal biopsy: eight were successfully managed with antibiotic prophylaxis and bladder training, one developed UTI and underwent Dx/HA subureteric injection. Nine patients presented with recurrent febrile UTI, only one was successfully managed without surgery. Only 2 of 9 (22%) patients who underwent Dx/HA injection had resolution of their reflux. Of the remaining seven, five required open ureteral reimplantation (two for obstruction), one lost the graft due to rejection, and one had significant hydronephrosis. eGFR was similar between the hydronephrosis, UTI, and abnormal renal biopsy groups at all times. CONCLUSION: Patients with transplant VUR and recurrent febrile UTI are more likely to require surgical therapy, but the complication and failure rate for Dx/HA injection is significant. Patients with transplant VUR without febrile UTI can be successfully managed with bladder training and temporary antibiotic prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/terapia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Adolescente , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Hidronefrose/complicações , Lactente , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações
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