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2.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 152, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General Government Health Expenditure (GGHE) in Mauritius accounted for only 10% of General Government Expenditure for the fiscal year 2018. This is less than the pledge taken under the Abuja 2001 Declaration to allocate at least 15% of national budget to the health sector. The latest National Health Accounts also urged for an expansion in the fiscal space for health. As public hospitals in Mauritius absorb 70% of GGHE, maximising returns of hospitals is essential to achieve Universal Health Coverage. More so, as Mauritius is bracing for its worst recession in 40 years in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic public health financing will be heavily impacted. A thorough assessment of hospital efficiency and its implications on effective public health financing and fiscal space creation is, therefore, vital to inform ongoing health reform agenda. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to examine the trend in hospital technical efficiency over the period 2001-2017, to measure the elasticity of hospital output to changes in inputs variables and to assess the impact of improved hospital technical efficiency in terms of fiscal space creation. METHODS: Annual health statistics released by the Ministry of Health and Wellness and national budget of the Ministry of Finance, Economic Planning and Development were the principal sources of data. Applying Stochastic Frontier Analysis, technical efficiency of public regional hospitals was estimated under Cobb-Douglas, Translog and Multi-output distance functions, using STATA 11. Hospital beds, doctors, nurses and non-medical staff were used as input variables. Output variable combined inpatients and outpatients seen at Accident Emergency, Sorted and Unsorted departments. Efficiency scores were used to determine potential efficiency savings and fiscal space creation. FINDINGS: Mean technical efficiency scores, using the Cobb Douglas, Translog and Multi-output functions, were estimated at 0.83, 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. Nurses and beds are the most important factors in hospital production, as a 1% increase in the number of beds and nurses, result in an increase in hospital outputs by 0.73 and 0.51%, respectively. If hospitals are to increase their inputs by 1%, their outputs will increase by 1.16%. Hospital output process has an increasing return to scale. With technical efficiencies improving to scores of 0.95 and 1.0 in 2021-2022, potential savings and fiscal space creation at hospital level, would amount to MUR 633 million (US$ 16.2 million) and MUR 1161 million (US$ 29.6 million), respectively. CONCLUSION: Fiscal space creation through full technical efficiency, is estimated to represent 8.9 and 9.2% of GGHE in fiscal year 2021-2022 and 2022-2023, respectively. This will allow without any restrictions the funding of the national response for HIV, vaccine preventable diseases as well as building a resilient health system to mitigate impact of emerging infectious diseases as experienced with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/economia , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Maurício , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
6.
J Hosp Med ; 15(8): 495-497, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804613

RESUMO

Rarely, if ever, does a national healthcare system experience such rapid and marked change as that seen with the COVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, the president of the United States declared a national health emergency, enabling the Department of Health & Human Services authority to grant temporary regulatory waivers to facilitate efficient care delivery in a variety of healthcare settings. The statutory requirement that Medicare beneficiaries stay three consecutive inpatient midnights to qualify for post-acute skilled nursing facility coverage is one such waiver. This so-called Three Midnight Rule, dating back to the 1960s as part of the Social Security Act, is being scrutinized more than half a century later given the rise in observation hospital stays. Despite the tragic emergency circumstances prompting waivers, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and Congress now have a unique opportunity to evaluate potential improvements revealed by COVID-19 regulatory relief and should consider permanent reform of the Three Midnight Rule.


Assuntos
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S./organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S./legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Medicare/legislação & jurisprudência , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745081

RESUMO

In line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the target for achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC), state level initiatives to promote health with "no-one left behind" are underway in India. In Kerala, reforms under the flagship Aardram mission include upgradation of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) to Family Health Centres (FHCs, similar to the national model of health and wellness centres (HWCs)), with the proactive provision of a package of primary care services for the population in an administrative area. We report on a component of Aardram's monitoring and evaluation framework for primary health care, where tracer input, output, and outcome indicators were selected using a modified Delphi process and field tested. A conceptual framework and indicator inventory were developed drawing upon literature review and stakeholder consultations, followed by mapping of manual registers currently used in PHCs to identify sources of data and processes of monitoring. The indicator inventory was reduced to a list using a modified Delphi method, followed by facility-level field testing across three districts. The modified Delphi comprised 25 participants in two rounds, who brought the list down to 23 approved and 12 recommended indicators. Three types of challenges in monitoring indicators were identified: appropriateness of indicators relative to local use, lack of clarity or procedural differences among those doing the reporting, and validity of data. Further field-testing of indicators, as well as the revision or removal of some may be required to support ongoing health systems reform, learning, monitoring and evaluation.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias de Ginástica/organização & administração , Academias de Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(3)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855158

RESUMO

Reforming the delivery of outpatient appointments (OPA) was high on the healthcare policy agenda prior to COVID-19. The current pandemic exacerbates the financial and associated resource limitations of OPA. Videoconsulting provides a safe method of real-time contact for some remotely residing patients with hospital-based clinicians. One factor in failing to move from introduction of service change to its general adoption may be lack of patient and public involvement. This project, based in the largest Island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, aimed to codesign the use of the NHS Near Me video consulting platform for OPA to take place in the patient's home. A codesign model was used as a framework. This included: step 1-presenting a process flow map of the current system of using Near Me to public participants and establishing their ideas on various steps in the process, step 2-conducting numerous Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) tests and creating a current process flow diagram based on learning and step 3-conducting telephone interviews and thematic analysis of transcripts (n=7) to explore participants' perceptions of being involved in the codesign process. Twenty-five adaptations were made to the Near Me at Home video appointment process from participants' PDSA testing. Four themes were identified from thematic analysis of participants' feedback of the codesign process, namely: altruistic motivation, valuing community voices, the usefulness of the PDSA cycles and the power of 'word of mouth'. By codesigning the use of Near Me with people living in a remote area of Scotland, multiple adaptations were made to the processes to suit the context in which Near Me at Home will be used. Learning from testing and adapting with the public will likely be useful for others embarking on codesign approaches to improve spread and sustainability of quality improvement projects.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Agendamento de Consultas , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Escócia/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração
10.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 674-679, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856807

RESUMO

The article deals with changes in the human resources potential in the Russian health care system, which are the result of the reform of the medical sphere carried out in recent years. The COVID-19 pandemic, which began in early 2020, exposed significant shortcomings of the Russian healthcare reform, showing serious problems in the shortage of specialists, hospital beds, protective equipment, ventilators, tests, and medicines. The reduction of hospital beds and the number of infectious diseases doctors in order to increase the average salary in healthcare has led to the inability of the Russian healthcare system to cope with the spread of coronavirus infection without involving residents, professors, teachers and students of medical organizations. At the present stage of development, the issues of combating the spread of coronavirus infection, mobilization and professional training of medical workers are of particular relevance. Nevertheless, despite the results of the health care reform, which led to a massive reduction of medical organizations in our country, the number of doctors per 10,000 people in 2018 was 47.9 employees, over the past 20 years, has not changed much in the direction of reduction. In our view, we should not talk about a global reduction in human resources in healthcare. The existing personnel problems in healthcare are the low qualification of medical personnel and the General shortage of specialists in the labor market.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos , Betacoronavirus , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Federação Russa
13.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52572

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify advantages and challenges of using household survey data to measure access barriers to health services in the Americas and to report findings from most recent surveys. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study using data retrieved from publicly available nationally representative household surveys carried out in 27 countries of the Americas. Values for indicators of access barriers for forgone care were generated using available datasets and reports from the countries. Results were disaggregated by wealth quintiles according to income or asset-based wealth levels. Results. Most surveys were similar in general approach and in the categories of their content. However, country-specific questionnaires varied by country, which hindered cross-country comparisons. On average, about one-third of people experienced multiple barriers to forgone appropriate care. There was great variability between countries in the experience of these barriers, although disparities were relatively consistent across countries. People in the poorest wealth quintile were more likely to experience barriers related to acceptability issues, financial and geographic access, and availability of resources. Conclusions. The analysis indicates major inequalities by wealth status and uneven progress in multiple access barriers that hinder progress towards the goals of equity as part of the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health in the Americas. Access barriers were multiple, which highlights the need for integrated and multisectoral approaches to tackle them. Given the variability between instruments across countries, future efforts are needed to standardize questionnaires and improve data quality and availability for regional monitoring of access barriers.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Determinar las ventajas y los problemas de la utilización de datos de las encuestas de hogares para medir las barreras al acceso a los servicios de salud en las Américas, e informar los resultados de las encuestas más recientes. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal que empleó datos de encuestas de hogares representativas a nivel nacional y disponibles públicamente, realizadas en 27 países de las Américas. Se generaron valores para los indicadores de las barreras al acceso a la búsqueda de servicios de salud utilizando los conjuntos de datos e informes disponibles de los países. Los resultados se desagregaron por quintiles de riqueza según ingreso o niveles de riqueza basado en activos. Resultados. La mayoría de las encuestas fueron similares en cuanto al enfoque general y a las categorías de su contenido. Sin embargo, los cuestionarios específicos eran diferentes para cada país, lo que dificultó las comparaciones entre ellos. En promedio, alrededor de un tercio de las personas experimentaron múltiples barreras para acceder una atención sanitaria adecuada. Hubo gran variabilidad entre los países en cuanto a la experiencia de esas barreras, aunque las disparidades fueron relativamente constantes entre los países. Las personas del quintil de riqueza más desfavorecido tuvieron más probabilidades de experimentar barreras en lo que respecta a la aceptabilidad, la accesibilidad geográfica y financiera y la disponibilidad de recursos. Conclusiones. Existen grandes desigualdades basadas en la situación de riqueza y un progreso desigual para superar las múltiples barreras al acceso que obstaculizan el avance hacia los objetivos de equidad que forman parte de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y de la salud universal en las Américas. Las barreras al acceso son múltiples, lo que pone de relieve la necesidad de adoptar enfoques integrados y multisectoriales para enfrentarlas. La variabilidad de los instrumentos empleados en los distintos países sugiere que en el futuro es necesario estandarizar los cuestionarios y mejorar la calidad y la disponibilidad de los datos para la vigilancia regional de las barreras al acceso.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , América , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , América
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 74, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To analyze the recommendations of international organizations based on the Washington Consensus on health system reforms of selected countries in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 1980s and 1990s and to investigate the effects of the competitive market logic on public action in the health system. METHODS Comparative analysis of the characteristics of health system reforms conducted in the 1980s and 1990s, still seen in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Data were collected by documental analysis and literature review. The systems were described based on the characteristics of: co-payment, privatization mechanisms, decentralization, fragmentation of the system, integration of funding sources and coverage of the population (universal or segmented). RESULTS The reforms were implemented differently, worsening inequalities in health service delivery systems. Changes related to the neoliberal idea of transforming public action in the direction of private logic point to the predominance of competition rules and the reduction in economic costs in all countries analyzed, contrary to the logic of universal health systems. CONCLUSION The reduction in economic costs, the fragmentation of systems and inequalities in the provision of health services, among others, may mean other future costs resulting from low protection to the population's health. A striking and multidimensional counter-reform is essential to make health a right of all again, in a solidarity system that can lead to the reduction in inequalities and a more democratic society.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Política , Humanos , América Latina
17.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 279, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the required reorganization of all hospital activities, the recent COVID-19 pandemic had dramatic consequences on the orthopedic world. We think that informing the orthopedic community about the strategy that we adopted both in our hospital and in our Department of Orthopedics could be useful, particularly for those who are facing the pandemic later than Italy. METHODS: Changes were done in our hospital by medical direction to reallocate resources to COVID-19 patients. In the Orthopedic Department, a decrease in the number of beds and surgical activity was stabilized. Since March 13, it has been avoided to perform elective surgery, and since March 16, non-urgent outpatient consultations were abolished. This activity reduction was associated with careful evaluation of staff and patients: extensive periodical swab testing of all healthcare staff and swab testing of all surgical patients were applied. RESULTS: These restrictions determined an overall reduction of all our surgical activities of 30% compared to 2019. We also had a reduction in outpatient clinic activities and admissions to the orthopedic emergency unit. Extensive swab testing has proven successful: of more than 160 people tested in our building, only three COVID-19 positives were found, and of over more than 200 surgical procedures, only two positive patients were found. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive swab test of all people (even if asymptomatic) and proactive tracing and quarantining of potential COVID-19 positive patients may diminish the virus spread.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ortopedia/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Emergências , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Itália/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/organização & administração
18.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 155-156, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706204

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on economy and health care system of every nation. United States has been the hardest hit country both with incidence and absolute mortality from COVID-19. In some of its states the health care system have been stretched to their limits. This has led to a rapid change in the health care practice due to newly approved emergency legislative bills, new state government laws, measures taken by institutions and practices as well as the changing consumer behavior. Some of these adaptations - in particular, the transition of patient care to virtual visits are revolutionary. Increased vigilance by health care organization and workers to minimize the spread of infection to others as well for personal protection may result in lasting behavioral change that will prevent hospital acquired or transmitted infections and may lead to reduced morbidity and mortality from the regular "flu". The recycling of personal protective equipment and the emerging research showing it a safe practice will reduce health care expenditure. It is quite possible that this pandemic may be the silver lining that will save the US health care from its unsustainable consumption of US gross domestic product.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saúde Pública/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Addict Med ; 14(5): e144-e146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604133

RESUMO

: The imposition of new regulations can send industries scrambling to comply, fostering innovation in doing so. How we police and treat people with opioid use disorder (OUD), with recent widespread social unrest in reaction to police violence and systemic racism bringing the need for lasting structural changes to our justice system and social services into especially acute relief. Arbitrary laws and counterproductive policies previously subject to only incremental reform have given way to sweeping changes: people convicted of nonviolent drug crimes have been released from jails and prisons, the enforcement of drug laws has been cast aside as a priority, and the regulations surrounding addiction treatment medications and treating patients with OUD have been greatly loosened. These are changes many practitioners and advocates have sought for years if not decades, but they come with the reality that the old systems are culturally entrenched and likely to be resilient. It is critical that researchers evaluate these changes and synthesize the results with existing evidence in ways that empower efforts to make the most effective responses permanent. The COVID-19 pandemic makes for a challenging research environment, but its OUD-related interventions have created new regulatory systems that lend themselves to valuable opportunities for evaluation as natural experiments by the burgeoning field of legal epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Aplicação da Lei , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
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