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2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 569, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring financial protection of the community against health care expenditures is one of the fundamental goals of the health system. Catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) occurs when out-of-pocket health expenditures due to health care expenses considerably affect family life. The main purpose of this study was to analyze CHE trend over time and to determine its determinants. METHODS: The last round of a three part study over time was conducted in June to September 2015 on 600 households in a non-affluent area of Tehran. The World Health Survey questionnaire was used to collect information. Health expenditure was considered to be catastrophic when OOP health expenditures exceed 40% of household's capacity to paysubsistence expenditures. After calculating the amount of households' exposure to CHE, determinants resulting in CHE using logistic regression and the amount of economic inequality in the exposure of households to CHE using the concentration index were calculated. Then, performing a decomposition analysis, the contribution of each of the studied variables to the observed economic inequality was determined. All the findings were compared with the results of studies carried out in the years 2003 and 2008. RESULTS: In the year 2015, 29.9% of households incurred CHE. This amount was 12.6 and 11.8% in the 2003 and 2008 studies, respectively. The concentration index was - 0.017(confidence interval; - 0.086 to 0.051), which, unlike the CI calculated in the years 2003 and 2008, was not significant. The most important determinant affecting the exposure to CHE was inpatient service utilization (OR = 1.64). CONCLUSION: Comparing to the whole national wide findings in sum, in 2015, the amount of the exposure of the studied households to CHE was significant, and it in comparison with the results of the previous studies was increased. However, there was no significant economic inequality and the observed levels of inequalityin comparison with the results of the previous studies conducted in 2003 and 2008 were decreased.


Assuntos
Doença Catastrófica/economia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Financiamento Pessoal , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019872348, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455126

RESUMO

Physicians play multiple roles in a health system. They typically serve simultaneously as the agent for patients, for insurers, for their own medical practices, and for the hospital facilities where they practice. Theoretical and empirical results have demonstrated that financial relations among these different stakeholders can affect clinical outcomes as well as the efficiency and quality of care. What are the physicians' roles as the agents of Chinese patients? The marketization approach of China's economic reforms since 1978 has made hospitals and physicians profit-driven. Such profit-driven behavior and the financial tie between hospitals and physicians have in turn made physicians more the agents of hospitals rather than of their patients. While this commentary acknowledges physicians' ethics and their dedication to their patients, it argues that the current physician agency relation in China has created barriers to achieving some of the central goals of current provider-side health care reform efforts. In addition to eliminating existing perverse financial incentives for both hospitals and physicians, the need for which is already agreed upon by numerous scholars, we argue that the success of the ongoing Chinese public hospital reform and of overall health care reform also relies on establishing appropriate physician-hospital agency relations. This commentary proposes 2 essential steps to establish such physician-hospital agency relations: (1) minimize financial ties between senior physicians and tertiary-level public hospitals by establishing a separate reimbursement system for senior physicians, and (2) establishing a comprehensive physician professionalism system underwritten by the Chinese government, professional physician associations, and major health care facilities as well as by physician leadership representatives. Neither of these suggestions is addressed adequately in current health care reform activities.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Planos de Incentivos Médicos/economia , Médicos/economia , China , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Hospitais Públicos/economia , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950426

RESUMO

Since the late 1920s, the Sri Lankan health system has been based on a firm foundation of primary health care, and it has been recognized internationally as a highly successful low-cost model. However, rethinking the future health-care model has been essential, owing to the country having one of the fastest ageing populations in the world, coupled with a high premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases. To sustain past gains and meet new challenges, several models centred on an expanded primary health-care system have been trialled and refined in the past decade. Primary health care was identified as a key priority in the National Health Strategic Master Plan 2016-2025, and in 2018 the Cabinet approved the Policy on healthcare delivery for universal health coverage. This policy introduces the "shared care cluster" system, whereby an apex specialist institution serves the local primary care referral institutions. The catchment population is divided into populations of approximately 5000, for which one family doctor is responsible. Strengthening and retaining human resources at these primary-level curative institutions will be essential, especially in rural locations. Also critical will be initiatives to orient the population's health-seeking behaviours. Sustained political commitment, an effective communication strategy, a tailored health workforce policy, performance monitoring and evaluation, coordination mechanisms, and changes in administrative and financial regulations are some of the future factors that will be critical to realizing the full potential of primary health care and accelerating universal health coverage in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Sri Lanka , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(3): 792-800, abr.-maio 2019. il, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-987471

RESUMO

Objective: The study's purpose has been to analyze the auditing practices in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) [Brazilian Unified Health System]. Methods: It is an integrative literature review that was carried out in the Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) [Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences], Virtual Health Library (VHL), and Web of Science databases. By using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 scientific articles were selected for in-depth analysis. Results: The findings demonstrate the political and institutional advances regarding to the auditing practices in the SUS. There have been also identified many challenges that must be overcome in order to support such practices, such as the need to qualify the tools of the National Audit Department from the SUS and to improve the communication between State, Municipal, and Federal auditing. Conclusion: Auditing practices in the SUS are still under development, then requiring more studies and dissemination, aiming to bring contributions to both practice and the academic milieu


Objetivo: Analisar as práticas de auditoria no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura realizada na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs), e Web of Science. Ao total, utilizando-se os critérios de inclusão e exclusão selecionou-se 12 artigos científicos para análise. Resultados: Os resultados apontam avanços políticos e nas instituições com relação as práticas de auditoria no SUS. Identificam-se também muitos desafios para fortalecer tais práticas, como a necessidade de qualificar as ferramentas do Departamento Nacional de Auditoria do SUS e melhorar a comunicação entre o componente, estadual, municipal e federal de auditoria. Conclusão: As práticas de auditoria no SUS estão em construção, necessitando de mais estudos e divulgação, afim de que traga contribuições para a prática e o meio acadêmico


Objetivo: Analizar las prácticas de auditoría en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS). Método: Se trata de una revisión integrativa de literatura realizada en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS), Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs), y Web of Science. Al total, utilizando los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se seleccionaron 12 artículos científicos para análisis. Resultados: Los resultados apuntan avances políticos y en las instituciones con relación a las prácticas de auditoría en el SUS. Se identifican también, muchos desafíos para fortalecer tales prácticas, como la necesidad de calificar las herramientas del Departamento Nacional de Auditoría del SUS y mejorar la comunicación entre el componente, estatal, municipal y municipal, federal de auditoría. Conclusión: Las prácticas de auditoría en el SUS están en construcción, necesitando más estudios y divulgación, a fin de que traiga contribuciones para la práctica y el medio académico


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Sistema Único de Saúde/organização & administração , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Auditoria Administrativa/normas , Auditoria Administrativa/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Fam Syst Health ; 37(1): 74-83, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Under the current payment environment, the challenges to implementing and sustaining integrated behavioral health care are substantial. One key barrier for clinicians, administrators, researchers, and patients/families is a lack of clarity about who pays for integrated health care in the United States, and a lack of consensus about whether bending the health care cost curve is a fundamental goal of integrated care, and for whom. Clinicians caring for patients and families in integrated care settings would benefit from honing their "payment reform literacy skills" in order to advocate for integrated care. METHOD: This paper offers a primer on the current state of health care spending in the United States, an overview of public and private payers, and the challenges each faces in paying for integrated care. DISCUSSION: Future journal articles in the FSH Policy and Management Department will describe key payment policy and management opportunities for integrated care payment reform. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Alfabetização em Saúde , Sistema de Pagamento Prospectivo/tendências , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 2, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research highlights the need for carers of people with dementia to acquire relevant and timely information to assist them to access appropriate respite services. Unfortunately, negative experiences of information-seeking can create additional stress for carers and contribute to delays in up-take, or not using respite services at all. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data was collected from a convenience sample of n = 84 carers of older people with dementia living in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW, Australia. We assessed knowledge, attitudes, information seeking behaviours, and unmet need for respite services in 2016, following national aged care reforms. RESULTS: Over the previous 12 months, 86% of carers sought respite service information. The majority (73%) of all carers reported an unmet need for respite services, and were relying on personal networks to provide support for respite information. Few utilised the new government gateway 'My Aged Care' phone line (11%) or website (25%). However, 35% used a pre-existing helpline to access short term or emergency respite. We found a preference for interpersonal information sources, including local doctor (65%), professionally and volunteer led carer support groups (49%), and family and friends (46%). Those using four or more information sources showed higher capacity to name local respite services. Respite service information seekers were more likely to be caring for someone with behavioural problems, to have received assistance to access services, and to have used respite services in the past 3 to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: New reforms in the Australian aged care sector have not adequately responded to the needs of carers of people with dementia for respite service information and support. Wider, community-based messaging promoting positive service options and the provision of active personal support is required to address the unmet need for respite in carers of people with dementia.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/normas , Demência/terapia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidados Intermitentes/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Intermitentes/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Fam Pract ; 36(4): 445-451, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2003, Ontario introduced a patient enrolment system as part of health care reforms, aimed at enhancing primary health care services, but it is unclear whether immigrants have benefited from this health care reform. Therefore, we studied whether this reform changed the extent of immigrants' enrolment in primary care services in Ontario between 2003 and 2012. METHODS: This is a population-based retrospective cohort study, in which a closed cohort of 9231840 Ontario residents between 1985 and 2003 was created, using linked health administrative and immigration databases. Levels of enrolment for traditional and more comprehensive capitation-based practice between 2003 and 2012 were compared by immigrant status. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the odds of enrolment on primary care practices. RESULTS: Overall enrolment in primary care practices increased gradually after 2004, until 2012, when two-thirds of the cohort (67%) were enrolled. The immigrants' enrolment level remained consistently lower than that of long-term residents over the study period. By 2012, enrolment of immigrants in capitation-based models was significantly lower (17.3% versus 25.4%). In particular, enrolment in Family Health Teams, considered the most comprehensive care model, was considerably lower in immigrants compared with long-term residents (5.6% versus 18.0%; OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Immigrant enrolment rates in new comprehensive primary care models were consistently lower than among long-term residents. This has implication on equitable primary care access for immigrant populations.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Med Care ; 57(2): 101-108, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Conceptually, access to primary care (through insurance) should reduce emergency department (ED) visits for primary care sensitive (PCS) conditions. We sought to identify characteristics of insured Massachusetts residents associated with PCS ED use, and compare such use for public versus private insurees. POPULATION AND SETTING: People under age 65 in the Massachusetts All-Payer Claims Data, 2011-2012. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational analysis of PCS ED use with nonurgent, urgent/primary care treatable, and urgent/potentially avoidable visits being considered PCS. We predicted utilization in 2012 using multivariable regression models and data available in 2011 administrative records. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 2,269,475 nonelderly Massachusetts residents, 40% had public insurance. Among public insurees, PCS ED use was higher than for private (mean, 36.5 vs. 9.0 per 100 persons; adjusted risk ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence limits, 2.49-2.56), while having any primary care visit was less common (70% vs. 83%), as was having any visit to one's own (attributed) primary care provider (38% vs. 44%). CONCLUSIONS: Public insurance was associated with less access to primary care and more PCS ED use; statewide labor shortages and low reimbursement rates from public insurance may have provided inadequate access to care that might otherwise have helped reduce PCS ED use.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Seguro Saúde , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
15.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 34: 72-78, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466039

RESUMO

Global reforms in health professions education, including midwifery, support the transformation of education programmes to adopt competency-based models. Lesotho, a small sub-Saharan African country, with perennially high maternal and neonatal mortality, adopted a competency-based education model in the design and subsequent implementation of a one-year post-basic midwifery programme. Through a gap analysis involving administrators, educators and students in all the nursing education institutions in Lesotho, we explored their experiences related to the implementation of a competency-based midwifery programme after three years of continuous implementation. The findings revealed a vast gap between the described curriculum, and what was enacted in the nursing education institutions. The essential components of the midwifery programme had not been transformed to accommodate competency-based education. We argue that structural and operational elements of a programme should be adjusted before and during the implementation of such a curriculum innovation to enhance a positive teaching and learning experience, further sustaining the programme. Therefore, contextually relevant frameworks aimed at supporting the implementation and sustainability of the entire programme should be developed.


Assuntos
Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Tocologia/educação , Competência Clínica/normas , Educação Baseada em Competências/tendências , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/tendências , Grupos Focais , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Lesoto , Modelos Educacionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Lancet ; 393(10166): 75-102, 2019 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579611

RESUMO

Indonesia is a rapidly growing middle-income country with 262 million inhabitants from more than 300 ethnic and 730 language groups spread over 17 744 islands, and presents unique challenges for health systems and universal health coverage (UHC). From 1960 to 2001, the centralised health system of Indonesia made gains as medical care infrastructure grew from virtually no primary health centres to 20 900 centres. Life expectancy improved from 48 to 69 years, infant mortality decreased from 76 deaths per 1000 livebirths to 23 per 1000, and the total fertility rate decreased from 5·61 to 2·11. However, gains across the country were starkly uneven with major health gaps, such as the stagnant maternal mortality of around 300 deaths per 100 000 livebirths, and minimal change in neonatal mortality. The centralised one size fits all approach did not address the complexity and diversity in population density and dispersion across islands, diets, diseases, local living styles, health beliefs, human development, and community participation. Decentralisation of governance to 354 districts in 2001, and currently 514 districts, further increased health system heterogeneity and exacerbated equity gaps. The novel UHC system introduced in 2014 focused on accommodating diversity with flexible and adaptive implementation features and quick evidence-driven decisions based on changing needs. The UHC system grew rapidly and covers 203 million people, the largest single-payer scheme in the world, and has improved health equity and service access. With early success, challenges have emerged, such as the so-called missing-middle group, a term used to designate the smaller number of people who have enrolled in UHC in wealth quintiles Q2-Q3 than in other quintiles, and the low UHC coverage of children from birth to age 4 years. Moreover, high costs for non-communicable diseases warrant new features for prevention and promotion of healthy lifestyles, and investment in a robust integrated digital health-information system for front-line health workers is crucial for impact and sustainability. This Review describes the innovative UHC initiative of Indonesia along with the future roadmap required to meet sustainable development goals by 2030.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 210 f p. fig, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005782

RESUMO

A tese versa sobre a constituição e trajetória do movimento antimanicomial na América Latina. Ao longo do século XX, esse movimento social se constituiu como sujeito coletivo que encampa a denúncia da violência e repressão que o manicômio representa. Estabeleceu formas de luta pela defesa, valorização e garantia dos direitos humanos e, de maneira mais ampla, a luta pela democracia. O movimento antimanicomial latino-americano representa também a loucura em sua forma criativa e política, pois integra o conjunto de movimentos sociais que se articulam em torno da construção de espaços de liberdade, cidadania e cuidado às pessoas em sofrimento mental. O objetivo da pesquisa que originou esta tese era analisar a relação entre as reformas psiquiátricas, políticas de saúde mental e os movimentos sociais no âmbito dos países da América Latina. A pesquisa, de cunho exploratório e ativista, foi realizada através de participação e observação nos protestos, marchas, reuniões e encontros, assim como em eventos nacionais e internacionais onde estiveram reunidos líderes e representantes do movimento político. Também foram realizadas entrevistas, além de conversas, com participantes do movimento no Brasil, Argentina, Uruguai e México. Foi realizada pesquisa no acervo histórico "Memórias da Reforma Psiquiátrica", assim como a leitura e análise de bibliografia e documentos que contribuíram para organização e reconstrução da trajetória do movimento antimanicomial latino-maericano. Como resultados, apresenta-se essa trajetória mostrando que os participantes e representantes desse movimento social conseguiram se organizar e se integrar por meio de eventos e encontros marcados pela diversidade e multiplicidade de manifestações em dois momentos históricos: pela Rede Latino-Americana de Alternativas à Psiquiatria na década de 1980; e pelos congressos internacionais de saúde mental e direitos humanos, realizados pela Universidade Popular das Madres de la Plaza de Mayo, de 2002 a 2013. Desde 2017, uma nova integração do movimento antimanicomial latino-americano vem sendo construída por meio da Rede Latino-Americana e Caribe de Direitos Humanos e Saúde Mental. Como crítica desse processo, discute-se a importância da multiplicidade e ancestralidade do movimento antimanicomial retomando seu caráter revolucionário, na medida em que integra à luta de classes. Apontam-se suas ambiguidades na forma da acomodação em torno dos processos de reforma que se faz por meio de uma visão reducionista e voluntarista da luta política. Finalmente, discutem-se seus limites mostrando como a reestruturação do Estado e das políticas públicas tem provido um deslocamento da acumulação do capital do manicômio para as drogas psiquiátricas, moldando um intenso processo de medicalização social que exige do movimento antimanicomial reflexão e estratégias de luta política. Para além desse primeiro e maior limite, o risco da fragmentação é apontado como um segundo limite a superar. A luta política em torno da loucura e seu destino social é uma dos embates sociais que se travam na América Latina constantemente e que se integra à luta internacional que se dirige à transformação e à superação do sistema capitalista. Analisar e participar do movimento antimanicomial é uma maneira de se integrar a luta por uma América Latina sem manicômios


The thesis deals with the constitution and trajectory of the anti-asylum movement in Latin America. Throughout the twentieth century, this social movement was constituted as a collective subject that provides the denunciation of the violence and repression that the asylum represents. It established forms of struggle for the defense, valorization and guarantee of human rights and, more broadly, the struggle for democracy. The Latin American anti-asylum movement also represents madness in its creative and political form, because it integrates the set of social movements that are articulated around the construction of spaces of freedom, citizenship and care for people in mental suffering. The objective of the research that originated this thesis was to analyze the relationship between psychiatric reforms, mental health policies and social movements within the countries of Latin America. The research, exploratory and activist, was carried out through participation and observation in protests, marches, meetings and meetings, as well as in national and international events where leaders and representatives of the political movement were gathered. Interviews and conversations were also held with participants from the movement in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Mexico. A research was carried out in the historical collection "Memories of the Psychiatric Reform", as well as the reading and analysis of bibliography and documents that contributed to the organization and reconstruction of the trajectory of the Latin-American movement. As a result, this trajectory shows how the participants and representatives of this social movement managed to organize and integrate themselves through events and meetings marked by the diversity and multiplicity of manifestations in two historical moments: by the Latin American Network of Alternatives to Psychiatry in the 1980s; and the international congresses of mental health and human rights held by the Popular University of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo from 2002 to 2013. Since 2017, a new integration of the Latin American anti-manicomial movement has been built through the Latin American Network and the Caribbean on Human Rights and Mental Health. As a critique of this process, the importance of the multiplicity and ancestry of the anti-asylum movement is discussed, resuming its revolutionary character, insofar as it is part of the class struggle. They point out their ambiguities in the form of accommodation around the reform processes that is done through a reductionist and voluntarist vision of the political struggle. Finally, its limits are discussed, showing how the restructuring of the State and public policies has provided a shift from the accumulation of the capital of the asylum to psychiatric drugs, shaping an intense process of social medicalization that demands of the antimanicomial movement reflection and strategies of political struggle . Beyond this first and largest limit, the risk of fragmentation is set as a second limit to be overcome. The political struggle over madness and its social destiny is one of the social struggles that are constantly being tackled in Latin America, and which is part of the international struggle for transformation and overcoming of the capitalist system, its crises and contradictions. Analyzing, integrating and participating in the anti-asylum movement is a way to integrate into this struggle for a Latin America without asylums


Assuntos
Humanos , Psiquiatria/tendências , Saúde Mental/tendências , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Ativismo Político , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/tendências , América Latina
18.
Health Hum Rights ; 20(2): 93-104, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568405

RESUMO

Massachusetts is a national leader in health care, consistently ranking in the top five states in the United States. In 2006, however, only 86% of adults aged 19-64 had health insurance. That year, Governor Romney signed into law An Act Providing Access to Affordable, Quality, Accountable Health Care. By 2017, more than 96% of these adults were insured. The 2006 Massachusetts health insurance reform later became the model for the 2010 federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare. This article examines, through a human rights lens, the 2006 Massachusetts health insurance reform 10 years after its implementation (2007-2017) to shed light on the effectiveness of this approach in achieving universal health coverage. Drawing on documentary and interview data, and applying international human rights norms, we found that (1) the 2006 Massachusetts health reform replaced a crisis of uninsurance with a crisis of underinsurance; (2) state leaders in health reform propose widely diverging solutions to the increasing health care costs, the inability of many residents to afford needed health care, and the persistence of medical bankruptcies; and (3) health care is recognized as a human right in Massachusetts, but understanding of the substance or potential of the right is limited.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Massachusetts
19.
Aust Health Rev ; 42(6): 616-620, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465706

RESUMO

The Voluntary Assisted Dying Act 2017 (Vic) will come into force in June 2019, becoming the first law in Australia in 20 years to permit voluntary assisted dying (VAD). This paper considers how other Australian states and territories are likely to respond to this development. It analyses three key factors that suggest that law reform is likely to occur in other parts of Australia: (1) the growing international trend to permit VAD; (2) social science evidence about how VAD regimes operate; and (3) changes to the local political environment. The paper argues that these three factors, coupled with the effect of Victoria changing its law, suggest that other VAD law reform is likely to occur in Australia. It also considers the different types of laws that may be adopted, including whether other states and territories will follow the very conservative Victorian approach or adopt more liberal models.


Assuntos
Suicídio Assistido , Austrália , Previsões , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Política , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio Assistido/tendências , Vitória
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