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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127654, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791428

RESUMO

This study aimed to improve the physicochemical stability of nanoliposome (NL) with enhanced functionality for the delivery of Pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G) using biopolymers, i.e. chitosan (CH) and pectin (P). In this study, we successfully developed stabilized liposomal carriers, i.e. CH-conjugated NL (CH-NL) and P-conjugated CH-NL (P-CH-NL) using an optimum concentration of CH (0.6 wt%) and P (0.5 wt%). Results revealed that P-CH-NL had better physical stability to salt and pH with maximum P3G retention (>97%) under oxidative, thermal, and UV conditions. Nanoliposomes were more stable under refrigerated-storage and ensured high P3G retention (>96%). In vitro mucoadhesion study revealed that CH-NL had better mucin adsorption efficiency (59.72%) followed by P-CH-NL and NL. Furthermore, CH-NL and P-CH-NL alternatively had better stability to serum than NL. Taken together, the stabilization of nanoliposome using chitosan and pectin can be a promising approach for the delivery of hydrophilic compounds in association with enhanced stability and functionality.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/química , Polímeros/química , Adsorção , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Fenômenos Químicos , Quitosana/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Meia-Vida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanoestruturas/química , Oxirredução , Pectinas/química , Refrigeração , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta
2.
Food Chem ; 339: 128097, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979715

RESUMO

The cuticular wax of Korla pear stored under different relative humidity (0 ± 1 ℃, 50-55%, 70-75% and 90-95%) was examined in terms of total wax content, chemical composition and crystal morphology. The cuticular wax was composed of alkanes, olefins, fatty acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters and terpenoids. High humidity maintained the content of total wax, alkanes and aldehydes at sufficient levels, especially C29 alkane and C18 aldehyde, which could positively regulate the quality of the pear fruits. Cuticular wax contributes to the capacity of preserving water, maintaining cell wall and delaying senescence. Scanning electron microscopy showed that wax crystals appeared as numerous platelets with irregular ovate crystals, high humidity delayed the transformation of wax structure. Taken together, high humidity delayed the ripening and aging by effectively maintaining wax, which was essential for postharvest storage and provide a reference for the production of synthetic wax for Korla pear fruits.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Pyrus/química , Ceras/química , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Alcanos/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Umidade , Refrigeração , Terpenos/análise
3.
Rev Infirm ; 69(264): 36-38, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129476

RESUMO

Controlling the cold chain for heat-sensitive healthcare products is essential to ensure the quality and safety of the patient's medical care. In response to this issue, the Marolles Forces Medical Supply Establishment (51), a pharmaceutical distribution establishment, is developing decision support tools to enable healthcare professionals to ensure that the conditions for storing heat-sensitive products are respected as soon as they are received.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Refrigeração , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108858, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032034

RESUMO

Routine handling of oysters is a common industry practice for off-bottom oyster aquaculture, which aims to produce a high-quality oyster. These practices expose oysters to elevated temperatures and interrupt filter feeding, which can increase Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus levels within the oyster. The resubmersion of oysters after exposure to conditions where the time-temperature controls are exceeded is as an effective mitigation strategy to allow elevated levels of Vibrio spp. to "recover", or return to ambient levels, prior to harvest. Previous work examined the effect of desiccation on recovery times; the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional handling treatments [tumbled and refrigerated (TR), tumbled and not refrigerated (TNR), not tumbled and refrigerated (NTR), and not tumbled and not refrigerated (NTNR)] on the time needed for V. vulnificus, total V. parahaemolyticus, and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh+/trh+) to recover in oysters. A set of non-treated (control) oysters remained submerged throughout the study to determine the ambient Vibrio spp. (inclusive of genotypes) levels within oysters. Vibrio spp. levels were measured immediately before (pre) and after (post) the treatments, and 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days after resubmersion using a three-tube MPN real-time PCR method. The non-refrigerated oysters (TNR, NTNR) had Vibrio spp. levels 1.54 to 2.10 log MPN/g higher than the pre-treatment levels, while the Vibrio spp. levels in refrigerated oysters were not significantly higher than pre-treatment levels. After resubmersion, Vibrio spp. levels increased by 0.84 to 1.78 log MPN/g in the refrigerated oysters (TR, NTR). Vibrio spp. levels in oysters returned to ambient after 1-7 days of resubmersion, depending on the handling treatment and the Vibrio spp. These results provide data on handling treatments not previously reported and further support the seven-day resubmersion requirement for farmers in Alabama using the adjustable longline system.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Refrigeração , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio vulnificus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alabama , Animais , Aquicultura , Contaminação de Alimentos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Vibrio vulnificus/genética
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036541

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the distribution and intensity of noise and ultraviolet radiation of welding posts in a refrigeration equipment manufacturing enterprise, in conjunction with the health status of welding workers, providing scientific evidence for the prevention and control of occupational diseases in this type of post. Methods: In May 2019, a cross-sectional survey method was used to select 576 welding workers in the pressure vessel workshop and the unit assembly workshop of a refrigeration complete equipment manufacturer from 2016 to 2018 as the research objects. The occupational hygiene survey and occupational hazard factor measurement were carried out in the workplace, and the measurement data and occupational health examination results were statistically analyzed. Results: The over standard rate of individual Lex in pressure vessel workshop was 82.2% (37/45) . Compared with the unit assembly workshop, the individual Lex of welding workers in pressure vessel workshop was higher than that in unit assembly workshop (t=13.43, P= 0.00) ; the effective irradiance exceeding rate of welding workers in pressure vessel workshop and unit assembly workshop was 33.3% (4/12) and 25.0% (3/12) , The meacurement of ovradiation in the moskment the occupational exposure limit. The deaf rate and hearing loss rate in pressure vessel workshop were 1.5% (5/336) 20.5% (69/336) , respectively, significantly higher than that in umit assembly workshop (P<0.05) . The detection rate of hearing loss of pressure vessel workshop workers increased year by year, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2trend)=22.42, P<0.01) ; compared with the unit assembly workshop from 2016 to 2018, the detection rates of lens opacity, corneal cloudiness and hearing loss of pressure vessel workshop workers were statistically significant (χ(2)=9.45, 14.80, 55.99, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Welding workers exposed to noise and ultraviolet radiation are easy to be ignored. The enterprise management department should attach great importance to it and take comprehensive measures to protect the health of welding workers.


Assuntos
Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Soldagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Refrigeração , Raios Ultravioleta
6.
Food Environ Virol ; 12(4): 361-366, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057921

RESUMO

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic dictates that anti-contagion strategies should become matters of essential routine in everyday life. Fomite transference is one of the routes of transmission that has been considered for this virus. However, the risks associated with contaminated surfaces of food packaging kept in refrigerators have not yet been adequately assessed. In this study, a surrogate virus, Alphacoronavirus 1, was used to investigate the persistence of coronavirus dried on a plastic carrier at 4 °C. Techniques of wet wiping, with or without disinfectant saturation, were employed to evaluate their effectiveness in the elimination of the virus. If not wiped, the loss of infectivity of the virus on plastic surfaces was, on average, 0.93 log10 (i.e. 83%) per day of storage at 4 °C. Wiping with water-saturated material reduced the initial virus titre on the plastic carrier by 2.4 log10 (99.6%); the same results were achieved through wiping with bactericidal wipes containing ethanol. Wipes saturated with a combination of disinfectant agents (didecyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide) decreased the virus titre still more efficiently, by 3.8 log10 (99.98%) and also significantly prevented further transfer of the virus to a secondary surface through wiping. Thus SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential via contaminated plastic packaging and food may be efficiently eliminated by wet-wiping, especially when wipes saturated with specific disinfectants are used.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Fômites/virologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Plásticos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Refrigeração , Antibacterianos , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes , Etanol , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Água
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3498-3508, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940370

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) on physico-mechanical and structural characteristics of films based on Farsi gum-carboxymethyl cellulose supplemented with Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0%, 1%, and 2%) and lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF; 0%, 1%, and 2%), and their application on fresh minced beef meat's shelf-life during refrigerated temperature (4 ± 1 °C) for 16 days. Gamma irradiation under the 60 Co source at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses did not have a significant effect on thickness, tensile strength, swelling index, oxygen permeability, and water vapor transmission rate of prepared films (P > 0.05). The best microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic bacterial count, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae) and chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total volatile base nitrogen content, and peroxide value) properties were recorded for samples packaged with ZEO 2% + LCNF 2%, followed by ZEO 2% + LCNF 1%, ZEO 1% + LCNF 2%, and ZEO 1% + LCNF 1%. These results indicate acceptable extensions of hurdle technology for prolonged refrigeration of minced beef meat. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The application of active packaging films has received considerable interest in extending the shelf-life of perishable foods during prolonged chilled storage. The effects of active Farsi gum-carboxymethyl cellulose films supplemented with Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil 2% + lignocellulose nanofibers 2% resulted in delaying lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage growth of refrigerated minced beef meat and consequently extending the shelf-life during storage for at least 16 days.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Lamiaceae/química , Lignina/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Gomas Vegetais/química , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Raios gama , Carne/análise , Carne/microbiologia , Nanofibras/análise , Gomas Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Refrigeração
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2857-2865, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812228

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to develop Manihot esculenta and Carrageenan bio-based composite active film functionalized with anise, caraway, and nutmeg essential oils (EOs) and to assess the shelf life of chicken nuggets wrapped with the developed film at refrigeration storage. Overall, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the three EOs ranged from 0.4 to 0.8% v/v of which nutmeg EO was found most effective. Incorporation of EOs in the film resulted in significant (P ˂ 0.05) decrease in tensile strength and water activity while elongation at break was significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased. No significant (P ˃ 0.05) changes in thickness and Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) were observed. Based on physicomechanical and sensory evaluation, films incorporated with 0.5, 1, and 1% concentration of anise, nutmeg, and caraway EO were selected. Chicken nuggets overwrapped with aforementioned films were stored aerobically at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) to evaluate antimicrobial, antioxidant, and sensory characteristics. The result indicated that pH, peroxide, free fatty acid (FFA), and thiobarbituric acide (TBA) value of treatments were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lower than controls however significantly (P < 0.05) higher DPPH activity was observed in all treatments. The total plate count, psychrophilic count and, yeast and mold count were also significantly (P ˂ 0.01) lower in treatment groups and were within the permissible limits. The treated samples were well acceptable during whole storage period of 15 days. The application of composite, active edible bio-based film was found proficient in confining product quality attributes throughout storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The majority of films used for packaging of meat and meat products are derived from synthetic "plastic" materials. The demerits associated with plastics have eventually led to explore natural alternatives such as edible films. The composite-active bio-based films have a huge potential to be molded for specific film properties based on requirements of product-specific packaging conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Filmes Comestíveis , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Polímeros/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carragenina/química , Galinhas , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Manihot/química , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polímeros/síntese química , Refrigeração , Paladar
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2711-2719, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794282

RESUMO

Companies producing ready-to-eat (RTE) meals are looking for processing alternatives that allow them to gain presence in the supermarket chill section. Microwave-assisted pasteurization systems (MAPS) offer the potential to produce safe, high-quality foods. This research examined sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial changes in fried rice processed with MAPS and stored at 7 °C over a 6-week storage period. Additional fried rice samples (cooked but not MAPS-processed) were stored at -31 °C and were used as the control. Randomly selected trays of each type of rice were analyzed at 1, 4, and 6 weeks of storage. Aroma, appearance, taste/flavor, texture, mouthfeel, and aftertaste were evaluated by a semitrained sensory panel with rate-all-that-apply questions. The type of rice treatment (MAPS or control) significantly influenced sensory attributes (P < 0.05), with firm texture attribute of the egg being more intense in the MAPS-rice compared to the control. In addition, storage time affected the sensory modalities of both rice samples, including aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor (P < 0.05). No spoilage-associated sensory attributes were detected in the MAPS-rice during storage. At each examination point, various physical, chemical, and microbial analyses were conducted for the MAPS- and control rice. From the physical and chemical perspective, the MAPS-rice did not present relevant changes over the period tested. Microbial growth was the main cause of spoilage of the MAPS-rice; however, MAPS was able to extend the regular 5-day shelf life of a chilled fried rice meal to 6 weeks, demonstrating the potential of this technology for the RTE industry. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this study indicate that, by applying microwave technology to RTE fried rice, the shelf life can be extended from 5 to 7 days up to 42 days (6 weeks) when stored at 7 °C. This temperature closely mimics that of consumers' refrigerators in the United States. This study also shows the potential of working with a semitrained panel and RATA questions when characterizing sensory changes during storage.


Assuntos
Oryza/química , Pasteurização/métodos , Sementes/química , Fast Foods/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Oryza/microbiologia , Pasteurização/instrumentação , Refrigeração , Sementes/microbiologia , Paladar
11.
Av. enferm ; 38(2): 170-181, May-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114687

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To develop and to test the validity of content and layout of a multidimensional tool to evaluate maintenance of the cold chain for immunobiological conservation. Method: A methodological study carried out in three steps: integrative review; development of theoretical and logical model for the development of the tool; implementation of the Delphi Technique to test the validity of content and layout. The Content Validity Index (CVI) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR) were calculated considering appropriate those values greater than or equal to 75% and 0.4, respectively. Results: The instrument consisted of 7 questions about structure and 20 about process, subdivided into three components: Transportation/Reception (n=3); Storage/Handling (n=13); Supervision/Permanent education (n=4). The cvi value was 87.4%, with values equal to 85.7% and 89% in the structure and process dimensions, respectively. The process components obtained cvi values equal to 88.9, 88.9 and 89.2%, respectively. The CVR was 0.8, with values equal to 0.7 and 0.8 in the structure and process dimensions. As for the layout validation, the questionnaire was considered intelligible. Conclusion: The study provides an instrument with validity of content and layout for health professionals in charge of the supervision of activities of immunobiological conservation, ensuring the maintenance of the immunogenic quality of the products offered to the population.


Resumen Objetivo: desarrollar y validar los contenidos e interface de una herramienta multidimensional para evaluar el mantenimiento de la cadena de frío de la conservación inmunobiológica. Método: estudio metodológico realizado en tres pasos: revisión integradora; elaboración de modelo teórico y lógico para el desarrollo de la herramienta; implementación de la técnica Delphi para la validación de contenido y de apariencia de preguntas. Se calcularon el Índice de validez de contenido (IVC) y el Razón de Validez de Contenido (RVC), considerando apropiados aquellos valores mayores o iguales al 75 % y 0,4, respectivamente. Resultados: el cuestionario constaba de siete preguntas de estructura y 20 de proceso, subdivididas en tres componentes: Transporte/Recepción (n=3); Almacenamiento/Manipulación (n=13); Supervisión/Educación continua (n=4). El valor para el cvi fue 87,4 %, con valores iguales al 85,7 y 89 % en las dimensiones estructura y proceso, respectivamente. Los componentes del proceso obtuvieron valores para el IVC iguales a 88,9, 88,9 y 89,2 %, respectivamente. El RVC era una herramienta de 0,8, con valores iguales a 0,7 en la estructura de dimensión y 0,8 en proceso. En cuanto a la validación de la apariencia, el cuestionario se consideró inteligible. Conclusión: el estudio proporciona un instrumento con contenido validado para profesionales de la salud, en la supervisión de actividades de conservación de productos inmunobiológicos, asegurando el mantenimiento de la calidad inmunogénica de los productos ofrecidos a la población.


Resumo Objetivo: desenvolver e validar o conteúdo e interface de um instrumento multidimensional para avaliar a manutenção da cadeia de frio de conservação de imunobiológicos. Método: estudo metodológico realizado em três etapas: revisão integrativa; elaboração do modelo teórico-lógico para o desenvolvimento do instrumento; realização da Técnica Delphi para validar conteúdo e aparência das questões. Foram calculados o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC) e a Razão de Validade de Conteúdo (RVC), considerando-se valores adequados aqueles maiores ou iguais a 75 % e 0,4, respectivamente. Resultados: o questionário constou de sete questões de estrutura e 20 de processo, subdivididos em três componentes: transporte/recebimento (n=3); armazenamento/manuseio (n=13); supervisão/educação permanente (n=4). O valor para o IVC foi de 87,4 %, com valores iguais a 85,7 % na dimensão estrutura e 89 % no processo. Os componentes do processo obtiveram valores para o IVC iguais a 88,9 %, 88,9 % e 89,2 %, respectivamente. O RVC do instrumento foi de 0,8, com valores iguais a 0,7 na dimensão estrutura e 0,8 no processo. Quanto à validação de aparência, o questionário foi considerado inteligível. Conclusão: o estudo fornece um instrumento de medida com conteúdo validado e que se configura em uma ferramenta de gestão útil na supervisão de salas de imunização.


Assuntos
Humanos , Refrigeração , Vacinas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Gestão da Qualidade , Estudo de Validação , Equipamentos e Provisões
12.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101765, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769017

RESUMO

Quantitative analysis of thiosulfate is useful for diagnosing hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) enables more rapid and sensitive measurements than previous methodologies. As simple measurements of blood thiosulfate concentration are affected by the blood matrix, blood is used as the solvent to prepare the standard solution for calibration curve generation. Thus, a large amount of blood devoid of thiosulfate is required. We developed a preparation method by incorporating an ultrafiltration step to overcome this limitation and generate a calibration curve using a standard solution prepared with pure water. We used this improved method to investigate the stability of thiosulfate in refrigerated samples. To compare the effects of refrigeration, blood samples were prepared using the following two methods: one sample was treated with a 50-kDa exclusion ultrafiltration membrane and the other was not treated. The samples were stored at 4 °C, and then measured at 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 96 h. The incorporation of the ultrafiltration step in the measurement procedure enabled the quantification of thiosulfate, by plotting a calibration curve using a standard of pure water; it did not require a blood standard. Additionally, the reduction in whole blood thiosulfate concentration was within 10% during 2 days of refrigeration. Thus, the need for a large amount of blood to prepare the standard solution was resolved by the ultrafiltration step in test sample preparation. This method is useful to measure thiosulfate concentration and is not hindered by sample refrigeration for a few days.


Assuntos
Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/envenenamento , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tiossulfatos/sangue , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Calibragem , Humanos , Refrigeração , Soluções , Água
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13349, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770018

RESUMO

Effective vaccine delivery and coverage to rural and resource-poor countries is hindered by the dependence on cold chain storage. As such, developments of cold chain-free technologies are highly sought. Although spray dried adenoviral vectors have shown long term stability at ambient temperatures and relatively low humidity, it remains to be determined whether similar excipient formulations are applicable to other viral vectors. To address this, we have spray dried vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-vectors with a panel of well-characterized sugar excipients to determine the optimal formulation for vector stabilization. Upon reconstitution, we show that trehalose conferred superior stability of VSV both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, following cold chain-free storage at elevated temperatures at 37 °C for 15 days, we show that a VSV-vectored vaccine retains its in vivo immunogenicity, whereas a liquid control completely lost its immune-stimulating ability. Our results provide foundational evidence that spray drying with properly tested excipients can stabilize viral vectors such as VSV, allowing them to be stored long-term at elevated temperatures without dependency on cold chain conditions.


Assuntos
Vacinas/química , Vesiculovirus/química , Dessecação/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Excipientes/química , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Manitol/química , Pós/química , Refrigeração/métodos , Temperatura , Trealose/química
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639973

RESUMO

Vaccine temperature control failures represent a significant public and private healthcare cost. Vaccines damaged by excessive heat or freezing lose their effectiveness, putting public health at risk. Some vaccine administration programs recommend placing water bottles inside domestic refrigerators used for vaccine storage as a thermal ballast, to mitigate temperature excursion risks. However, the effect of variable thermal ballast loading on refrigerator performance has not been thoroughly quantified or documented, and generalized programmatic recommendations are subject to end-user interpretation. Here we show that a thermal ballast load comprising ten to fifteen percent of the total refrigerator storage volume provides a measurable effect on domestic refrigerator temperature stability during power outage events, maintaining vaccine temperatures between 2 °C and 8 °C for 4 to 6 hours without power. Thermal ballast usage does not reliably reduce the frequency or severity of temperature excursions caused by repeated door opening, accidental "door left open" events, or refrigerator defrost cycle activation. Use of a moderate thermal ballast load is a practical strategy for mitigating temperature excursions risks in areas with frequent or protracted power outages, but the practice has limited benefit in other adverse scenarios. Empowering providers to make informed decisions about the use of thermal ballast materials supports better, safer vaccine management.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Vacinas/química , Algoritmos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Refrigeração/instrumentação , Refrigeração/métodos , Temperatura
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702039

RESUMO

Acid adaptation enhances survival of foodborne pathogens under lethal acid conditions that prevail in several food-related ecosystems. In the present study, the role of undissociated acetic acid in inducing acid resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 4 both in laboratory media and in an acid food matrix was investigated. Several combinations of acetic acid (0, 15, 25, 35 and 45 mM) and pH values (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0) were screened for their ability to activate acid resistance mechanisms of pathogen exposed to pH 2.5 (screening assay). Increased survival was observed when increasing undissociated acetic acid within a range of sublethal concentrations (1.9-5.4 mM), but only at pH 5.5 and 6.0. No effect was observed at lower pH values, regardless of the undissociated acetic acid levels. Three combinations (15mM/pH5.0, 35mM/pH5.5, 45mM/pH6.0) were selected and further used for adaptation prior to inoculation in commercial tarama (fish roe) salad, i.e., an acid spread (pH 4.35 ± 0.02), stored at 5°C. Surprisingly and contrary to the results of the screening assay, none of the acid adaptation treatments enhanced survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in the food matrix, as compared to non-adapted cells (control). Further examination of the food pH value, acidulant and storage (challenge) temperature on the responses of the pathogen adapted to 15mM/pH5.0, 35mM/pH5.5 and 45mM/pH6.0 was performed in culture media. Cells adapted to 35mM/pH5.5 were unable to induce acid resistance when exposed to pH 4.35 (tarama salad pH value) at 37°C and 5°C, whereas incubation under refrigeration (5°C) at pH 4.35 sensitized 45mM/pH6.0 adapted cells against the subsequent acid and cold stress. In conclusion, pre-exposure to undissociated acetic acid affected the adaptive responses of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 4 in a concentration- and pH-dependent manner, with regard to conditions prevailing during acid challenge.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteriófagos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella enteritidis/virologia , Ácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Refrigeração
16.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(2): 29-34, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593373

RESUMO

In 1758, Benjamin Franklin froze water by means of the evaporation of diethyl ether. Diethyl ether became the coolant in early mechanical refrigerators and ice makers. Refrigeration advances by Carl von Linde and others provide medical oxygen from the air, liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation and cryoablation, xenon for inhaled anesthesia, and liquid helium for supercooling of magnetic resonance image scanners.


Assuntos
Éter/história , Refrigeração/história , Termometria/história , Anestesia/história , Pessoas Famosas , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
J Surg Res ; 255: 261-266, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inaccurate assessment of injected drug delivery may increase cost and morbidity or reduce efficacy. Yet currently most injections are evaluated solely by the formation of a visible wheal that might not truly estimate the actual area of effect. We hypothesized that thermal injection measurement (TIM) might verify appropriate temperature at the time of injection, as required for some temperature-sensitive vaccines and provide more accurate information about the area of delivery. METHODS: 0.1 mL of either iced (n = 11) or room temperature (n = 17) methylene blue solution was injected subcutaneously in mice under anesthesia and photos taken with an iPhone 7 built-in camera and Thermal Seek Camera phone plug-in. After 5 min, true values were determined at necropsy. RESULTS: TIM was closer in value to the measured area at necropsy than the area of the visualized skin wheal at both ice temperature and room temperature. The difference between the true value and thermal area assessment of iced solution averaged 0.15 cm2 as compared with the difference between the true value and wheal size, which averaged 0.27 cm2 (P = 0.04). At room temperature, this was maintained for thermal and visible wheal differences, 0.23 cm2 and 0.65 cm2, respectively (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: TIM can assess temperature at the time of injection and is more accurate than visual inspection. TIM could be applied to colorless injections and areas that are hard to visualize such as scar. As a portable phone plug-in, it might be a useful adjunct to aid the evaluation of injected drug delivery including in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Injeções Subcutâneas/métodos , Termografia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Aplicativos Móveis , Refrigeração
18.
J Food Prot ; 83(7): 1234-1240, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577758

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hygiene management of domestic refrigerators is an important aspect of food poisoning prevention. The aim of the present study was to confirm the relationship between microbial contamination and hygiene management by measuring microbial levels and investigating temperature and cleaning frequency and method of domestic refrigerators in Japan. We analyzed three internal sections (the egg compartment, bottom shelf, and vegetable drawer) of 100 domestic refrigerators in Japan. Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica were not found in any of the refrigerators, but coliforms and Escherichia coli were detected in more than one household, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen. The prevalences of these microorganisms had similar tendencies in all three sections sampled and were highest in the vegetable drawer. The temperature distribution in the refrigerators was also investigated, and a temperature >6.1°C (improper temperature) was found in 46.2% of the areas surveyed. Only 17% of the respondents cleaned their refrigerators monthly or more often, and this frequency was lower than that reported in other countries. Fifty percent of the respondents used only water to clean the refrigerator, 10% used only an alcohol or disinfecting wipe, and 8% used only a dry cloth. Although no significant correlations were found between microbial contamination and temperatures in refrigerators, correlations were found between microbial contamination and refrigerator cleaning frequency and/or method. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed survey concerning relationships between microbial contamination and hygiene management in domestic refrigerators in Japan. The data obtained can be used to promote food poisoning management in Japanese households.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Refrigeração , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Japão , Salmonella , Temperatura
19.
ABCS health sci ; 45: [1-6], 02 jun 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immunobiologicals are of great importance for the prevention and eradication of diseases. However, the lack of maintenance of the cold chain generates several problems related to losses of these substances, burdening an important amount of public resources. OBJECTIVE: To analyze vaccine losses in a Health Region (Região Ampliada de Saúde Oeste) of Minas Gerais State in Brazil. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, based on secondary data obtained through forms used by the regional health agency (Superintendência Regional de Saúde, SRS), to register losses of immunobiologicals due to temperature changes. Forms from February 2016 through January 2018 were analyzed. The data was organized and validated by double typing. RESULTS: Vaccine losses were caused by lack of electrical energy (40.83%), followed by equipment failure (36.67%), and professional error (10%). As a consequence, 17,229 bottles of vaccines (65.78%) were discarded, corresponding to 111,145 doses. The financial loss was R$ 604,340.31. CONCLUSION: Losses of vaccines due to temperature changes were relevant in the studied region, damaging the budget for the local health network. Therefore, it is suggested that measures to minimize these losses should be adopted.


INTRODUÇÃO: Os imunobiológicos são de grande importância para a prevenção e erradicação de doenças. Entretanto, a falta de manutenção da Rede de Frio gera diversos problemas relacionados a perdas dessas substâncias, onerando uma importante quantia de recursos públicos. OBJETIVO: Analisar as perdas vacinais da Região Ampliada de Saúde Oeste de Minas Gerais. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com base em dados secundários obtidos através de formulários utilizados pela Superintendência Regional de Saúde (SRS), para avaliação de perdas de imunobiológicos por alteração de temperatura. Foram analisados os formulários de fevereiro de 2016 até janeiro de 2018. Os dados foram organizados e validados por dupla digitação, e a análise foi feita descritivamente. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que dos motivos das ocorrências 40,83% foram por falta de energia elétrica, seguida de falha no equipamento (36,67%), e erro do profissional (10%). Foram inutilizados 17229 frascos de vacinas (65,78%), sendo 111.145 doses, com uma perda financeira de R$ 604.340,31. CONCLUSÃO: Identificou-se que as perdas físicas por alteração de temperatura de vacinas na região estudada foram relevantes, gerando prejuízos para o orçamento do SUS. Dessa forma sugere-se a adoção de condutas para minimizar estas perdas.


Assuntos
Refrigeração , Temperatura , Vacinas/provisão & distribução
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108669, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497922

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections and staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and enterotoxigenicity of MRSA in broiler chicken meat and giblets. A total of 5.5% (8/144) of the examined samples were contaminated with mecA positive/mecC negative MRSA, with staphylococcal counts of approximately 102 colony forming units (CFU)/g in breast, leg and gizzard samples and approximately 3.3 × 103 CFU/g in frozen liver samples. Most MRSA isolates (75%, 6/8) harboured the staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb) gene. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that MRSA isolates initiated SEB production in experimentally contaminated chicken livers within 24 h of storage at temperatures over 8 °C. SEB was maximally produced at 24 °C when the MRSA counts reached 7.3 × 103 ± 1.2 × 103 CFU/g sample homogenate. The current study concludes that the main broiler chicken MRSA isolates in Egypt harbour the seb gene. To mitigate possible SEB production, especially in broiler chicken livers, a maximum "out of refrigeration" time limit should be implemented for cold chain poultry products.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/genética , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fígado/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Refrigeração , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
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