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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190325, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460594

RESUMO

The West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian (T. inunguis) manatees have a sympatric occurrence at the mouth of the Amazon River. A result of this interspecific encounter is the occurrence of hybrids, which are frequently found along the coasts of Amapá state in Brazil, French Guiana and Guyana. Here we present new genetic evidence indicating the occurrence of a hybrid swarm along the Guianas Shield coastline, which is an interspecific hybrid zone that also separates T. manatus populations located east (Brazil) and west (Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Antilles). In addition, we suggest that this hybrid population occupies a peculiar mangrove-rich environment under strong influence of the Amazon River plume, which requires an independent management and should be considered a special conservation area.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Hibridização Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Trichechus inunguis/genética , Trichechus manatus/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Região do Caribe , Guiana , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Trichechus inunguis/fisiologia , Trichechus manatus/fisiologia
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 914-921, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to investigate the epidemiology of Fulminant Acute Hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean and identify possible measures aimed at a better understanding and improvement of patient support. METHODS: We used 3 different researchers to investigate the topic of Fulminant Acute Hepatitis in pediatrics in papers published by Latin American and Caribbean authors in the PubMed and SciELO databases from 2000 to 2016. RESULTS: We found 2,879 articles in the databases searched. After selecting and excluding articles according to the study protocol, 68 remaining studies were obtained for analysis. A total of 1,265 cases of acute fulminant hepatitis were detected, with a predominance of females (42.9%), followed by males (39.4%), with no description of sex in 17.7% of the cases. The main cause was viral hepatitis, representing 45.1% of the cases. The hepatitis A virus was responsible for 34.7% of the total cases and 76.9% of the infectious causes. Of the total number of patients, 26.9% were described as idiopathic, and 11.5% had no cause. CONCLUSION: The preventable causes of Fulminant Acute Hepatitis include hepatitis viruses - primarily the hepatitis A virus - and poisoning. Active vaccination, basic sanitation, and public awareness can reduce the number of patients and, consequently, the costs of liver transplantation due to these causes.


Assuntos
Hepatite/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino
4.
Washington, D. C.; PAHO; 2019-07-15.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51366

RESUMO

[Foreword]. Early childhood development (ECD) – including the physical (or motor), communication, cognitive and social - emotional capacities – is indivisible from the child survival, health and education agendas and represents one of the important stages for breaking the intergenerational cycles of poverty and for promoting sustainable development. Development during the early years lays the critical foundations for health, learning and behaviour across the life course… Investment in early childhood programmes is essential because ECD programmes and interventions can provide a “good and fair start” to children and help to modify distressing socio-economic and gender-related inequities. There is strong evidence regarding interventions that can address the causal factors and reduce the burden of poor child development… The health sector in countries has the capacity to play a unique role in the field of ECD because the most important window of opportunity for ensuring optimal development and preventing risk of long-term damage is from pregnancy through the first five years of life – especially from birth to three years of age... For some countries, ECD is currently not systematically incorporated into initiatives to promote and protect maternal and child health. Moreover, families are often not prepared or aware of the critical role they can play in promoting cognitive and socio-emotional development in the early years. To address this gap, WHO, PAHO/WHO and UNICEF have collaborated closely to strengthen their advocacy and technical support to regions and countries and have extended partnership to national leaders and governments, development agencies, researchers, academics, non-governmental organizations, professional associations, media and advocacy groups. We have also developed the present evidence-based set of materials to help international staff, national governments and their partners promote Care for Child Development within all relevant programme activities of the health sector, with the emerging involvement of education, social protection, rehabilitation and other ECD partners.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde Pública , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , América Latina , Região do Caribe
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 303-308, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232307

RESUMO

Microbiological sea water quality is a public health problem that has serious repercussions in the tourism and economy of Colombia. This study determines the concentrations of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens at eleven beach water points and seven streams along the coast of the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. In seawater, total E. coli, E. faecalis and C. perfringens concentrations were found between 16 and 572 cfu/100 mL, 7-450 cfu/100 ml and 2-125 cfu/100 ml, respectively. The highest counts were observed mainly on urbanised beaches and in correspondence with streams whose waters had a high concentration of faecal origin microorganisms, which represent a serious health risk factor for bathers. Relevant efforts have to be addressed to improve the microbiological quality of these beaches by the establishment of efficient wastewater management programs aimed at enhancing the efficiency of the local treatment plant and the control of illegal sewage pouring onto the coast.


Assuntos
Clostridium perfringens , Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Qualidade da Água , Praias , Região do Caribe , Colômbia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/microbiologia , Rios , Esgotos , Urbanização , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 189-195, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179987

RESUMO

Populations of Acropora palmata and Orbicella faveolata, two important reef-building corals, have declined precipitously across the Caribbean region since at least the 1970s. Recruitment failure may be limiting population recovery, possibly due to lack of suitable settlement habitat. Here, we examine the effects of algal turfs and algal turfs + sediment, two widely abundant substrate types across the Florida Keys, on the settlement of these two ecologically-important species. We show that sediment significantly impedes coral settlement, reducing settlement 10- and 13-fold for A. palmata and O. faveolata, respectively, compared to turf algae alone. This result is corroborated by our field survey data that showed a strong, negative relationship between the abundance of turf + sediment and the abundance of juvenile corals. Turf algae alone did not reduce coral settlement. Our results suggest that sediment-laden turf algae are detrimental to settling corals, but that turf algae alone may be relatively benign.


Assuntos
Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recifes de Corais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Microalgas/química , Animais , Região do Caribe , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Florida
7.
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51084

RESUMO

[EXTRACTO]. Actualmente se presta cada vez más atención a los determinantes políticos, económicos, ambientales y sociales de la salud. Esto ha generado una mayor demanda de investigación para la salud a nivel mundial que incluya a los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, con objeto de alcanzar los objetivos de desarrollo sostenible de las Naciones Unidas. Además del financiamiento, se necesitan suficientes recursos humanos e infraestructura para que estos países lleguen a ser asociados en un plano de igualdad con las instituciones de investigación internacionalmente reconocidas de los países de ingresos altos que establecen las agendas de investigación, y para garantizar que el programa de investigación mundial refleje sus necesidades. Las limitaciones en la capacidad de investigación y las grandes disparidades existentes entre los países de ingresos altos y los de ingresos bajos y medianos en cuanto a su capacidad de producir y usar la investigación para la salud han contribuido a producir una falta de evidencia que permita fundamentar la práctica clínica y orientar las políticas sanitarias regionales y mundiales. Esto ha perpetuado las desigualdades en la salud...


[EXTRACTO]. Existe atualmente um maior reconhecimento dos determinantes políticos, econômicos, ambientais e sociais da saúde. A consequência disso foi um aumento da demanda por pesquisa em saúde global, com participação dos países de baixa e média renda, para cumprir os objetivos de desenvolvimento sustentável das Nações Unidas. Além de financiamento, são necessários recursos humanos e infraestrutura suficientes para que esses países se tornem parceiros em igualdade de condições com instituições de pesquisa internacionalmente reconhecidas em países de alta renda que definem as agendas de pesquisa e cuidam para que o programa global de pesquisa em saúde reflita suas necessidades. A limitada capacidade de pesquisa e as grandes disparidades entre países de alta renda e países de baixa e média renda no tocante à capacidade de produzir e usar pesquisas para a saúde contribuíram para a falta de evidências para informar a prática e orientar as políticas de saúde regionais e globais, o que perpetuou as desigualdades em saúde...


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Américas , Região do Caribe , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Região do Caribe
8.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50991

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Gender continues to be largely neglected in the global response to the noncommunicable dis-ease epidemic. The objectives of this study were to examine current practice and barriers faced by Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) researchers in addressing gender in research on healthy food environments, and to identify future topics for gender-sensitive and gender-transformative research. Methods. This study involved: 1) a descriptive, three-part survey to investigate to what extent LAC researchers are integrating gender considerations in research for healthier food environments and 2) a participatory workshop to coproduce ideas for future gender-sensitive and gender-transformative research. Results. Fifty-four participants, from 19 countries, attended the workshop. Of those 54, 41 of them responded to at least one section of the three-part survey, including with 26 of the 41 responding to the section on gender. Of these 26, 17 (65.4%) had collected sex-disaggregated data and 14 (53.8%) had conducted gender anal-ysis in recent research on food environments. Few participants had integrated gender-related findings in their recommendations and solutions. Challenges included data and methodological limitations (e.g., lack of preex-isting evidence, working with secondary data), knowledge and capacity gaps, subject sensitivity, and biases. Participants identified research topics for enhancing gender equity that included food preparation norms and domestic responsibilities; differential participation of women and men in food production, distribution, and retail; and employment and school policies. Conclusions. The findings from this study suggest that gender inequity is not being well addressed in food environment research from the LAC region. The analytical framework presented here can serve as an important starting point and resource for catalyzing future gender-transformative research. Complementary efforts are needed to overcome other challenges raised by the participating researchers, including capacity gaps, resource and data limitations, and publishing barriers.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. La perspectiva de género se sigue descuidando en gran medida en la respuesta mundial a la epidemia de las enfermedades no transmisibles. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron examinar el procedimiento actual y los obstáculos a los que se enfrentan los investigadores de América Latina y el Caribe al abordar la perspectiva de género en investigaciones sobre entornos propicios a la alimentación saludable y determinar los temas para futuras investigaciones que estén atentas a los temas de género y sean transformadoras de las cuestiones de género. Métodos. Este estudio incluyó: 1) una encuesta descriptiva en tres partes para conocer hasta qué punto los investigadores de America Latina y el Caribe están integrando las consideraciones de género en la investigación de entornos alimentarios más saludables y 2) un taller participativo de coprodución de ideas para futuras investigaciones sensibles al género y transformadoras de género. Resultados. Asistieron al taller 54 participantes de 19 países. De esos 54, 41 de ellos respondieron al menos una de las secciones de la encuesta en tres partes, y 26 de los 41 respondieron a la sección sobre género. De estos 26, 17 (65,4 %) habían recopilado datos desglosados por sexo y 14 (53,8 %) habían realizado análisis de cuestiones de género en investigaciones recientes sobre los entornos de la alimentación. Pocos participantes habían incorporado resultados en materia de género en sus recomendaciones y soluciones. Algunos desafíos habían sido las limitaciones de los datos y la metodología (por ejemplo, falta de evidencia previa, trabajar con datos secundarios), falta de conocimiento y capacitación, sensibilidad de las personas y sesgos. Los participantes señalaron temas de investigación para mejorar la equidad de género, como normas de preparación de alimentos y responsabilidades domésticas; la participación diferenciada de hombres y mujeres en la producción, distribución y venta al por menor de alimentos; y el empleo y las políticas escolares. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la inequidad de género no se está abordando adecuadamente en la investigación sobre el entorno de la alimentación en América Latina y el Caribe. El marco analítico que se presenta aquí puede servir como un importante punto de partida y como recurso para catalizar investigaciones futuras transformadoras de las cuestiones de género. Se necesitan esfuerzos complementarios para superar otros desafíos que plantean los investigadores participantes, como la falta de capacitación, las limitaciones de los recursos y datos, y los obstáculos para la publicación.


[RESUMO]. não transmissíveis. Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar a conduta e as barreiras atualmente enfrentadas pelos pesquisadores da América Latina e Caribe (ALC) ao comtemplar o gênero em pesquisas sobre ambiente alimentar saudável e identificar tópicos para futuras pesquisas sensíveis ao gênero e transformativas de gênero. Métodos. Este estudo envolveu: 1) uma pesquisa descritiva em três partes para investigar em que medida os pesquisadores da LAC estão integrando considerações de gênero na pesquisa para ambientes alimentares mais saudáveis e 2) um workshop participativo para co-produzir ideias para pesquisas futuras sensíveis a gênero e transformadoras de gênero. Resultados. O seminário contou com 54 participantes provenientes de 19 países. Do número total de participantes, 41 responderam ao menos uma das três partes da pesquisa, sendo que 26 responderam a parte sobre gênero. Dentre estes, 17 (65,4%) haviam conduzido coleta de dados desagregados por sexo e 14 (53,8%) haviam realizado análise de gênero em pesquisas recentes sobre o ambiente alimentar. Um pequeno número informou ter incluído os achados relativos ao gênero em recomendações e soluções. As dificuldades encontradas pelos participantes foram limitação metodológica e de dados (como a falta de evidências preexistentes e o uso de dados secundários), lacunas de conhecimento e capacidade, sensibilidade do assunto e vieses. Os tópicos de pesquisa identificados para melhorar a equidade de gênero foram normas para o preparo dos alimentos e responsabilidades domésticas, participação diferencial de homens e mulheres na produção, distribuição e comércio a varejo de alimentos e políticas escolares e de trabalho. Conclusões. O estudo indicou que a iniquidade de gênero não está sendo devidamente contemplada em pesquisas sobre ambiente alimentar na região da ALC. A estrutura analítica aqui exposta pode servir como um importante ponto de partida e recurso para incentivar futuras pesquisas transformativas de gênero. Outros esforços são necessários para vencer os desafios mencionados pelos pesquisadores que participaram do estudo, como lacunas de capacidade, limitação de dados e recursos e barreiras à publicação dos trabalhos.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Saúde Pública , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde da Mulher , Equidade , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Nutrição em Saúde Pública , Alimentos , Nutrição em Saúde Pública , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde da Mulher , Equidade , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Nutrição em Saúde Pública , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde da Mulher , Equidade , Região do Caribe
9.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50989

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Conocer la disponibilidad de los sistemas nacionales de vigilancia de anomalías congénitas en América Latina y el Caribe y describir sus características. Métodos. Estudio transversal mediante una encuesta semiestructurada y autoadministrada en línea remitida en el 2017 por las representaciones locales de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud a las autoridades de los ministerios de salud de todos los países de América Latina y el Caribe. La encuesta recabó información sobre la disponibilidad de un sistema nacional de vigilancia de anomalías congénitas en el país y sus características. Resultados. Once países cuentan con sistema nacional de vigilancia de anomalías congénitas: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, México, Panamá, Paraguay, República Dominicana, Uruguay y Venezuela. Los sistemas tienen características heterogéneas: 6 son sistemas de base hospitalaria; 10 incluyen en su definición de caso los nacidos vivos y los fetos muertos. En todos los sistemas de vigilancia se incluyen los casos con anomalías mayores y menores, excepto en Argentina, Colombia y Guatemala que solo registran anomalías congénitas mayores. Solo Argentina, Costa Rica y Uruguay elaboran informes periódicos que consolidan y presentan los resultados de la vigilancia; los registros de Argentina y Costa Rica disponen de manuales operativos. Conclusiones. Se comprobó la aún escasa disponibilidad de sistemas nacionales de vigilancia de anomalías congénitas en América Latina y el Caribe y su elevada heterogeneidad. Es prioritario avanzar hacia la expansión y el fortalecimiento de este tipo de vigilancia en nuestros países.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To determine the availability of national systems for surveillance of birth defects in Latin America and the Caribbean and describe their characteristics. Methods. Cross-sectional study based on a semi-structured, self-administered online survey sent in 2017 by local representative offices of the Pan American Health Organization to authorities at the ministries of health of all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The survey obtained information on the availability and characteristics of national systems for surveillance of birth defects in each country. Results. Eleven countries have a national system for surveillance of birth defects: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. These systems have heterogeneous features: six are hospital-based; 10 include both live births and stillbirths in their case definition. All the surveillance systems include cases with severe and minor defects, except in Argentina, Colombia, and Guatemala, where only severe birth defects are recorded. Only Argentina, Costa Rica, and Uruguay prepare periodic reports that consolidate and present the results of surveillance. The registries in Argentina and Costa Rica have operational manuals. Conclusions. The availability of national systems for surveillance of birth defects remains limited and highly heterogeneous in Latin America and the Caribbean. Priority should be given to continued expansion and strengthening of this type of surveillance in these countries.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Conhecer a existência de sistemas nacionais de vigilância de anomalias congênitas na América Latina e Caribe e descrever as características destes sistemas. Métodos. Estudo transversal realizado por meio de uma pesquisa online com uso de questionário semiestruturado e autoaplicado enviado no 2017 pelas representações locais da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) às autoridades dos ministérios da Saúde em todos os países da América Latina e Caribe. Foram coletados dados sobre a existência de sistema nacional de vigilância de anomalias congênitas e as características destes sistemas. Resultados. Onze países possuem um sistema nacional de vigilância de anomalias congênitas: Argentina, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, México, Panamá, Paraguai, República Dominicana, Uruguai e Venezuela. Os sistemas são de natureza heterogênea, seis são baseados em registros hospitalares e 10 incluem nascidos vivos e morte fetal na definição de caso. A maioria dos sistemas de vigilância abrange casos de anomalias congênitas maiores e menores, exceto na Argentina, Colômbia e Guatemala em que são registradas apenas as anomalias congênitas maiores. A Argentina, Costa Rica e Uruguai são os únicos países que apresentam relatórios periódicos reunindo os achados da vigilância e a Argentina e Costa Rica possuem manuais operacionais para o registro. Conclusões. Verificou-se que, na América Latina e no Caribe, os sistemas nacionais de vigilância de anomalias congênitas são ainda em um pequeno número e bastante heterogêneos. É uma prioridade expandir e reforçar esta forma de vigilância nos países da região.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Anormalidades Congênitas , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Anormalidades Congênitas , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Região do Caribe
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 528, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicella is typically mild and self-limiting, but can be associated with complications and even death. The limited data available on varicella in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) indicate substantial burden in countries where varicella vaccine is not part of publicly funded childhood national immunization programs. METHODS: A systematic literature review of published studies was complemented by "gray" literature on varicella incidence, complications, mortality, and economic consequences, in the absence and presence of universal varicella vaccination (UVV) in LAC. RESULTS: Seroprevalence data indicate that varicella is usually a disease of childhood in LAC. Varicella incidence rates, while unreliable in the absence of mandatory reporting, show a trend to increased incidence due to greater urbanization and population density. The introduction of UVV in national immunization programs has led to significant reductions in varicella incidence in these areas. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella continues to pose a substantial healthcare burden in LAC. The future introduction of UVV in additional countries is predicted to provide substantial reductions in cases, with important economic benefits. For countries that have already implemented UVV, the challenge is to maintain high rates of coverage and, where relevant, consider inclusion of a second dose to reduce breakthrough cases. Given the significant proportion of the region now implementing UVV, a regional recommendation in order to prevent any potential for age-shifts in varicella infection might be considered.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/administração & dosagem , Varicela/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Notificação de Abuso , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 530, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent Zika virus (ZIKAV) epidemics disclosed a major public health threat and a scientific and technological (S&T) challenge. The lessons learned from the S&T response of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries are critical to inform further research and guide scientific investments. The present study aimed to assess how new S&T knowledge produced and disseminated regionally can contribute to address global health challenges. METHODS: Scientometric and social network analysis methods were used to assess the LAC scientific contribution and potential technological development on ZIKAV up to December 2017. ZIKAV-related publications were retrieved from the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases. Regionally published articles were obtained from SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and LILACS (Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean) databases. Patent registries were retrieved using Orbit Intelligence and Derwent Innovation. Records from each database were individually downloaded, integrated, standardized and analyzed. RESULTS: We retrieved 5421 ZIKAV-related publications, revealing a sharp increase from 2015 onwards. LAC countries accounted for 20% of all publications and Brazil was among the top three most central countries in the global network for ZIKAV research. A total of 274 patent families backed up by experimental evidence were retrieved. Only 5% were filed by LAC assignees, all of them based in Brazil. The largest contribution of LAC research was on the clinical manifestations of the ZIKAV infection, along with vector control, which was also the main focus of patents. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis offered a comprehensive overview of ZIKAV's research and development and showed that (i) LAC countries had a key role in generating and disseminating scientific knowledge on ZIKAV; (ii) LAC countries have expressively contributed to research on ZIKAV clinical manifestations; (iii) the Brazilian scientific community was potentially very effective in knowledge sharing and diffusion in the ZIKAV research network; (iv) Brazil was the single LAC country filing patents, mostly represented by independent inventors and low-tech patents. The paper advocates the need for a continued interdisciplinary approach to improve LAC countries ability to prevent, prepare for and control future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus , Brasil , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Global , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(649): 911-916, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050238

RESUMO

Since the outbreak in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region in 2015-2017, the Zika virus (ZIKV) is present in most of tropical and sub-tropical countries. Herd immunity in LAC is now high and the number of cases is reduced. Consequently, the risk for a traveller to be infected is now considered to be low. The epidemiological change and the new published evidences have led to a revision of travel recommendations. Through practical cases, we present here the guidelines updated in April 2019 by the Swiss Expert Committee of Travel Medicine.


Assuntos
Viagem , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Região do Caribe , Humanos , América Latina , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 141: 621-628, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955777

RESUMO

Corals inhabit oligotrophic waters, thriving amidst limited nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. When nutrient levels increase, usually due to human activity, the symbiosis of dinoflagellates (family Symbiodiniaceae) with scleractinian corals can break down. Although gorgonian corals dominate many Caribbean reefs, the impact of enrichment on them and their algae is understudied. We exposed two gorgonian species, Pseudoplexaura porosa and Eunicea tourneforti, to elevated concentrations of either ammonium (10 µM or 50 µM) or phosphate (4 µM). Enrichment with 10 µM ammonium increased chlorophyll content and algal density in both species, whereas the host biochemical composition was unaffected. Exposure to 50 µM ammonium only reduced the quantum yield in P. porosa and mitotic indices in both species. Conversely, algal carbon and nitrogen content within E. tourneforti increased with 4 µM phosphate exposure. These gorgonian species coped with short-term nutrient enrichment, furthering our understanding of the success of Caribbean gorgonians.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Carbono , Região do Caribe , Clorofila , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Simbiose
15.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 14, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944329

RESUMO

Population genetic data from nuclear DNA has yet to be synthesized to allow broad scale comparisons of intraspecific diversity versus species diversity. The MacroPopGen database collates and geo-references vertebrate population genetic data across the Americas from 1,308 nuclear microsatellite DNA studies, 897 species, and 9,090 genetically distinct populations where genetic differentiation (FST) was measured. Caribbean populations were particularly distinguished from North, Central, and South American populations, in having higher differentiation (FST = 0.12 vs. 0.07-0.09) and lower mean numbers of alleles (MNA = 4.11 vs. 4.84-5.54). While mammalian populations had lower MNA (4.86) than anadromous fish, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater fish, and birds (5.34-7.81), mean heterozygosity was largely similar across groups (0.57-0.63). Mean FST was consistently lowest in anadromous fishes (0.06) and birds (0.05) relative to all other groups (0.09-0.11). Significant differences in Family/Genera variance among continental regions or taxonomic groups were also observed. MacroPopGen can be used in many future applications including latitudinal analyses, spatial analyses (e.g. central-margin), taxonomic comparisons, regional assessments of anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity, and conservation of wild populations.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Região do Caribe , América Central , América do Norte , América do Sul
16.
Biol Bull ; 236(2): 88-96, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933641

RESUMO

Sacoglossan sea slugs feed by suctorially consuming siphonaceous green algae. Most sacoglossan species are feeding specialists, but the Caribbean coral reef-dwelling Elysia crispata is polyphagous and sequesters chloroplasts from multiple algal species into cells lining its digestive diverticulum for use in photosynthesis. We have used sequences of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene to compare the chloroplast donor algae in five populations of E. crispata from various Caribbean locations. We found that E. crispata utilizes more algal species than was previously known, including some algae previously not reported as present in the region. In addition, slugs from each location had unique chloroplast arrays with little overlap, except that all locations had slugs feeding on algae within the genus Bryopsis. This variation in diet between locations suggests that the slugs may be exhibiting local adaptation in their dietary choices, and it highlights ecological differences between the Caribbean-wide reef-dwelling ecotypes and the mangrove lagoon ecotypes found in the Florida Keys.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/classificação , Cloroplastos/classificação , Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Animais , Região do Caribe , Clorófitas/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Dieta , Ecossistema , Fotossíntese , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(3): 426-433, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943877

RESUMO

Urinalysis is a rapid, simple, inexpensive, and reliable test that documents urine abnormalities reflecting various types of renal, hormonal, or metabolic diseases. Urinalysis could assist proper monitoring of the health of dolphins under human care; however, normal baseline values for dolphin urinalysis have not been reported, to our knowledge. We sampled urine from 193 common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus), living under human care in 24 Caribbean dolphinariums, by voluntary free-catch and analyzed the urine for chemical and microscopic variables using multi-agent dry reagent chemistry dipstick test strips, dedicated pH reagent strips, and unstained sediment slides. Most urine was clear, pale yellow to dark yellow, and had a fishy odor. Dipstick glucose, bilirubin, ketones, and nitrites were negative in all dolphins. The urine pH was acidic ( x¯ ± SD; 5.88 ± 0.58) and specific gravity (SG) was 1.035 ± 0.008. Most animals had 0-2 red blood cells and white blood cells per 40× field, and were negative for proteins. On microscopic sediment, 42.7% of samples had few-to-many squamous epithelial cells; hyaline and epithelial casts were observed only rarely. Crystals were observed in 36.6% of the samples; most were calcium oxalate dihydrate (48.2%) and amorphous urates (42.4%). The values obtained in our study can be used as a reference for health monitoring of dolphins in dolphinariums, and to monitor renal conditions and function in dolphins being rehabilitated or under human care.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/urina , Urinálise/veterinária , Animais , Região do Caribe , Humanos , Fitas Reagentes , Gravidade Específica , Urinálise/instrumentação , Urinálise/métodos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50554

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Between 2006 and 2016, 70% of all deaths worldwide were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs kill nearly 40 million people a year globally, with almost three-quarters of NCD deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess mortality rates and trends due to deaths from NCDs in the Caribbean region. Methods. The study examines age-standardized mortality rates and 10-year trends due to death from cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes in two territories of the United States of America (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and in 20 other English- or Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries or territories, for the most recent, available 10 years of data ranging from 1999 to 2014. For the analysis, the SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software packages were used. Results. These four NCDs accounted for 39% to 67% of all deaths in these 22 countries and territories, and more than half of the deaths in 17 of them. Heart disease accounted for higher percentages of deaths in most of the Caribbean countries and territories (13%-25%), followed by cancer (8%-25%), diabetes (4%-21%), and cerebrovascular disease (1%-13%). Age-standardized mortality rates due to cancer and heart disease were higher for males than for females, but there were no significant mortality trends in the region for any of the NCDs. Conclusions. The reasons for the high mortality of NCDs in these Caribbean countries and territories remain a critical public health issue that warrants further investigation.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Entre los años 2006 y 2016, las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) ocasionaron un 70 % de todas las muertes mundiales. Las ENT son responsables de la muerte de aproximadamente 40 millones de personas al año a nivel mundial, de las cuales casi tres cuartas partes tienen lugar en países de ingresos medianos y bajos. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las tasas de mortalidad y las tendencias relacionadas con las defunciones por ENT en el Caribe. Métodos. En el estudio se examinan las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad y las tendencias a lo largo de diez años relacionadas con la muerte por cáncer, cardiopatías, enfermedades cerebrovasculares y diabetes en dos territorios de Estados Unidos (Puerto Rico e Islas Vírgenes), así como en otros veinte países o territorios de habla inglesa o neerlandesa, empleando la información disponible más reciente que corresponde a los diez años comprendidos entre 1999 y el 2014. Para el análisis, se utilizaron los programas informáticos JointPoint y SEER*Stat. Resultados. Estas cuatro ENT representan entre el 39 % y el 67 % del total de muertes en estos 22 países y territorios, y más de la mitad de las muertes en 17 de ellos. Las cardiopatías representan porcentajes mayores de muertes en la mayor parte de los países y territorios del Caribe (13 %-25 %), seguidos por el cáncer (8 %-25 %), la diabetes (4 %-21 %) y las enfermedades cerebrovasculares (1 %-13 %). Las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad relacionadas con el cáncer y las cardiopatías son mayores en hombres que en mujeres, si bien no hubo en la región tendencias significativas relacionadas con la mortalidad en lo que concierne a ninguna ENT. Conclusiones. Las causas de la elevada mortalidad por ENT en estos países y territorios del Caribe siguen siendo un grave problema de salud pública que justifica una investigación en profundidad.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. No período de 2006 a 2016, 70% das mortes na população mundial foram decorrentes de doenças não transmissíveis (DNTs). Cerca de 40 milhões de pessoas morrem por DNTs por ano em todo o mundo, com quase 75% das mortes ocorrendo nos países de baixa e média renda. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as taxas e as tendências de mortalidade por DNTs no Caribe. Métodos. Foram examinadas as taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por idade e as tendências ao longo de 10 anos da mortalidade por câncer, doença cardíaca, doença cerebrovascular e diabetes em dois territórios dos Estados Unidos (Porto Rico e Ilhas Virgens Americanas) e em 20 países ou territórios do Caribe de língua inglesa ou holandesa, com base nos últimos dados de 10 anos para o período de 1999 a 2014. Os softwares SEER*Stat e Joinpoint foram usados na análise. Resultados. As quatro DNTs estudadas representaram 39% a 67% das causas de mortes nos 22 países e territórios, e foram responsáveis por mais da metade das mortes em 17 deles. A mortalidade na maioria dos países e territórios do Caribe foi maior por doença cardíaca (13% a 25%), seguida do câncer (8% a 25%), diabetes (4% a 21%) e doença cerebrovascular (1% a 13%). As taxas de mortalidade padronizadas pela idade por câncer e doença cardíaca foram maiores nos homens que nas mulheres, mas não se verificaram, na região, tendências de mortalidade significativas para qualquer uma das DNTs. Conclusões. A elevada mortalidade por DNTs nos países e territórios do Caribe é ainda um sério problema de saúde pública e os motivos devem ser investigados mais a fundo.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Diabetes Mellitus , Região do Caribe , Guiana , Suriname , Mortalidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Região do Caribe , Mortalidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Região do Caribe , Guiana
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(4): 1225-1230, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843780

RESUMO

A novel hydrogenotrophic methanogen, strain HHBT, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney sample collected from Beebe Vent Field at the Mid-Cayman Spreading Center, Caribbean Sea. The cells were non-motile regular to irregular cocci possessing several flagella. The novel isolate grew at 60-80 °C, pH 5.0-7.4 and with 1-4 % of NaCl (w/v). The isolate utilized H2/CO2 as the only substrates for growth and methane production. The results of phylogenetic analyses of both 16S rRNA and mcrA gene sequences and comparative genome analysis indicated that HHBT represented a member of the order Methanococcales, and was closely related to the members of the genera Methanothermococcus and Methanotorris. The most closely related species were Methanothermococcus okinawensis IH1T and Methanotorris igneus Kol 5T in comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences (each with 93 % identity), and Methanotorris formicicus Mc-S-70T in the case of deduced amino acid sequence similarity of mcrA genes (92 % similarity). The ANI and AAI values between HHBT and the members of the genera Methanothermococcus and Methanotorris were 69-72 % and 66-70 %, respectively. Although many of the morphological and physiological characteristics were quite similar between HHBT and the species of the genera Methanothermococcus and Methanotorris, they were distinguishable by the differences in susceptibility to antibiotics, formate utilization, growth temperature and NaCl ranges. On the basis of these phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic properties, we propose that strain HHBT represents a novel species, of a novel genus, Methanofervidicoccus abyssi gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is HHBT (=JCM 32161T=DSM 105918T).


Assuntos
Fontes Hidrotermais/microbiologia , Methanococcaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Região do Caribe , DNA Arqueal/genética , Genes Arqueais , Methanococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 294, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African, Caribbean, and Black (Black) men account for 16.5% of new HIV diagnoses among men in Ontario. There is substantial evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, little is known regarding the prevalence of HIV/STI co-infections among Black men in Toronto. Progress has been made in understanding factors contributing to racial/ethnic disparities in HIV between among men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study, we investigate within-racial group patterns of HIV/STI infection between Black MSM and Black men who only have sex with women (MSW). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study was conducted with a non-probability sample of Black men recruited from Toronto, Ontario. Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviews (ACASI) surveys were used to collect demographic and behavioral data. Biological specimens were collected to screen for HIV and other STIs. Chi-Square tests were used to compare the prevalence of (1) HIV and current STIs between MSM and MSW and (2) current STIs between people living with HIV and people not living with HIV. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess whether or not history of STIs were associated with current HIV infection. RESULTS: The prevalence of HIV (9.2%), syphilis (7.2%), hepatitis B (2.7%), and high-risk anal HPV (8.4%) and penile HPV (21.3%) infections were high in Black men (N = 487) and were significantly increased in Black MSM compared with MSW; the prevalence of syphilis and high-risk HPV were also increased in men living with HIV. Men with a history of syphilis (OR = 6.48, 95% CI: 2.68,15.71), genital warts (OR = 4.32, 95% CI: 1.79,10.43) or genital ulcers (OR = 21.3, 95% CI: 1.89,239.51) had an increased odds of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The HIV/STI prevalence was high among this sample of Black men, although the study design may have led to oversampling of men living with HIV. The associations between STIs and current HIV infection highlight the need for integrated of HIV/STI screening and treatment programs for Black men. Public health strategies are also needed to reduce disproportionate HIV/STI burden among Black MSM-including improving HPV vaccine coverage.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Ontário/etnologia , Prevalência , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
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