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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 221-237, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191355

RESUMO

Los avances de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) permiten acceder en tiempo real a una cantidad ingente de datos, a través de los cuales es posible conocer el comportamiento de hechos sociales. En este escenario, la actual pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha permitido, bajo cuestionables criterios de inmediatez y urgencia, circular información que genera realidad e impacta en la toma de decisiones; y, además, ha favorecido la apropiación del dato, exponiendo a las personas a violaciones de sus derechos fundamentales. Ambos asuntos son sensibles para América Latina y el Caribe, región que hoy se presenta no sólo como el epicentro de la pandemia sino también de las desigualdades. La contribución que desde la reflexión y deliberación bioética puede realizarse en esta materia, adquiere especial relevancia con vistas a generar un nuevo pacto para el tratamiento de los datos


Advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provide real-time access to a vast amount of data, through which it is possible to know the behavior of social facts. In this scenario, the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has allowed, under questionable criteria of immediacy and urgency, to circulate information that generates reality and impacts on decision-making; and has also favored the appropriation of the data, exposing people to violations of their fundamental rights. Both issues are sensitive to Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that today is presented itself not only as the epicenter of the pandemic but also of inequalities. The contribution that bioethical reflection and deliberation can make in this matter, acquires special relevance with a view to generating a new covenant for the treatment of data


Els avenços de les Tecnologies de la Informació I la Comunicació (TIC) permeten accedir en temps real a una quantitat ingent de dades, a través dels quals és possible conèixer el comportament de fets socials. En aquest escenari, l'actual pandèmia per SARS-CoV-2 ha permès, sota qüestionables criteris d'immediatesa I urgència, circular informació que genera realitat I impacta en la presa de decisions; i, a més, ha afavorit l'apropiació de la dada, exposant a les persones a violacions dels seus drets fonamentals. Tots dos assumptes són sensibles per a Amèrica Llatina I el Carib, regió que avui es presenta no només com l'epicentre de la pandèmia sinó també de les desigualtats. La contribució que des de la reflexió I deliberació bioètica pot realitzarse en aquesta matèria, adquireix especial rellevància amb vistes a generar un nou pacte per al tractament de les dades


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Acesso à Internet , Tecnologia da Informação , América Latina/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-03.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52637

RESUMO

Recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for the Caribbean were first published in 1978 and then revised in 1994. Since then, ongoing research relating to the health consequences of nutrient intakes, particularly with regard to diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), has provided new evidence on the inter-relationships between diet and health. The initiative to revise the existing RDAs began with a review of the most current available information as well as the recent approaches taken by other countries and agencies in updating RDAs. The review was carried out within the context of changes in the regional food and nutrition situation. These changes included a reassessment of food availability patterns, dietary and other lifestyle practices, a growing awareness of the need for nutrition standards and dietary guidelines, and the inclusion of food and nutrition-related policy actions in regional strategies addressing rising rates of obesity and NCDs and the strengthening of food and nutrition security. A review was done of various terminologies relating to nutrient requirements, including recommended dietary allowance (RDA), recommended nutrient intake (RNI), average reference intake (ARI), estimated average requirement (EAR), and upper tolerable limit, and recommendations were then made for RNIs for the Caribbean. This report takes into account expert feedback and updates on energy and nutrient requirements from the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. A major focus has been placed on global FAO/WHO recommendations, which are based on extensive review of the available evidence. This publication provides current scientific guidance on the intake of a range of nutrients, as well as the nutrient recommendations for the Caribbean. The publication also includes the population nutrient intake goals (PNIGs) meant to promote healthy dietary consumption patterns that satisfy the nutritional needs of the population while helping to reduce the risk of diet-related NCDs. These serve as a useful adjunct to the RNIs in providing food and nutrition guidance at the population level for macronutrients and food groups in healthy, well-nourished populations.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco , Nutrientes , Avaliação Nutricional , Região do Caribe
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3557-3562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876262

RESUMO

Thinking about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic implies the study of general and unique dimensions for the historical evolution of Latin America and the Caribbean. From the individual to the collective, from biomedical sciences to social sciences and collective health, from risk groups to exclusive societies and the inequities constituting the colonial, patriarchal, modern capitalist heritage in the State and societies. The objective of this article is to review what are called the three intersections for Latin American critical health thinking. Seeking to analyze and reflect on the assumptions and logic present in the responses to the health emergency with reference to: 1. Critical health theory and its intersections with Latin American critical thinking; 2. The decolonial implications of problematizing the State and public health systems; and 3. The geopolitics of global health security as a roadmap for the global North. They outline approaches on the risks of capitalism's acceleration of the post-pandemic disaster and the alternative ways of addressing creative tensions in the reconstruction of emancipatory processes for regional health sovereignty and Health from the South.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Capitalismo , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pensamento
4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785481

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges public health systems around the world. Tropical countries will face complex epidemiological scenarios involving the simultaneous transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti. The occurrence of arboviral diseases with COVID-19 in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region presents challenges and opportunities for strengthening health services, surveillance and control programs. Financing of training, equipment and reconversion of hospital spaces will have a negative effect on already the limited resource directed to the health sector. The strengthening of the diagnostic infrastructure reappears as an opportunity for the national reference laboratories. Sharing of epidemiological information for the modeling of epidemiological scenarios allows collaboration between health, academic and scientific institutions. The fear of contagion by COVID-19 is constraining people with arboviral diseases to search for care which can lead to an increase in serious cases and could disrupt the operation of vector-control programs due to the reluctance of residents to open their doors to health personnel. Promoting intense community participation along with the incorporation of long lasting innovations in vector control offers new opportunities for control. The COVID-19 pandemic offers challenges and opportunities that must provoke positive behavioral changes and encourage more permanent self-care actions.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , América , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Região do Caribe , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-08-10.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52602

RESUMO

Tras el brote de una enfermedad por un nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) que se produjo en Wuhan, una ciudad de la provincia de Hubei, en China, se ha producido una rápida propagación a escala comunitaria, regional e internacional, con un aumento exponencial del número de casos y muertes. El 30 de enero del 2020, el Director General de la OMS declaró que el brote de COVID-19 era una emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional (ESPII) de conformidad con el Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005). El primer caso en la Región de las Américas se confirmó en Estados Unidos el 20 de enero del 2020, seguido de Brasil el 26 de febrero del 2020. Desde entonces, la COVID-19 se ha propagado a los 54 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas. Situación en la Región de las Américas en Cifras al 10 de agosto (15:00 hs.): 10.697.832 casos confirmados; 390.850 muertes; 54 países, zonas y territorios contados con fines epidemiológicos.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , América , Emergências , Região do Caribe
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-10.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52601

RESUMO

Following an outbreak of a novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, rapid community, regional and international spread has occurred with exponential growth in cases and deaths. On 30 January 2020, the Director-General (DG) of the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The first case in the Americas was confirmed in the USA on 20 January 2020, followed by Brazil on 26 February 2020. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to all 54 countries and territories in the Americas. Situation in Numbers in the Americas as of 10 August (15:00): 10,697,832 confirmed cases; 390,850 deaths; 54 countries / areas / territories counted for epidemiological purposes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Emergências , América , Região do Caribe
7.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-17.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52600

RESUMO

Following an outbreak of a novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, rapid community, regional and international spread has occurred with exponential growth in cases and deaths. On 30 January 2020, the Director-General (DG) of the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The first case in the Americas was confirmed in the USA on 20 January 2020, followed by Brazil on 26 February 2020. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to all 54 countries and territories in the Americas. Situation in Numbers in the Americas as of 17 August (15:00): 11,667,196 confirmed cases; 419,995 deaths; 54 countries / areas / territories counted for epidemiological purposes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , América , Região do Caribe , Emergências
8.
Washington; D.C.; OPS; 2020-08-03.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52599

RESUMO

Tras el brote de una enfermedad por un nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) que se produjo en Wuhan, una ciudad de la provincia de Hubei, en China, se ha registrado una rápida propagación a escala comunitaria, regional e internacional, con un aumento exponencial del número de casos y muertes. El 30 de enero del 2020, el Director General de la OMS declaró que el brote de COVID-19 era una emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional (ESPII) de conformidad con el Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005). El primer caso en la Región de las Américas se confirmó en Estados Unidos el 20 de enero del 2020, seguido de Brasil el 26 de febrero del 2020. Desde entonces, la COVID-19 se ha propagado a los 54 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas. Situación en la Región de las Américas en Cifras al 3 de agosto (15:00 hs.): 9.741.727 casos confirmados; 365.334 muertes; 54 países, zonas y territorios contados con fines epidemiológicos.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Emergências , América , Região do Caribe
9.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52569

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic progresses, countries are depending on one another to acquire knowledge regarding effective measures to contain the virus. Public health measures to suppress transmissions have proven successful in Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Implementing and adhering to these interventions is challenging, with governments struggling to find a balance between necessary mitigation and suppression strategies, and interruptions of social-economic activities. While large high-income countries are struggling to keep their health systems and economies moving forward, small island developing states are facing even more significant challenges. Many Caribbean islands, including the six islands within the Dutch Kingdom, have been quick to implement stringent public health measures, yet they are facing unique challenges.


[RESUMEN]. A medida que avanza la pandemia de síndrome respiratorio agudo severo por coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), los países dependen unos de otros para adquirir conocimientos sobre las medidas eficaces para contener el virus. Las medidas de salud pública dirigidas a suprimir la transmisión han demostrado su eficacia en Singapur, Hong Kong y Taiwán. La aplicación y la adhesión a esas intervenciones representa un desafío, ya que los gobiernos necesitan encontrar un equilibrio entre las estrategias de mitigación y supresión necesarias y la interrupción de las actividades socioeconómicas. Al tiempo que los países grandes y de altos ingresos luchan por mantener sus sistemas de salud y sus economías en funcionamiento, los pequeños estados insulares en desarrollo se enfrentan a retos aún más importantes. Muchas islas del Caribe, incluidas las seis islas del Reino de los Países Bajos, han aplicado medidas de salud pública estrictas de manera rápida, pero se enfrentan a desafíos singulares.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Índias Ocidentais , Região do Caribe , América , Pandemias , Índias Ocidentais , Região do Caribe , América , Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-03.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52549

RESUMO

Following an outbreak of a novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, rapid community, regional and international spread has occurred with exponential growth in cases and deaths. On 30 January 2020, the Director-General (DG) of the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The first case in the Americas was confirmed in the USA on 20 January 2020, followed by Brazil on 26 February 2020. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to all 54 countries and territories in the Americas. Situation in numbers in the Americas as of 03 August (15:00): 9,741,727 confirmed cases; 365,334 deaths; 54 countries / areas / territories counted for epidemiological purposes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Emergências , América , Região do Caribe
11.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52527

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Universal health coverage is a public health priority in the Americas. Social innovation in health offers novel solutions to unmet needs, by enabling health care delivery to be more inclusive, affordable, and effective. In 2017, an international collaborative consortium launched an open call for solutions that sought to identify social innovations in health in Central America and the Caribbean. The focus was set on how these solutions can strengthen health care delivery, with emphasis on reducing the impact of neglected transmissible diseases. A crowdsourcing strategy was implemented to identify social innovations in health. These were evaluated by an external panel of experts and practitioners and civil society representing the health and social innovation sectors, based on the appropriateness, innovativeness, and affordability of the solution. The three top-scoring solutions were analyzed through case studies including site visits by a team of investigators. Two key findings emerged from the response to the call: 1) innovative solutions were based on the knowledge and experience of individuals and communities facing adverse situations; 2) this knowledge was shared through health promotion and education, leading to empowerment of the communities. The principal challenges addressed by the solutions were the limited access to quality health care services and failed traditional strategies for vector control. The solutions identified demonstrated how social innovation can strengthen health systems by delivering novel solutions to health needs and articulating communities to enable them to work hand-in-hand with the health system toward universal health.


[RESUMEN]. La cobertura universal de salud es una prioridad de salud pública en la Región de las Américas. La innovación social en materia de salud ofrece soluciones novedosas a las necesidades insatisfechas, al permitir que la prestación de servicios de salud sea más inclusiva, asequible y eficaz. En 2017, un consorcio de colaboración internacional lanzó una convocatoria abierta de soluciones con el fin de identificar innovaciones sociales en materia de salud en América Central y el Caribe. Esta se centró en la forma en que esas soluciones pueden fortalecer la prestación de atención sanitaria, con énfasis en la reducción de los efectos de las enfermedades transmisibles desatendidas. Para identificar las innovaciones sociales en materia de salud se aplicó una estrategia de colaboración masiva (crowdsourcing). Las propuestas fueron evaluadas por un grupo externo conformado por expertos, profesionales y la sociedad civil que representaban a los sectores de la salud y la innovación social, sobre la base de la idoneidad, la capacidad de innovación y la asequibilidad de la solución. Se analizaron las tres soluciones mejor calificadas mediante estudios de casos que incluyeron visitas al lugar por parte de un equipo de investigadores. De la respuesta a la convocatoria surgieron dos conclusiones clave: 1) las soluciones innovadoras se basaron en el conocimiento y la experiencia de las personas y las comunidades que se enfrentaban a situaciones adversas, y 2) este conocimiento se compartió a través de actividades de promoción de la salud y educación, lo que condujo al empoderamiento de las comunidades. Los principales problemas que abordaron las soluciones fueron el acceso limitado a servicios de atención sanitaria de calidad y el fracaso de las estrategias tradicionales de control de vectores. Las soluciones identificadas demostraron cómo la innovación social puede fortalecer los sistemas de salud proporcionando soluciones novedosas a las necesidades de salud y apoyando a las comunidades para que puedan colaborar estrechamente con el sistema de salud hacia la salud universal.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas , Assistência à Saúde , Participação Social , América Central , Região do Caribe , Doenças Negligenciadas , Assistência à Saúde , Participação Social , América Central , Região do Caribe
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139755, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758934

RESUMO

Biomass burning (BB) emissions significantly deteriorate air quality in many regions worldwide, impact human health and perturbing Earth's radiation budget and climate. South America is one of largest contributors to BB emissions globally. After Amazonia, BB emissions from open and agricultural fires of Northern South America (NSA) are the most significant. Recent evidence shows a strong correlation between fire counts in NSA and Brown Carbon in some Colombian cities, suggesting a substantial seasonal contribution of regional BB sources to air pollution levels in the densely populated areas of NSA. In this work we use the atmospheric regional chemical transport model WRF-Chem to assess the contribution of open BB events to pollutant concentration and to estimate potential health impacts associated with wildfire events in NSA. Three nested domains are used to simulate atmospheric composition in the Northern part of South America and the Caribbean. Simulations included biogenic and anthropogenic emissions from a global emission inventory merged with local emissions for the city of Bogotá. Two modelling scenarios were considered, a base case without BB emissions (NO_FIRE) and a sensitivity scenario with BB emissions. Simulations were carried out for periods of strong BB activity in NSA. In the NO_FIRE scenario, aerosol concentrations are unrealistically low. When BB emissions are is included background PM2.5 concentrations increase 80%. The increment in aerosol concentrations is mainly driven by Secondary Organic Aerosols. In the case of Bogotá, the most densely populated city in the domain, monthly mean increase in PM2.5 is 3.3 µg m-3 and 4.3 ppb for O3. Modeled meteorological and air pollution fields are in better agreement with observations when high spatial resolution (3 × 3 km) is used in the simulations. The total estimated short-term all-cause mortality associated to BB during February in the region is 171 cases, 88 PM2.5-related and 83 O3-related mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Biomassa , Brasil , Região do Caribe , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , América do Norte , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111387, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827871

RESUMO

Coral reef ecosystems are declining due to multiple interacting stressors. A bioassessment framework focused on stressor-response associations was developed to help organize and communicate complex ecological information to support coral reef conservation. This study applied the Biological Condition Gradient (BCG), initially developed for freshwater ecosystems, to fish assemblages of U.S. Caribbean coral reef ecosystems. The reef fish BCG describes how biological conditions changed incrementally along a gradient of increasing anthropogenic stress. Coupled with physical and chemical water quality data, the BGC forms a scientifically defensible basis to prioritize, protect and restore water bodies containing coral reefs. Through an iterative process, scientists from across the U.S. Caribbean used fishery-independent survey data and expert knowledge to develop quantitative decision rules to describe six levels of coral reef ecosystem condition. The resultant reef fish BCG provides an effective tool for identifying healthy and degraded coral reef ecosystems and has potential for global application.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Região do Caribe , Ecossistema , Peixes , Índias Ocidentais
15.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111065, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854879

RESUMO

Marine ecosystems provide goods and services for human well-being, and many of them correspond to cultural ecosystem services (CES). In Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), recreational activities such as snorkeling have increased recently, taking advantage of CES. However, there is a lack of educational initiatives in temperate areas to promote seascape enjoyment and pro-environmental behavior among these users, in contrast with other coastal areas such as subtropical and Caribbean ones. In this study, we have designed and implemented several snorkeling trails in Cíes Archipelago to address a better usage of CES, in a National Park (NP) context. To assess the seascape in Cíes from the point of view of the marine and sea-watching activities that take place in the NP, a new methodology was designed and implemented, including a pilot experience with snorkelers. This methodology assesses underwater aesthetic values from a multifaceted approach and allows the identification of trail-specific features that should be highlighted for increasing conservation awareness among users through environmental education and interpretation. Also, include the analysis of the users' perception and experience satisfaction, as the factors that may be influencing their pro-environmental behaviors and knowledge. Our results show that snorkeling is a good activity to learn about the seascape values, and the NP could offer it as a guided activity considering some pre and post snorkeling experience requirements.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Região do Caribe , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Espanha
16.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 30, 2020. 57 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116085

RESUMO

Este documento ofrece orientación para los Estados Miembros de la Región de Europa de la OMS que deseen realizar estudios sobre las apreciaciones comportamentales relacionadas con la COVID-19. El brote pandémico de la COVID-19 está generando una carga abrumadora para los sistemas y las autoridades de salud, que deben responder con intervenciones, políticas y mensajes eficaces y apropiados.Una respuesta antipandémica o una fase de transición mal gestionadas e inoportunas pueden menoscabar los logros obtenidos de manera colectiva. La pandemia y sus restricciones pueden haber afectado el bienestar físico y mental, la cohesión social y la estabilidad económica, así como la resiliencia y la confianza de los individuos y las comunidades.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Gestão da Informação em Saúde/instrumentação , Betacoronavirus , Gerenciamento de Dados/organização & administração , Região do Caribe , América Latina
17.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 30, 2020. 4 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116084

RESUMO

Varios países de América Latina son el epicentro de la pandemia de COVID-19. La región, la más desigual del mundo, es especialmente vulnerable a la COVID-19 por sus altos niveles de informalidad laboral, urbanización y débiles sistemas de salud y protección social.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/economia , Sistemas de Saúde/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Economia , Pandemias/economia , Betacoronavirus , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Região do Caribe , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , América Latina
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111323, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658688

RESUMO

The Albuquerque atoll was studied as a representative natural laboratory to explore the role of sea-based sources of marine litter. This work aimed to identify the small-scale spatial distribution of marine litter (i.e., plastic, glass, paper, and others) as well as to explore the connectivity among the atoll habitats (sand beach, water surface, and reef) to give insights of potential sources of marine litter (>5 cm), mainly plastics. Marine litter was dominated by plastic items, as expected, with an average value of 0.5 items/m2. Large microplastics (1-5 mm) were also sampled on beaches with an average value of 90 particles/m2. In the atoll inner lagoon, marine litter was also composed by plastic, mainly fragments (average 0.059 items/m3). The predominance of plastic fragments on both the sea surface and beaches of the atoll makes inferences on sources limited. However, o fishing activities and sea-based sources might be relevant since local sources are very limited.


Assuntos
Praias , Plásticos , Região do Caribe , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise
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