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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 136-137, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141588

RESUMO

On 31 December 2019, a cluster of acute respiratory illness was reported from China and later confirmed as novel coronavirus on 7 January 2020. This virus is the same member of the coronavirus family that caused the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) reported in China 2003, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The initial cases have been linked to a live seafood market in Wuhan, China, and the specific animal source is yet to be determined. The detection of this new virus in humans without knowing the source of the infection has raised greatly heightened concerns not only in China, but also internationally. To date, the outbreak has spread to most provinces in China and 25 other countries within a relatively short period. Consequent to its spread, Dr Tedros Ghebreyesus, Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO), declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 219-232, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141601

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is the fourth leading cause of death and disability in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); although the incidence is lower than in the developed regions, there has been an increasing trend in recent decades. Aims: Our aim was to calculate the pooled survival rate of patients with breast cancer in the EMR. Methods: We searched electronic databases from 1946 to 19 January 2018, without language restrictions. We used a random effect model to estimate pooled 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates for patients with breast cancer. Chi-squared and I² index were used to assess between-study heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to investigate the potential source of heterogeneity. Results: We found 80 articles eligible for inclusion in our review. The pooled 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates in women with breast cancer in the EMR were 0.95, 0.80, 0.71, and 0.56, respectively. The I² index indicated considerable between-study heterogeneity (all I² > 50%). The 5-year survival rate in the male subgroup was 0.63. The 5-year survival rate of women with breast cancer in age groups ≤ 39, 40-64, and 65+ years were 0.74, 0.76 and 0.58, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between the Human Development Index (ß = 9, P = 0.01) and decade of study (ß = 8.2, P = 0.04) and 5-year survival rate. Conclusions: The survival rate of women with breast cancer in those countries in the EMR which have better health care systems improved in the past decade; women aged 40-64 years had the best survival rate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 192, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080771

RESUMO

Sustainable soil management can be concisely defined as using soil without impairing soil function. It has become crucial due to soil degradation, especially that caused by soil erosion, throughout the world. In this context, this study aimed to determine the erodibility and some soil properties to evaluate the actual state of soil resources in a watershed located in the Mediterranean highland of Turkey. A total of 180, 90 disturbed and 90 undisturbed, soil samples were collected from different land-use types, namely, forest, pasture, and agriculture. Erodibility and soil properties such as texture, soil organic matter, permeability, particle density, bulk density, porosity, pH, electrical conductivity, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and water holding capacity were determined. A soil erodibility map was also produced using ArcGIS software. According to the results, the average soil organic matter was 6.27%, 4.56%, and 2.05% in forest, pasture, and agriculture, respectively, and the differences among land-use types were significantly different. The average erodibility (USLE-K) value was 0.09 for forest, while it was 0.12 and 0.22 for pasture and agriculture, respectively. The difference between agriculture and forest and pasture was statistically significant, while no statistically significant difference was found between forest and pasture in the study area. Forest was included in the slightly erodible class, while pasture and agriculture were included in the moderately and highly erodible classes, respectively. The erodibility map also revealed that a major part of the study area is susceptible to erosion. The study clearly showed that sustainable soil management is a necessity, especially for agricultural lands.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Solo , Agricultura , Região do Mediterrâneo , Turquia
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 93, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907689

RESUMO

Water is a scarce resource in the Mediterranean region where adverse climatic conditions promoting water shortages tend to increase with climate change. Under water scarcity conditions and high atmosphere evaporative demand, the risks of decreased water quality, and land salinization are major threats to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in this region. The assessment of the quality of irrigation water is increasingly important to ensure the maintenance of long-term salt balance at a crop, farm, and regional scale. This study is focused on the spatial and temporal variability of water quality for irrigation in the Alqueva reservoir (Southern Portugal). The assessment was performed every 2 months during a distinctive drought year (2017) and included inorganic ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, F-, SO42-, NO3-, and NO2-), pH, and electric conductivity (ECW) of water. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was calculated, and potential soil permeability problems were estimated. The assessment showed significantly higher values of the physicochemical parameters in the most upstream sites, located near tributaries inflows, and an upward trend in ion concentrations throughout the year, with significantly higher concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, and SO42, registered through May to November, reflecting the severe drought felt in the summer, autumn, and winter. The evaluation of water quality for irrigation indicated a slight to moderate risk of reduced infiltration rates, which should be considered whenever sprinkler irrigation is used, mainly in fine-textured soils, which are prevalent in the irrigated area. The multivariate statistical approach, using principal component analysis and factor analysis, identified two principal components related to salinity and nutrient concentrations. The cluster analysis revealed three groups of similarity between samples pointing to a more time- than space-controlled pattern. Overall, the temporal dynamics of the water physicochemical parameters could indicate that an abnormal annual distribution of precipitation and temperature may distort seasonal differences. To prevent water and soil degradation, a more frequent assessment of the water quality should be considered, allowing for the selection of appropriate soil and water management measures in irrigated areas.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Qualidade da Água , Água/química , Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Região do Mediterrâneo , Portugal , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Sódio/análise , Solo/química , Abastecimento de Água
5.
Phytopathology ; 110(3): 547-555, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631805

RESUMO

Olive leaf spot (OLS), caused by Venturia oleaginea, is one of the most common and serious diseases of olive trees in the Mediterranean region. Understanding the pathogen life cycle is important for the development of effective control strategies. Current knowledge is incomplete owing to a lack of effective detection methods. It is extremely difficult to culture V. oleaginea in vitro, so primers were designed to amplify and sequence the internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the fungus directly from infected olive leaves. Sanger sequencing indicated a unique ITS region present in the European strains screened, confirming the appropriateness of the target region for developing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. Furthermore, high-throughput sequencing of the same region excluded the presence of other Venturia species in the olive phyllosphere. The qPCR assay proved very specific and sensitive, enabling the detection of approximately 26 copies of target DNA. The analysis of symptomless leaves during early stages of the epidemic from the end of winter through spring revealed a similar quantity of pathogen DNA regardless of the leaf growth stage. In contrast, the pathogen titer changed significantly during the season. Data indicated that leaf infections start earlier than expected over the season and very young leaves are as susceptible as adult leaves. These findings have important practical implications and suggest the need for improved scheduling of fungicide treatments. The qPCR assay represents a valuable tool providing quantitative results and enables detection of V. oleaginea in all olive organs, including those in which OLS cannot be studied using previously available methods.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Olea , Região do Mediterrâneo , Doenças das Plantas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
7.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(3): 423-432, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734817

RESUMO

In the south of France, the so-called climate hiatus from 1998 to 2013 was associated with a late winter cooling which has affected the phenology of several reptiles and amphibian species, delaying their dates of first appearances in spring. This episode has been related to a period of frequently negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAOi). The recent increase of this index after this episode marks the end of the "hiatus" and provides an opportunity to verify the impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the fauna of the North Mediterranean region. Most of the emergence dates of amphibians and reptiles in spring have rapidly advanced from 1983 to 1997 and then receded or stabilized from 1998 to 2010. They began to advance again since 2010. These phenological changes covary with the temperature of February-March in the study area, which is itself related to the variations of the NAO index. These changes confirm the influence of the NAO on the phenology of terrestrial organisms in northern Mediterranean where its influence is sometimes assumed to be attenuated.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Répteis , Animais , Clima , Mudança Climática , França , Região do Mediterrâneo , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 646-656, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882889

RESUMO

Cancer is a major contributing cause of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The aim of the current study was to estimate the cancer burden attributable to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors. We used age-, sex- and site-specific incidence estimates for 2012 from IARC's GLOBOCAN, and assessed the following risk factors: smoking, alcohol, high body mass index, insufficient physical activity, diet, suboptimal breastfeeding, infections and air pollution. The prevalence of exposure to these risk factors came from different sources including peer-reviewed international literature, the World Health Organization, noncommunicable disease Risk Factor Collaboration, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Sex-specific population-attributable fraction was estimated in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region based on the prevalence of the selected risk factors and the relative risks obtained from meta-analyses. We estimated that approximately 33% (or 165,000 cases) of all new cancer cases in adults aged 30 years and older in 2012 were attributable to all selected risk factors combined. Infections and smoking accounted for more than half of the total attributable cases among men, while insufficient physical activity and exposure to infections accounted for more than two-thirds of the total attributable cases among women. A reduction in exposure to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors could prevent a substantial number of cancer cases in the Eastern Mediterranean. Population-based programs preventing infections and smoking (particularly among men) and promoting physical activity (particularly among women) in the population are needed to effectively decrease the regional cancer burden.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134440, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655454

RESUMO

This study focused on applying batch and continuous co-digestion approaches to investigate the effects of a feedstock mixture (FM) constituted by ten Mediterranean feedstocks highly available in the Mediterranean area (i.e., olive pomace, olive mill wastewater, citrus pulp, poultry litter, poultry and cattle manure, whey and cereal straw) on methane production for bioenergy generation. For the same feedstock mixture (FM), two different anaerobic digestion (AD) tests were carried out to evaluate the possible inhibitory effects of some biomasses on the biological process. The first AD test showed a methane yield equal to 229 Nm3CH4/tVS (27% lower than that measured during the batch test). During the second AD test, the specific production was 272 m3CH4/tVS. Both tests showed a similar methane content of methane in the biogas, equal to about 57%. The first AD test showed an inhibition effect of the process: total conversion of the organic matter into biogas was not ended. The second batch test demonstrated that the selected FM could be viable to carry out the co-digestion and could provide a flexible solution to generate advanced biofuels in biogas plants located in the Mediterranean area.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos , Animais , Região do Mediterrâneo
10.
Global Health ; 15(1): 64, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847852

RESUMO

The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region is endowed with deep intellectual tradition, interesting cultural diversity, and a strong societal fabric; components of a vibrant platform for promoting health and wellbeing. Health has a central place in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for at least three reasons: Firstly, health is shaped by factors outside of the health sector. Secondly, health can be singled out among several SDGs as it provides a clear lens for examining the progress of the entire development process. Thirdly, in addition to being an outcome, health is also a contributor to achieving sustainable development. Realizing this central role of health in SDGs and the significance of collaboration among diverse sectors, the WHO is taking action. In its most recent General Program of Work 2019-2023 (GPW 13), the WHO has set a target of promoting the health of one billion more people by addressing social and other determinants of health through multi-sectoral collaboration. The WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, through Vision 2023, aims at addressing these determinants by adopting an equity-driven, leaving no one behind approach. Advocating for Health in All Policies, multi-sectoral action, community engagement, and strategic partnerships are the cornerstone for this approach. The focus areas include addressing the social and economic determinants of health across the life course, especially maternal and child health, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and injuries. The aspirations are noteworthy - however, recent work in progress in countries has also highlighted some areas for improvement. Joint work among different ministries and departments at country level is essential to achieve the agenda of sustainable development. For collaboration, not only the ministries and departments need to be engaged, but the partnerships with other stakeholders such as civil society and private sector are a necessity and not a choice to effectively pursue achievement of SDGs.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 830, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating hospital efficiency is a process to optimize resource utilization and allocation. This is vital due to hospitals being the largest financial cost in a health system. To limit avoidable uses of hospital resources, it is important to identify the sources of hospital inefficiencies and to put in place measures towards their reduction and elimination. Thus, the purpose of this research is to examine the sources of hospital inefficiency in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and existing strategies tackling this issue. METHODS: In this study, the electronic databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, Embase, Google, Google Scholar, and reference lists of selected articles, were explored. Studies on inefficiency, sources of inefficiency, and strategies for inefficiency reduction in the Eastern Mediterranean region hospitals, published between January 1999 and May 2018, were identified. A total of 1466 articles were selected using the initial criteria. After further reviews based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 56 studies were eligible for this study. The chosen studies were conducted in Iran (n = 35), Saudi Arabia (n = 5), Tunisia (n = 5), Jordan (n = 4), Pakistan (n = 2), the United Arab Emirates, Palestine, Iraq, Oman, and Afghanistan (n = 1 each). These studies were analyzed using content analysis in MAXQDA 10. RESULTS: The analysis showed that approximately 41% of studies used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure hospital efficiency. Sources of hospital inefficiency were divided into four categories for analysis: Hospital products and services, hospital workforce, hospital services delivery, and hospital system leakages. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed some sources of inefficiency in the Eastern Mediterranean Region hospitals. Inefficiencies are thought to originate from excess workforce, excess beds, inappropriate hospital sizes, inappropriate workforce composition, lack of workforce motivation, and inefficient use of health system inputs. It is suggested that health policymakers and managers use this evidence to develop appropriate strategies towards the reduction of hospital inefficiency.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Administração Hospitalar , Feminino , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oriente Médio , Omã , Paquistão , Gravidez , Tunísia
12.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 675-688, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748947

RESUMO

The enactment of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) initiated scientific efforts to develop reliable methods for comparing prevailing lake conditions against reference (or nonimpaired) states, using the state of a set biological elements. Drawing a distinction between impaired and natural conditions can be a challenging exercise. Another important aspect is to ensure that water quality assessment is comparable among the different Member States. In this context, the present paper offers a constructive critique of the practices followed during the WFD implementation in Greece by pinpointing methodological weaknesses and knowledge gaps that undermine our ability to classify the ecological quality of Greek lakes. One of the pillars of WDF is a valid lake typology that sets ecological standards transcending geographic regions and national boundaries. The national typology of Greek lakes has failed to take into account essential components. WFD compliance assessments based on the descriptions of phytoplankton communities are oversimplified and as such should be revisited. Exclusion of most chroococcal species from the analysis of cyanobacteria biovolume in Greek lakes/reservoirs and most reservoirs in Spain, Portugal, and Cyprus is not consistent with the distribution of those taxa in lakes. Similarly, the total biovolume reference values and the indices used in classification schemes reflect misunderstandings of WFD core principles. This hampers the comparability of ecological status across Europe and leads to quality standards that are too relaxed to provide an efficient target for the protection of Greek/transboundary lakes such as the ancient Lake Megali Prespa.


Assuntos
Lagos , Fitoplâncton , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Grécia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Portugal , Espanha , Água
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34448-34458, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637612

RESUMO

In the present (twenty-first) century, the pertinent challenge of attaining the regime of food security with low pollution amidst the drive for sustainable economy and energy efficiency is core to governance and intergovernmental agencies. Therefore, in an attempt to investigate environmental issues among the coastline Mediterranean countries (CMCs) for the first time, the current study examines the dynamic long-run nexus of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions with food production and inflation rate over the annual period 1995-2014. Using a dynamic Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach, the consumption of renewable energy in the panel of sixteen (16) CMCs is empirically observed to be an efficient policy vehicle for mitigating CO2 emissions. Also, in all the examined CMCs, consumption of renewables is observed to cause significant decline in CO2 emissions, thus securing a sustainable environment. However, in the long run and in the panel of CMCs, the study reveals that increase in food production (a drive toward food security) increases environmental risk. Additionally, the study found that high inflation regime in the panel CMCs is associated with low CO2 emissions especially in the long-run, thus necessitating efficient policy mechanism. In adopting the genetic resources of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources, as well as employing price control policy, the members of the CMCs might have unearthed a suitable policy directive in effectively sustaining environmental quality.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Alimentos , Região do Mediterrâneo
15.
Intervirology ; 62(3-4): 101-111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has not been integrated into the national vaccination program of most countries of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO), except for the United Arab Emirates and Libya. The knowledge of HPV genotype distribution in cervical neoplasia is valuable to predict the impact of current HPV vaccines on cancer prevention and can help the health policymakers to select the most appropriate vaccine types in their countries. METHODS: Hence, this meta-analysis recapitulates all available data on HPV prevalence and genotypes in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I-III or low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL, respectively), and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in EMRO countries. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 5,990 cases of cervical precancer and cancer. The overall HPV prevalence was 85.4, 71.3, 59.2, and 34.8% in women with ICC, CIN II-III or HSIL, CIN I or LSIL, and ASCUS, respectively. HPV 16 was the most common genotype followed by HPV 18, representing 58 and 16.5% in ICC cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that the introduction of current HPV vaccines into national vaccination programs and the establishment of comprehensive screening programs in EMRO countries is beneficial by preventing 74.5% of cervical neoplasia.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 697: 133989, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484092

RESUMO

The effects of climate change on forest growth are not homogeneous across tree species distribution ranges because of inter-population variability and spatial heterogeneity. Although latitudinal and thermal gradients in growth patterns have been widely investigated, changes in these patterns along longitudinal gradients due to the different timing and severity of regional droughts are less studied. Here, we investigated these responses in Mediterranean Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.). We built a tree-ring width dataset comprising 77 forests (1202 trees) across the Mediterranean Basin. The biogeographical patterns in growth patterns and the relationships between growth and mean temperature, precipitation, drought and atmospheric circulations patterns (NAO -North Atlantic Oscillation-, SOI -Southern Oscillation Index- and MOI -Mediterranean Oscillation index-) were analyzed. Then, we evaluated the spatial and temporal growth synchrony between and within east and west populations. We found different growth and climate patterns in west vs. east Black pine populations, although in both regions growth was driven by similar temperature and precipitation variables. MOI significantly influenced tree growth, whilst NAO and SOI showed weaker effects. Growth of east and west Black pine populations desynchronized after the 1970s when several and uncoupled regional droughts occurred across the Mediterranean Basin. We detected a climate shift from the 1970s to the 1980s affecting growth patterns, changing growth-climate relationships, and reducing forest growth from west to east Black pine forests. Afterwards, climate and growth of east and west populations became increasingly more divergent. Our findings imply that integral bioclimatic and biogeographical analyses across the species distribution area must be considered to adequately assess the impact of climate change on tree growth under warming and more arid conditions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Secas , Pinus/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biológicos , Florestas , Região do Mediterrâneo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1075-1086, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390698

RESUMO

Biochar applications have been proposed for mitigating some soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, results can range from mitigation to no effects. To explain these differences, mechanisms have been proposed but their reliability depends on biochar type, soil and climatic conditions. Furthermore, it is found that the mitigation capacity is dependent on how the biochar is aging under field conditions. The effects on N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission rates of a gasification pine biochar (applied as 0, 5, and 30 t ha-1) were studied between 8 and 21 months of the application in an alkaline soil cropped to barley under Mediterranean climate. Together with GHG, soil chemical and biological properties were assessed, namely, changes in labile organic matter content and nutrient status, and pH, as well as microbial abundance, activity, and functional composition. During the 2 years of the application, significant changes were observed at the highest rate of biochar application such as higher contents of water, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, higher basal respiration, and with non-significant changes in microbial community, though with some temporal effects. Regarding GHG, N2O decreases coupled with CH4 increases in the summer sampling were measured, although only for the highest application rate scenario. Such effects were unrelated to pH, bioavailable nitrogen status, or bulk soil microbial community shifts. We hypothesized that the key is the porous structure of our wood biochar, which is able to provide more and diversified microbial microhabitats in comparison to bulk soil. At higher temperatures in summer, biologically-induced anoxic conditions in biochar pores acting as microsites may be promoted, where total denitrification to N2 occurs which leads to N2O uptake, while CH4 production is promoted.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Metano/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Agricultura , Ecossistema , Região do Mediterrâneo
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 1065-1072, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412444

RESUMO

We analyzed the Italian National Forest Inventory data set to evaluate the interdependence of forest productivity, tree species richness (used to indicate biodiversity), climate, and soil factors. We tested the hypotheses that the relationship between biodiversity and forest productivity is positive and significant for all forests in Italy and whether the relationship is the same for forests growing in the temperate and Mediterranean bioclimatic domains (regions) of Italy. We used generalized additive models to explore the univariate response curves for the data and then performed structural equation modeling (SEM) and multi-group SEM analyses to evaluate the relationship between biodiversity and productivity. We found that the SEM model for the entire dataset explained about 60% of the variation in forest productivity. In addition, the variation associated with species richness was greater than variation due to climatic factors and the variation in climate factors was greater than the variation in soil factors (all relative to their contributions to productivity). The multi-group SEM showed a more predominant effect of biodiversity and climate on productivity in Mediterranean compared to temperate forests. In both cases, we observed a moderate effect of soil (factors) on forest productivity. Our results support the hypothesis that increasing tree diversity in forests could help reduce the effects of climate warming and enhance ecosystem productivity in the Mediterranean region.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima , Florestas , Árvores/classificação , Biomassa , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Itália , Região do Mediterrâneo , Árvores/fisiologia
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30426-30443, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440972

RESUMO

This study has assessed the influence of the origin of air mass on levels of particulate matter (PM10) and chemical composition (SO42- and NO3-) in the air basin of Madrid. A data set of back-trajectories of air mass arriving to this area of study from 15 June 15 2009 to 8 July 2011 has been analyzed. Firstly, the cluster analysis statistical method has been used to group the back-trajectories into 5 sets according to the angle, direction, and speed of the air mass. Afterwards, the synoptic meteorological scenarios associated with each cluster were obtained and interpreted. Subsequently, an analysis was made on the influence of these clusters on the surface levels of particulate pollutants recorded in a regional background station ("El Atazar"), as well as in two urban background stations ("Casa de Campo" and "CIEMAT"). Finally, potential source areas of PM10, SO42-, and NO3- that contributed to the increase in their background levels in the Madrid air basin were detected by analyzing residence times of trajectories. Transport of mineral desert dust is probably the main cause of the increase of regional and urban background levels of PM10 in the Madrid air basin. In the case of SO42-, relatively high levels were registered, associated with air mass coming from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. In these regions, strong emissions of SO42- are produced due to industrial combustion and maritime traffic. Otherwise, relatively high levels of NO3- were registered during meteorological situations defined by a low baric gradient in the Iberian Peninsula. This meteorological pattern favors the accumulation of emissions from local and regional sources. Besides, the main urban centers of northeastern Europe and industrial areas located in the north African coast were also identified as potential source areas of NO3-. The statistical analysis of the back-trajectories by different methods and the comparison of the results obtained with observational data confirmed that numerous industrial areas in Europe and North Africa, as well as natural ones, such as deserts, had an influence on the regional and urban background levels of mass and chemical composition of particulate matter in the Madrid air basin, under the development of specific synoptic meteorological situations. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Compostos Inorgânicos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , África do Norte , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias , Região do Mediterrâneo , Mar Mediterrâneo , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Espanha , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3670, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431628

RESUMO

Situated at over 5,000 meters above sea level in the Himalayan Mountains, Roopkund Lake is home to the scattered skeletal remains of several hundred individuals of unknown origin. We report genome-wide ancient DNA for 38 skeletons from Roopkund Lake, and find that they cluster into three distinct groups. A group of 23 individuals have ancestry that falls within the range of variation of present-day South Asians. A further 14 have ancestry typical of the eastern Mediterranean. We also identify one individual with Southeast Asian-related ancestry. Radiocarbon dating indicates that these remains were not deposited simultaneously. Instead, all of the individuals with South Asian-related ancestry date to ~800 CE (but with evidence of being deposited in more than one event), while all other individuals date to ~1800 CE. These differences are also reflected in stable isotope measurements, which reveal a distinct dietary profile for the two main groups.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/citologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , DNA/genética , Fósseis , Dieta , Migração Humana , Humanos , Índia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Datação Radiométrica
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