Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.678
Filtrar
1.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131082, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470154

RESUMO

For the first time an eco-friendly method involving microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of the 16 US-EPA priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicators of anthropogenic contamination in snow samples collected in polar regions. MEPS was carried out by using C8 sorbent material packed in a barrel insert and needle (BIN) and integrated in the eVol® semi-automatic device. For optimization purposes a Face Centred Design and the multicriteria method of the desirability functions were performed to investigate the effect of some parameters affecting the MEPS extraction efficiency, i.e. the number of loading cycles and the number of elution cycles. The developed MEPS-GC-MS method proved to be suitable for PAHs analysis at ultra-trace level by extracting small sample volumes achieving detection limits for 16 PAHs in the 0.3-5 ng L-1 range, repeatability and intermediate precision below 11% and 15%, respectively, and good recovery rates in the 77.6 (±0.1)-120.8 (±0.1)% range for spiked blank snow samples. Enrichment factors in the 64 (±7)-129 (±18) range were calculated. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PAHs in surface snow samples collected in 2020-2021 from four locations of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Local emission sources such as ships and research stations were found to influence PAHs concentrations in the surface snow.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Regiões Antárticas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Neve , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4948, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400630

RESUMO

Since the middle of the past century, the Western Antarctic Peninsula has warmed rapidly with a significant loss of sea ice but the impacts on plankton biodiversity and carbon cycling remain an open question. Here, using a 5-year dataset of eukaryotic plankton DNA metabarcoding, we assess changes in biodiversity and net community production in this region. Our results show that sea-ice extent is a dominant factor influencing eukaryotic plankton community composition, biodiversity, and net community production. Species richness and evenness decline with an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). In regions with low SST and shallow mixed layers, the community was dominated by a diverse assemblage of diatoms and dinoflagellates. Conversely, less diverse plankton assemblages were observed in waters with higher SST and/or deep mixed layers when sea ice extent was lower. A genetic programming machine-learning model explained up to 80% of the net community production variability at the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Among the biological explanatory variables, the sea-ice environment associated plankton assemblage is the best predictor of net community production. We conclude that eukaryotic plankton diversity and carbon cycling at the Western Antarctic Peninsula are strongly linked to sea-ice conditions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ciclo do Carbono , Camada de Gelo , Plâncton/fisiologia , Regiões Antárticas , Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Eucariotos , Microbiota , Plâncton/genética , Temperatura
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 147879, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380283

RESUMO

Marine phytoplankton can utilize different strategies to cope with ocean warming and freshening from glacial melting in polar regions, which are disproportionally impacted by global warming. In the present study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of a 4 °C increase in seawater temperature (T+) and a 4 psu decrease in salinity (S-) from ambient values on biomass, nutrient use, fatty acid composition and lipid damage biochemistry of natural phytoplankton assemblages from Potter Cove (25 de Mayo/King George Island, Antarctica). Experiments were conducted by exposing the assemblages to four treatments during a 7-day incubation period using microcosm located along shore from January 23 to 31, 2016. The N:P ratio decreased in all treatments from day 4 onwards, but especially under high temperature (T+). Lipid damage was mainly detected under S0T+ and S-T+ conditions, and it decreased when the production of the antioxidant α-tocopherol increased. This antioxidant protection resulted in a build-up of phytoplankton biomass, especially at T+. Under the combined effect of both stressors (S-T+), the concentration of ω3 fatty acids increased, potentially leading to higher-quality FA composition. These results, which were related to the dominance of sub-Antarctic species in phytoplankton assemblages, contribute to the understanding of the potential consequences of ocean warming and increase seawater freshening on the trophic webs of the Southern Ocean.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fitoplâncton , Regiões Antárticas , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar
4.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117627, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426394

RESUMO

Antarctic melt streams are important ecosystems that increasingly face contaminant pressures from anthropogenic sources. Metal contaminants are often reported in the limno-terrestrial environment but their speciation is not well characterised, making environmental risk assessments difficult. This paper characterises labile metal concentrations in five melt streams and three shallow lakes around the Casey and Wilkes research stations in East Antarctica using chemical extracts and field deployments of diffusive gradients in thin-film (DGT) samplers. An acute toxicity test with field-collected Ceratadon purpeus and taxonomic identification of diatoms in melt streams were used to infer environmental risk. Copper and zinc were the most labile metals in the melt streams. DGT-labile copper concentrations were up to 3 µg Cu L-1 in melt-stream waters but not labile below the sediment-water interface. DGT-labile zinc concentrations were consistent above and below the sediment-water interface at concentrations up to 14 µg Zn L-1 in four streams, but one stream showed evidence of zinc mineralisation in the sediment with a flux to overlying and pore waters attributed to the reductive dissolution of iron and manganese oxides. Other metals, such as chromium, nickel, and lead were acid-extractable from the sediments, but not labile in pore waters or overlying waters. All streams had unique compositions of freshwater diatoms, but one had particularly reduced diversity and richness, which correlated to metal contamination and sediment physico-chemical properties such as a finer particle size. In laboratory bioassays with field-collected samples of the Antarctic moss C. purpeus, there was no change in photosynthetic efficiency following 28-d exposure to 700, 900, 1060, or 530 µg L-1 of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, respectively. This study shows that microorganisms such as diatoms may be at greater risk from contaminants than mosses, and highlights the importance of geochemical factors controlling metal lability.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Mar Environ Res ; 170: 105430, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340030

RESUMO

Benthic organisms of the Southern Ocean are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA), as they inhabit cold waters where calcite-aragonite saturation states are naturally low. OA most strongly affects animals with calcium carbonate skeletons or shells, such as corals and mollusks. We exposed the abundant cold-water coral Malacobelemnon daytoni from an Antarctic fjord to low pH seawater (LpH) (7.68 ± 0.17) to test its physiological responses to OA, at the level of gene expression (RT-PCR) and enzyme activity. Corals were exposed in short- (3 days) and long-term (54 days) experiments to two pCO2 conditions (ambient and elevated pCO2 equaling RCP 8.5, IPCC 2019, approximately 372.53 and 956.78 µatm, respectively). Of the eleven genes studied through RT-PCR, six were significantly upregulated compared with control in the short-term in the LpH condition, including the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70), Toll-like receptor (TLR), galaxin and ferritin. After long-term exposure to low pH conditions, RT-PCR analysis showed seven genes were upregulated. These include the mannose-binding C-Lectin and HSP90. Also, the expression of TLR and galaxin, among others, continued to be upregulated after long-term exposure to LpH. Expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA), a key enzyme involved in calcification, was also significantly upregulated after long-term exposure. Our results indicated that, after two months, M. daytoni is not acclimatized to this experimental LpH condition. Gene expression profiles revealed molecular impacts that were not evident at the enzyme activity level. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the physiological processes in the response of a coral to LpH is critical to understanding the ability of polar species to cope with future environmental changes. Approaches integrating molecular tools into Antarctic ecological and/or conservation research make an essential contribution given the current ongoing OA processes.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Antozoários/genética , Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Recifes de Corais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar
6.
J Environ Radioact ; 237: 106713, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388521

RESUMO

The present article introduces data on natural radioactivity (40K, 230,232Th, 234,238U) in the Antarctic marine and terrestrial environment. Various biota samples were analysed due to internal exposure to 40K, 230,232Th, 234,238U. Activity concentration of 40K was the highest in both marine and terrestrial samples. Mean values of 40K activity concentration are 1340 Bq/kg and 370 Bq/kg for the marine and terrestrial samples respectively. 234U/238U ratios analysis revealed that sea waters and sea spray are the main source of the uranium in the terrestrial samples. Average 230,232Th, 234,238U activity concentrations in the Antarctic biota do not exceed 6 Bq/kg. Weighted internal dose rates are relatively low; they range from approximately 0.1 to 0.6 µGy/h. Statistically significant differences in radionuclide accumulation were discovered between the mosses and lichens. It may point to various mechanisms of the nutrient absorption from the environment by these organisms.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Urânio , Regiões Antárticas , Biota , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361720

RESUMO

The metabolism of nitric oxide plays an increasingly interesting role in the physiological response of the human body to extreme environmental conditions, such as underwater, in an extremely cold climate, and at low oxygen concentrations. Field studies need the development of analytical methods to measure nitrite and nitrate in plasma and red blood cells with high requirements of accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. An optimized spectrophotometric Griess method for nitrite-nitrate affords sensitivity in the low millimolar range and precision within ±2 µM for both nitrite and nitrate, requiring 100 µL of scarcely available plasma sample or less than 50 µL of red blood cells. A scheduled time-efficient procedure affords measurement of as many as 80 blood samples, with combined nitrite and nitrate measurement in plasma and red blood cells. Performance and usefulness were tested in pilot studies that use blood fractions deriving from subjects who dwelt in an Antarctica scientific station and on breath-holding and scuba divers who performed training at sea and in a land-based deep pool facility. The method demonstrated adequate to measure low basal concentrations of nitrite and high production of nitrate as a consequence of water column pressure-triggered vasodilatation in deep-water divers.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Hipóxia/sangue , Nitratos/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Nitritos/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico , Regiões Antárticas , Temperatura Baixa , Mergulho/fisiologia , Eritrócitos/química , Humanos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vasodilatação
8.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205516

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative disorders, including Tauopathies that involve tau protein, base their pathological mechanism on forming proteinaceous aggregates, which has a deleterious effect on cells triggering an inflammatory response. Moreover, tau inhibitors can exert their mechanism of action through noncovalent and covalent interactions. Thus, Michael's addition appears as a feasible type of interaction involving an α, ß unsaturated carbonyl moiety to avoid pathological confirmation and further cytotoxicity. Moreover, we isolated three compounds from Antarctic lichens Cladonia cariosa and Himantormia lugubris: protolichesterinic acid (1), fumarprotocetraric acid (2), and lichesterinic acid (3). The maleimide cysteine labeling assay showed that compounds 1, 2, and 3 inhibit at 50 µM, but compounds 2 and 3 are statistically significant. Based on its inhibition capacity, we decided to test compound 2 further. Thus, our results suggest that compound 2 remodel soluble oligomers and diminish ß sheet content, as demonstrated through ThT experiments. Hence, we added externally treated oligomers with compound 2 to demonstrate that they are harmless in cell culture. First, the morphology of cells in the presence of aggregates does not suffer evident changes compared to the control. Additionally, the externally added aggregates do not provoke a substantial LDH release compared to the control, indicating that treated oligomers do not provoke membrane damage in cell culture compared with aggregates alone. Thus, in the present work, we demonstrated that Michael's acceptors found in lichens could serve as a scaffold to explore different mechanisms of action to turn tau aggregates into harmless species.


Assuntos
Fumaratos/farmacologia , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas tau/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/farmacologia , Regiões Antárticas , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Líquens/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Parmeliaceae/metabolismo , Tauopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Tauopatias/metabolismo
9.
J Exp Biol ; 224(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297110

RESUMO

Rapid hardening is a process that quickly improves an animal's performance following exposure to potentially damaging stress. In this study of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera, Chironomidae), we examined how rapid hardening in response to dehydration (RDH) or cold (RCH) improves male pre- and post-copulatory function when the insects are subsequently subjected to a damaging cold exposure. Neither RDH nor RCH improved survival in response to lethal cold stress, but male activity and mating success following sublethal cold exposure were enhanced. Egg viability decreased following direct exposure of the mating males to sublethal cold but improved following RCH and RDH. Sublethal cold exposure reduced the expression of four accessory gland proteins, while expression remained high in males exposed to RCH. Though rapid hardening may be cryptic in males, this study shows that it can be revealed by pre- and post-copulatory interactions with females.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Aclimatação , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Temperatura Baixa , Corte , Feminino , Fertilidade , Larva , Masculino
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112667, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242962

RESUMO

Multi-tissue trace elements (TEs), C, N concentrations and stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) of chick carcasses and eggs of Adélie and Emperor penguins were studied to i) provide reference data before the recent institution of the Ross Sea Marine Protected Area (Antarctica), and ii) provide conversion factors that allow estimating C, N, δ13C and δ15N in edible tissues from non-edible ones, thus improving the use of stable isotopes in contamination and trophic transfer studies. Higher concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn and Pb were found in chick carcasses than in eggs, suggesting increasing contamination in recent decades and high toxicity risks for penguin consumers. Isotopic conversion factors highlighted small differences among body tissues and conspecifics. These values suggest that chick carcasses are reliable indicators of the energy pathways underlying the two penguin species, their trophic position in the food web and their exposure to TEs.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Spheniscidae , Oligoelementos , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(14): 10175-10185, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240854

RESUMO

Accelerated glacier melt and runoff may lead to inputs of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) to downstream ecosystems and stimulate the associated biogeochemical processes. However, still little is known about glacial DOM composition and its downstream processing before entering the ocean, although the function of DOM in food webs and ecosystems largely depends on its composition. Here, we employ a set of molecular and optical techniques (UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry) to elucidate the composition of DOM in Antarctic glacial streams and its downstream change. Glacial DOM consisted largely of a mixture of small microbial-derived biomolecules. 1H NMR analysis of bulk water revealed that these small molecules were processed downstream into more complex, structurally unrecognizable molecules. The extent of processing varied between streams. By applying multivariate statistical (compositional data) analysis of the DOM molecular data, we identified molecular compounds that were tightly associated and moved in parallel in the glacial streams. Lakes in the middle of the flow paths enhanced water residence time and allowed for both more DOM processing and production. In conclusion, downstream processing of glacial DOM is substantial in Antarctica and affects the amounts of biologically labile substrates that enter the ocean.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Compostos Orgânicos , Regiões Antárticas , Camada de Gelo , Lagos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 169: 105393, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217095

RESUMO

The Kerguelen Islands (49°26'S, 69°50'E) represent a unique environment due to their geographical isolation, which protects them from anthropogenic pollution. The ability of the endemic mussel, part of the Mytilus complex, to cope with moderate heat stress was explored using omic tools. Transcripts involved in six major metabolic functions were selected and the qRT-PCR data indicated mainly changes in aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism and stress response. Proteomic comparisons revealed a typical stress response pattern with cytoskeleton modifications and elements suggesting increased energy metabolism. Results also suggest conservation of protein homeostasis by the long-lasting presence of HSP while a general decrease in transcription is observed. The overall findings are consistent with an adaptive response to moderate stresses in mussels in good physiological condition, i.e. living in a low-impact site, and with the literature concerning this model species. Therefore, local blue mussels could be advantageously integrated into biomonitoring strategies, especially in the context of Global Change.


Assuntos
Mytilus edulis , Mytilus , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Mytilus edulis/genética , Proteômica
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148881, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252762

RESUMO

Organic biomarkers, as aliphatic hydrocarbons, are present in sedimentary organic matter and have been largely applied to the evaluation of recent environmental changes in the marine environment around the globe, including the Antarctic continent. Five sediment cores were taken in the Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica to evaluate changes in the signature of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes (n-C10 to n-C40) and isoprenoids as pristane and phytane, over the last decades. The total n-alkanes concentration ranged from 0.17 to 1.67 µg g-1 (mean = 0.74 ± 0.42) which is considered low and similar to pristine sediments. Aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the sedimentary pool came mostly from terrestrial sources as Antarctic lichens and mosses, and from marine sources as the macroalgae forest debris and emergent macrophytes. Anthropogenic inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., petroleum and their by-products) may be neglected based on the multi-proxy approach used to distinct sources of these organic compounds. In general, no significant changes in the sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed along the sediment cores; however, an increased aliphatic hydrocarbons input registered between 1975 and 1992 may be related to the increase in meltwater runoff and the relatively high abundance of marine producers more adapted to increased sea temperatures.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Regiões Antárticas , Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 149054, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328894

RESUMO

The study area is located on King George Island, where 90% of the area is permanently glaciated. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the inorganic and organic chemistry of snow cover in the icefield and a comparison against previous results obtained in fresh water. Snow samples were collected in the summer of 2017 in the Warszawa Icefield area. Sampling points are located along two transects: between the Arctowski Polish Polar Station and the Carlini Base (N = 4), and from the forefield to the upper part of Ecology Glacier (N = 5). In the snow samples, (1) basic ions, (2) major trace metals and metalloids (and B), and (3) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected and quantified. Additionally, the parameters of pH, specific electrolytic conductivity (SEC25) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined. The results show a low concentration of inorganic elements (<30 mg/L), TOC (<1 mg/L) and PAHs (0.11-1.4 ng/L) in collected snow samples. A slight increase in PAHs and heavy-metals concentration has been observed at the marginal parts of the icefield, which suggests the impact of scientific stations. Based on this result there is a need to conduct research on pollutant levels in ice cores on King George Island to assess the risk associated with rapid glacier thawing and pollution remobilisation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Regiões Antárticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Neve
16.
Mol Ecol ; 30(17): 4231-4244, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214230

RESUMO

Although microorganisms are the very first colonizers of recently deglaciated soils even prior to plant colonization, the drivers and patterns of microbial community succession at early-successional stages remain poorly understood. The successional dynamics and assembly processes of bacterial and fungal communities were compared on a glacier foreland in the maritime Antarctic across the ~10-year soil-age gradient from bare soil to sparsely vegetated area. Bacterial communities shifted more rapidly than fungal communities in response to glacial retreat; species turnover (primarily the transition from glacier- to soil-favouring taxa) contributed greatly to bacterial beta diversity, but this pattern was less clear in fungi. Bacterial communities underwent more predictable (more deterministic) changes along the soil-age gradient, with compositional changes paralleling the direction of changes in soil physicochemical properties following deglaciation. In contrast, the compositional shift in fungal communities was less associated with changes in deglaciation-induced changes in soil geochemistry and most fungal taxa displayed mosaic abundance distribution across the landscape, suggesting that the successional dynamics of fungal communities are largely governed by stochastic processes. A co-occurrence network analysis revealed that biotic interactions between bacteria and fungi are very weak in early succession. Taken together, these results collectively suggest that bacterial and fungal communities in recently deglaciated soils are largely decoupled from each other during succession and exert very divergent trajectories of succession and assembly under different selective forces.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Solo , Regiões Antárticas , Bactérias/genética , Micobioma/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 107(1): 11-19, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236454

RESUMO

In the present study, sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri tissues were used for the passive biomonitoring of toxic and trace elements at the Comandante Ferraz Station, Antarctica and compared to a pristine region (Botany). As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while toxic metals (Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb), and Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The findings were compared to other organisms commonly applied for biomonitoring purposes and to the sediment concentrations of each sampling region. Urchins from the Ferraz Station area presented higher Br, Co, Cr, Cs, K, Se and Zn levels than the pristine location. The results obtained herein suggest S. neumayeri can be applied to the biomonitoring of Cr and Zn. The present study also contributes to knowledge of the mineral composition of the sea urchin S. neumayeri.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise de Ativação de Nêutrons , Ouriços-do-Mar , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 403, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arthrobacter group is a known set of bacteria from cold regions, the species of which are highly likely to play diverse roles at low temperatures. However, their survival mechanisms in cold regions such as Antarctica are not yet fully understood. In this study, we compared the genomes of 16 strains within the Arthrobacter group, including strain PAMC25564, to identify genomic features that help it to survive in the cold environment. RESULTS: Using 16 S rRNA sequence analysis, we found and identified a species of Arthrobacter isolated from cryoconite. We designated it as strain PAMC25564 and elucidated its complete genome sequence. The genome of PAMC25564 is composed of a circular chromosome of 4,170,970 bp with a GC content of 66.74 % and is predicted to include 3,829 genes of which 3,613 are protein coding, 147 are pseudogenes, 15 are rRNA coding, and 51 are tRNA coding. In addition, we provide insight into the redundancy of the genes using comparative genomics and suggest that PAMC25564 has glycogen and trehalose metabolism pathways (biosynthesis and degradation) associated with carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZymes). We also explain how the PAMC26654 produces energy in an extreme environment, wherein it utilizes polysaccharide or carbohydrate degradation as a source of energy. The genetic pattern analysis of CAZymes in cold-adapted bacteria can help to determine how they adapt and survive in such environments. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized the complete Arthrobacter sp. PAMC25564 genome and used comparative analysis to provide insight into the redundancy of its CAZymes for potential cold adaptation. This provides a foundation to understanding how the Arthrobacter strain produces energy in an extreme environment, which is by way of CAZymes, consistent with reports on the use of these specialized enzymes in cold environments. Knowledge of glycogen metabolism and cold adaptation mechanisms in Arthrobacter species may promote in-depth research and subsequent application in low-temperature biotechnology.


Assuntos
Arthrobacter , Regiões Antárticas , Arthrobacter/genética , Composição de Bases , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Genoma Bacteriano
19.
Biol Lett ; 17(6): 20210097, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129795

RESUMO

In a fast-changing world, polar ecosystems are threatened by climate variability. Understanding the roles of fine-scale processes, and linear and nonlinear effects of climate factors on the demography of polar species is crucial for anticipating the future state of these fragile ecosystems. While the effects of sea ice on polar marine top predators are increasingly being studied, little is known about the impacts of landfast ice (LFI) on this species community. Based on a unique 39-year time series of satellite imagery and in situ meteorological conditions and on the world's longest dataset of emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) breeding parameters, we studied the effects of fine-scale variability of LFI and weather conditions on this species' reproductive success. We found that longer distances to the LFI edge (i.e. foraging areas) negatively affected the overall breeding success but also the fledging success. Climate window analyses suggested that chick mortality was particularly sensitive to LFI variability between August and November. Snowfall in May also affected hatching success. Given the sensitivity of LFI to storms and changes in wind direction, important future repercussions on the breeding habitat of emperor penguins are to be expected in the context of climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Spheniscidae , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Mudança Climática , Camada de Gelo , Reprodução
20.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117434, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062433

RESUMO

The Antarctic ecosystem represents a remote region far from point sources of pollution. Still, Antarctic marine predators, such as seabirds, are exposed to organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) which may induce adverse health effects. With increasing restrictions and regulations on OHCs, the levels and exposure are expected to decrease over time. We studied south polar skua (Catharacta maccormiciki), a top predator seabird, to compare OHC concentrations measured in whole blood from 2001/2002 and 2013/2014 in Dronning Maud Land. As a previous study found increasing organochlorine concentrations with sampling day during the 2001/2002 breeding season, suggesting dietary changes, we investigated if this increase was repeated in the 2013/2014 breeding season. In addition to organochlorines, we analyzed hydroxy-metabolites, brominated contaminants and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in 2013/2014, as well as dietary descriptors of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, to assess potential changes in diet during breeding. Lipid normalized concentrations of individual OHCs were 63%, 87% and 105% higher for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and ∑Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively, in 2013/2014 compared to 2001/2002. South polar skuas males in 2013/2014 were in poorer body condition than in 2001/2002, and with higher pollutant levels. Poorer body condition may cause the remobilization of contaminants from stored body reserves, and continued exposure to legacy contaminants at overwintering areas may explain the unexpected higher OHC concentrations in 2013/2014 than 2001/2002. Concentrations of protein-associated PFAS increased with sampling day during the 2013/2014 breeding season, whereas the lipid-soluble chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) showed no change. OHC occurrence was not correlated with stable isotopes. The PFAS biomagnification through the local food web at the colony should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Masculino , Estações do Ano
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...