Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.737
Filtrar
1.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2887-2890, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494778

RESUMO

The complete genome sequence of a novel megrivirus of the family Picornaviridae was determined from nucleic acid extracted from a pool of six faecal specimens of Adélie penguins. The samples were collected near Bellingshausen Station, King George Island of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Penguin megrivirus is the first megrivirus with a predicted L protein. It has an L-3-5-4 genome layout, a type IV IRES, and a long 3' untranslated region of 668 nt.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Picornaviridae/genética , Spheniscidae/virologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação
2.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 46, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most extreme environments on our planet is the Maritime Antarctic territory, due to its low-water availability, which restricts the development of plants. Sanionia uncinata Hedw. (Amblystegiaceae), the main colonizer of the Maritime Antarctic, has effective mechanisms to tolerate this environment. It has been described that the tolerance to desiccation is mediated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), antioxidants systems, accumulation of compatible solutes and proteins of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA). However, to date, these mechanisms have not been described in S. uncinata. Therefore, in this work, we postulate that the tolerance to desiccation in the Antarctic moss S. uncinata is mediated by the accumulation of ABA, the osmolytes proline and glycine betaine, and dehydrins (an LEA class 11 proteins). To demonstrate our hypothesis, S. uncinata was subjected to desiccation for 24 h (loss in 95% of water content), and the effects on its physiological, photosynthetic, antioxidant and biochemical parameters were determined. RESULTS: Our results showed an accumulation of ABA in response to water loss, and the activation of protective responses that involves an increment in levels of proline and glycine betaine, an increment in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, APX and POD, and the accumulation of dehydrins proteins. CONCLUSION: The results showed, suggest that S. uncinata is a  desiccation-tolerant moss, property mediated by high cellular plasticity regulated by ABA.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Bryopsida/fisiologia , Dessecação , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Regiões Antárticas , Bryopsida/química , Bryopsida/classificação , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2794-2800, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310192

RESUMO

An orange-pigmented, oxidase-positive bacterial strain (I-41R45T), isolated from the kidney of a black rock cod fish sampled in the Chilean Antarctic was studied in a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Cells of the isolate were coccoid and stained Gram-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain I-41R45T with sequences of type strains of most closely related Paracoccus species showed highest sequence similarities to Paracoccus hibiscisoli (98.4 %), Paracoccus marcusii (98.3 %), Paracoccus haeundaensis and Paracoccus carotinifaciens (both 98.2 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Paracoccus species were below 97 %. The draft genome of strain I-41R45T had a size of 4.59 Mb with a DNA G+C content of 65.26 mol% and included the prediction and annotation of 4426 coding genes, 1973 protein-coding genes and 46 tRNAs. The fatty acid profile of strain I-41R45T consisted mainly of the major fatty acids C18 : 1 ω7c/ω9t/ω12t and C18:0, typical of the genus Paracoccus. DNA-DNA hybridizations between I-41R45T and type strains of P. hibiscisoli, P. marcusiiand P. haeundaensis resulted in similarity values of 45 % (reciprocal 26 %), 66 % (reciprocal 61 %), and 29 % (reciprocal 36 %), respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization results, together with the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties, showed that strain I-41R45T represents a novel Paracoccus species, for which the name Paracoccus nototheniae sp. nov. (type strain I-41R45T=CCM 8875T=CIP 111632T), is proposed.


Assuntos
Rim/microbiologia , Paracoccus/classificação , Perciformes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chile , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Paracoccus/isolamento & purificação , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2717-2722, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361214

RESUMO

A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, flagellated and coccoid-shaped bacterial strain, designated SM1702T, was isolated from Antarctic intertidal sediment collected off Ardely Island, West Antarctica. The strain grew at 0-30 °C and with 0.5-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and single-copy orthologous clusters both showed that strain SM1702T, together with Poseidonibacter lekithochrous, occupied an independent phylogenetic branch, sharing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strain of the latter (95.6 %). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c), C16 : 0, and summed feature 2 (C14 : 0 3-OH and/or iso-C16 : 1 I). Polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SM1702T was 27.1 mol%. Based on the results of the polyphasic characterisation for strain SM1702T, it is identified as the representative of a novel species of Poseidonibacter, for which the name Poseidonibacter antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Poseidonibacter antarcticus is SM1702T (=MCCC 1K03471T=KCTC 62796T).


Assuntos
Campylobacteraceae/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Regiões Antárticas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Campylobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1276-1283, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272787

RESUMO

Antarctica is still considered one of the few pristine areas in the globe. Despite this, several studies have shown phased out organic pollutants are present in several environmental abiotic and biological compartments. This study, based on blubber and fecal samples collected from five species of Antarctic pinnipeds, assessed the relationship between organochlorine pesticide (OCs) levels and trophic characterization using stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N). The prevailing pollutants found in blubber were hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Heptachlor and Aldrin (0.84-564.11 ng g-1 l.w.). We also report a high presence of HCHs, Endrin, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) and Methoxychlor (4.50-363.86 ng g-1 d.w.) in feces suggesting a detoxification mechanism. All the species tend towards high trophic positions (3.4-4.9), but with considerable variation in trophic niche and organochlorine pesticide concentrations per sampling site. This finding suggests that differences in pesticide levels in individuals are associated to foraging ecology.


Assuntos
Caniformia/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Cadeia Alimentar
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2451, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165724

RESUMO

Hydrothermal activity is significant in regulating the dynamics of trace elements in the ocean. Biogeochemical models suggest that hydrothermal iron might play an important role in the iron-depleted Southern Ocean by enhancing the biological pump. However, the ability of this mechanism to affect large-scale biogeochemistry and the pathways by which hydrothermal iron reach the surface layer have not been observationally constrained. Here we present the first observational evidence of upwelled hydrothermally influenced deep waters stimulating massive phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Captured by profiling floats, two blooms were observed in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, downstream of active hydrothermal vents along the Southwest Indian Ridge. These hotspots of biological activity are supported by mixing of hydrothermally sourced iron stimulated by flow-topography interactions. Such findings reveal the important role of hydrothermal vents on surface biogeochemistry, potentially fueling local hotspot sinks for atmospheric CO2 by enhancing the biological pump.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Fontes Hidrotermais , Oceanos e Mares , Fitoplâncton , Regiões Antárticas , Dióxido de Carbono , Sequestro de Carbono , Ferro
7.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(2): 26, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197607

RESUMO

In the first half of the twentieth century the attention of American and European researchers was drawn to the area of 'extreme physiology', partly because of expeditions to the north and south poles, and to high altitude, but also by global conflicts which were fought for the first time with aircraft, and involved conflict in non-temperate zones, deserts, and at the freezing Eastern front. In an attempt to help white Euro-Americans survive in extreme environments, physiologists, anthropologists, and explorers studied indigenous people's bodies, cultures, and technologies. This paper will sketch an outline of the science of white survival in three 'extreme' environments: the Antarctic and Arctic; high-altitude; and the Australian desert, with a particular focus on the ways in which indigenous populations were studied, or in some cases ignored, by Western biomedical scientists-despite their crucial and systematic contributions to the success of experiments and expeditions. Particularly focusing on altitude, and on blood in both its symbolic (hereditary) and literal sense, the article shows how assumptions about race, indigeneity, civilisation, and evolution shaped the ways White Westerners understood their own bodies as well as those of the people they encountered in cold, high and hot places on the earth. Despite new discoveries in physiology and evolutionary science, old racialised assumptions were maintained, especially those that figured the temperate body as civilised and the tropical body as primitive; and in at least one case it will be shown that these racialised assumptions significantly altered, if not retarded, the science of respiratory physiology.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Ambientes Extremos , Fisiologia/história , Grupos Populacionais , Racismo , Altitude , Regiões Antárticas , Regiões Árticas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Sanguíneos , Clima Desértico , História do Século XX , Humanos
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 282-289, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232305

RESUMO

We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers from four penguin species collected on Macquarie Island, Southern Ocean, to 1) establish baseline Hg concentrations; and 2) compare Hg from samples collected in 2002 ("modern") and from museum specimens collected between 1937 and 1976 ("historic"). Inter-specific differences in feather Hg reflected known differences in habitats and diversity of diets: benthic-foraging Gentoo penguins and Rockhopper penguins that foraged both inshore and offshore had significantly higher feather mercury than the more pelagic, specialist foraging King and Royal penguins. Hg significantly decreased between historic and modern samples in King and Royal penguins. This decrease could be due to changes in either diet, foodwebs, or atmospheric Hg input and sources in the Southern Hemisphere. Because Macquarie Island is home to 2.8 million marine animals, these data may indicate that other species that forage and breed in this region are also exposed to low Hg concentrations in this environment.


Assuntos
Plumas/química , Mercúrio/análise , Spheniscidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Austrália , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ilhas , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 13-21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178046

RESUMO

Flavobacterium sp. AUG42 is a cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from the Antarctic oligochaete Grania sp. (Annelida). In this work, we report that AUG42 produces a glycoside hydrolase cocktail with CMCase, PASCase and cellobiase activities (optimum pHs and temperatures ranging from 5.5 to 6.5 and 40 to 50 °C, respectively). The time-course analyses of the bacterial growth and cellulase production showed that the cocktail has maximal activity at the stationary phase when growing at 16 °C with filter paper as a cellulosic carbon source, among the tested substrates. The analyses of the CAZome and the identification of secreted proteins by shotgun Mass Spectrometry analysis showed that five glycoside hydrolyses are present in the bacterial secretome, which probably cooperate in the degradation of the cellulosic substrates. Two of these glycoside hydrolyses may harbor putative carbohydrate binding modules, both with a cleft-like active site. The cellulolytic cocktail was assayed in saccharification experiments using carboxymethylcellulose as a substrate and results showed the release of glucose (a fermentable sugar) and other reducing-sugars, after 24 h incubation. The ecological relevance of producing cellulases in the Antarctic environment, as well as their potential use in the bio-refinery industry, are discussed.


Assuntos
Celulases/biossíntese , Celulases/química , Flavobacterium/enzimologia , Flavobacterium/metabolismo , Regiões Antárticas , Sequência de Bases , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Celulase , Celulases/genética , Celulose , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Fermentação , Flavobacterium/genética , Flavobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura Ambiente , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
10.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(8): 846-852, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215677

RESUMO

In the present study, 20 psychrotolerant yeast species isolated from the soils of King George Island in the sub-Antarctic region were evaluated for the production of extracellular gelatinase, an enzyme with high potential for applications in diverse areas, such as food and medicine. The production of extracellular gelatinase was confirmed in the yeasts Metschnikowia sp., Leucosporidium fragarium, and Mrakia sp., the last one being the yeast in which the highest gelatinase activity was detected. The enzyme was purified from cultures of Mrakia sp., and the effect of different physical-chemical factors on its activity was determined. The gelatinase produced by Mrakia sp. would correspond to a protein of relative molecular weight (rMW) 37,000, which displayed the highest activity at 36°C, pH 7.0, 10 mM CaCl 2 , and 5 mM ZnSO 4 .


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Gelatinases/metabolismo , Regiões Antárticas , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Gelatinases/química , Gelatinases/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metschnikowia/enzimologia , Metschnikowia/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Temperatura Ambiente , Sulfato de Zinco
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 343-352, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207495

RESUMO

Plant U-box (PUB) E3 ubiquitin ligases play crucial roles in the plant response to abiotic stress and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, but little is known about them in bryophytes. Here, a representative U-box armadillo repeat (PUB-ARM) ubiquitin E3 ligase from Antarctic moss Pohlia nutans (PnSAG1), was explored for its role in abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana and Physcomitrella patens. The expression of PnSAG1 was rapidly induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), salt, cold and drought stresses. PnSAG1 was localized to the cytoplasm and showed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity by in vitro ubiquitination assay. The PnSAG1-overexpressing Arabidopsis enhanced the sensitivity with respect to ABA and salt stress during seed germination and early root growth. Similarly, heterogeneous overexpression of PnSAG1 in P. patens was more sensitive to the salinity and ABA in their gametophyte growth. The analysis by RT-qPCR revealed that the expression of salt stress/ABA-related genes were downregulated in PnSAG1-overexpressing plants after salt treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that PnSAG1 plays a negative role in plant response to ABA and salt stress.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Briófitas/enzimologia , Bryopsida/fisiologia , Estresse Salino , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Regiões Antárticas , Arabidopsis/genética , Briófitas/genética , Bryopsida/genética , Biologia Computacional , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Células Germinativas Vegetais/metabolismo , Germinação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2755-2761, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237531

RESUMO

A set of three psychrotrophic bacterial strains was isolated from different soil samples collected at the deglaciated northern part of James Ross Island (Antarctica) in 2014. All isolates were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and produced moderately slimy red-pink pigmented colonies on Reasoner's 2A (R2A) agar. A polyphasic taxonomic approach based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, whole-genome sequencing, automated ribotyping, MALDI-TOF MS, chemotaxonomy methods and extensive biotyping using conventional tests and commercial identification kits was applied to the isolates in order to clarify their taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that all isolates belonged to the genus Hymenobacter with the closest relative being Hymenobacter aerophilus DSM 13606T, exhibiting 98.5 % 16S rRNA gene pairwise similarity to the reference isolate P6312T. Average nucleotide identity values calculated from the whole-genome sequencing data proved that P6312T represents a distinct Hymenobacter species. The major components of the cellular fatty acid composition were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1 ω6c), C16 : 1 ω5c, summed feature 4 (C17 : 1 anteiso B/iso I), C15 : 0 anteiso and C15 : 0 iso. The menaquinone system of strain P6312T contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid. Moderate to minor amounts of three unidentified polar lipids, four unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified phospholipid were also present. Based on the obtained results, we propose a novel species for which the name Hymenobacterhumicola sp. nov. is suggested, with the type strain P6312T (=CCM 8763T=LMG 30612T).


Assuntos
Cytophagaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Regiões Antárticas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Cytophagaceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22312-22322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154650

RESUMO

This study was based on the daily sea ice concentration data from the NASA Team algorithm from 1998 to 2017. The Antarctic sea ice was analyzed from the total sea ice area (SIA), first-year ice area, and multiyear ice area. On a temporal scale, the changes in sea ice parameters were studied over the whole 20 years. The results showed that the total SIA increased by 0.0087 × 106 km2 year-1 (+ 2.08% dec-1) between 1998 and 2017. The multiyear ice area increased by 0.0141 × 106 km2 year-1 from 1998 to 2017. The first-year ice area decreased by - 0.0058 × 106 km2 year-1 between 1998 and 2017. On a spatial scale, the entire Antarctic was divided into two areas, namely West Antarctica (WA) and East Antarctica (EA), according to the spatial change rate of sea ice concentration. The total sea ice and multiyear ice areas showed a decreasing trend in WA. However, the total SIA and multiyear ice area all showed an increasing trend in EA. Therefore, Antarctic sea ice presented an increasing trend, but there were different trends in WA and EA.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Regiões Antárticas
14.
J Environ Radioact ; 208-209: 105993, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238239

RESUMO

Because of the geomagnetic field shape, the polar regions are the most exposed to secondary particles and radiation produced by primary cosmic rays in the atmosphere. At present, only few experimental measurements of environmental dose are reported in literature at high southern latitudes. A three year campaign has been carried out in two different locations, Ushuaia (Argentina, 54.80∘ S, 68.30∘ W) and Marambio (Antarctica, 64.24∘ S, 56.63∘ W), using a Liulin type detector, allowing to measure the total environmental radiation flux and dose. The Liulin type instrument, measuring the energy deposition in a silicon detector, is especially suitable to evaluate the dose, separating the low and high LET (Linear Energy Transfer) components. The instrument was installed at the GAW Station in Ushuaia and inside the LAMBI Laboratory at the Marambio Antarctic base. In December 2017 preliminary measurements have been carried out at the French-Italian base Dome C, at 3233 m a.s.l., with a Liulin-AR, a new version of Liulin spectrometer, specifically built for this application by the Space Research and Technology Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In this paper the environmental dose values obtained in the different southern high latitude locations are compared and discussed.


Assuntos
Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radiometria , Regiões Antárticas , Argentina , Atmosfera
15.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(7): 440-446, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189189

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of physical activity on incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by continuous activity monitoring in a free-living sample of South Pole workers over the initial 72 h at altitude exposure of 2,840 m (9,318 ft). Body Media activity monitors were worn by 47 healthy participants. AMS was defined by the Lake Louise symptom questionnaire. Venous blood samples were taken at sea level and approximately 48 h after high altitude exposure. AMS incidence was 34% (n=16/47) over the first 48 h and 40% (n=19/47) over 72 h. On day 2 at high altitude, individuals with AMS demonstrated a significantly greater increase in the percent change in physical activity metrics from baseline: total energy expenditure 19±13 vs. 5±7%, total steps 65±51 vs. 10±18%, metabolic equivalent of tasks 21±13 vs. 7±13%, and time spent performing moderate to vigorous physical activity 114±79 vs. 26±27% for individuals with AMS vs. no AMS, respectively, p<0.05. In addition, erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor were 1.69 and 1.75 times higher, respectively, in those with AMS. In conclusion, workers who engaged in increased physical activity and activity intensity during initial exposure to the South Pole were more susceptible to developing AMS.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude/fisiopatologia , Exercício , Esforço Físico , Doença da Altitude/sangue , Doença da Altitude/epidemiologia , Regiões Antárticas/epidemiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Eritropoetina/sangue , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176865

RESUMO

Antarctic notothenioid fishes are highly stenothermal, yet their tolerance for warming is species-dependent. Because a body of literature points to the loss of cardiac function as underlying thermal limits in ectothermic animals, we investigated potential relationships among properties of ventricular mitochondrial membranes in notothenioids with known differences in both cardiac mitochondrial metabolism and organismal thermal tolerance. Fluidity of mitochondrial membranes was quantified by fluorescence depolarization for the white-blooded Chaenocephalus aceratus and the red-blooded Notothenia coriiceps. In these same membranes, lipid compositions and products of lipid peroxidation, the latter of which can disrupt membrane order, were analyzed in both species and in a second icefish, Pseudochaenichthys georgianus. Mitochondrial membranes from C. aceratus were significantly more fluid than those of the more thermotolerant species N. coriiceps (P < .0001). Consistent with this, ratios of total phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to total phosphatidylcholine (PC) were lower in membranes from both species of icefishes, compared to those of N. coriiceps (P < .05). However, membranes of N. coriiceps displayed a greater unsaturation index (P < .0001). No differences among species were found in membrane products of lipid peroxidation. With rising temperatures, greater contents of PC in mitochondrial membranes from ventricles of icefishes are likely to promote membrane hyperfluidization at a lower temperature than for cardiac mitochondrial membranes from the red-blooded notothenioid. We propose that physical and chemical properties of the mitochondrial membranes may contribute to some of the observed differences in thermal sensitivity of physiological function among these species.


Assuntos
Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Aquecimento Global , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fluidez de Membrana , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Termotolerância
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(13): 7355-7362, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081627

RESUMO

The bioavailable iron is essential for all living organisms, and the dissolution of iron oxide contained in dust and soil is one of the major sources of bioavailable iron in nature. Iodine in the polar atmosphere is related to ozone depletion, mercury oxidation, and cloud condensation nuclei formation. Here we show that the chemical reaction between iron oxides and iodide (I-) is markedly accelerated to produce bioavailable iron (Fe(II)aq) and tri-iodide (I3-: evaporable in the form of I2) in frozen solution (both with and without light irradiation), while it is negligible in aqueous phase. The freeze-enhanced production of Fe(II)aq and tri-iodide is ascribed to the freeze concentration of iron oxides, iodides, and protons in the ice grain boundaries. The outdoor experiments carried out in midlatitude during a winter day (Pohang, Korea: 36°0' N, 129°19' E) and in an Antarctic environment (King George Island: 62°13' S 58°47' W) also showed the enhanced generation of Fe(II)aq and tri-iodide in ice. This study proposes a previously unknown abiotic mechanism and source of bioavailable iron and active iodine species in the polar environment. The pulse input of bioavailable iron and reactive iodine when ice melts may influence the oceanic primary production and CCN formation.


Assuntos
Iodetos , Iodo , Regiões Antárticas , Gelo , Ferro , Oceanos e Mares , Oxirredução , República da Coreia
18.
Chemosphere ; 231: 233-239, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129404

RESUMO

The Victoria Land (East Antarctica) is characterized by the presence of lakes and ponds where rare water is found during the Summer months. These freshwater ecosystems are an important resource for migrating seabirds that use them and leave there their droppings and feathers, contributing to enrich the water with organic matter. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-range transported to polar regions and their detection in the Antarctic ecosystems date back to the 1960s. Most studies have been related to POP concentrations in marine environment, and terrestrial ecosystems have been poorly investigated. This study reports the concentration of PBDEs (23 congeners) and PCBs (21 among non-, mono-, di-, and ortho congeners) in lake sediment, soil and vegetation mat (community of algae, cyanobacteria, bryophites) collected close to six lakes in the Victoria Land (74°31'S-74°97'S, 165°07'E-162°51'E): Edmonson Point 14 and 15A, Carezza, Enigma, Tarn Flat 20, Inexpressible Island 10B. The ∑PBDEs averaged 0.09-0.28 ng/g and BDEs 28, 47 and 154 were higher in mat and soils, while BDEs 183 and 47 in sediment samples. PCBs ranged <0.003-0.807 ng/g and congeners nos. 114, 138, and 187 were the most abundant. In addition, TEQs were derived for the non-and mono-ortho PCBs detected and values were very low in each matrix (0.010 pg/g in the soil, 0.012 pg/g in sediment and mat). The long-range atmospheric transport can be confirmed as the most important POP source in Antarctica, although the scientific stations and seabird colonies may be potential local sources and contribute to contaminant release.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Lagos , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Solo
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 681: 379-391, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108358

RESUMO

In Latin America, the high proportion of arsenic (As) in many groundwaters and phreatic aquifers is related to the volcanism of the Andean Range. Nevertheless, there is still very little published research on As and other elements occurrence, and/or transference to biota in Southern regions such as Argentinean Patagonia and the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica, where there are active volcanoes and geothermal processes. Therefore, this study was aimed to describe water quality from the main rivers of Argentinean Northern Patagonia through physicochemical analysis. The Patagonian and Antarctic biota (including samples of animal, plants, algae and bacteria) was characterized through the analysis of their As and other elemental concentrations (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Br, Rb and Sr), by synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF). Finally, the analysis of metal and As-proteins associations in As-accumulating organisms was performed by SRXRF after sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A wide range of metal concentration including As (up to 950 µg/L As) was found in water samples from Patagonian rivers. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the elemental concentration of analysed biological samples was related to volcanic environments and their place in the trophic chain. Moreover, the results suggest that Se, Co, Cu, Br, and Cl are strong predictors of As in biota. On the other hand, As was not detected in proteins from the studied samples, suggesting biotransformation into soluble As-organic compounds. This is the first study to describe environmental pollution as a consequence of active volcanism, and its influence on water quality and elemental composition of biota in Argentinean Northern Patagonia and Antarctica.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Argentina , Erupções Vulcânicas
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(8): 2415-2423, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145675

RESUMO

Two Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, iron-reducing bacterial strains, designated M2T and R106, were isolated from pelagic surface-sediment of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strains M2T and R106 were affiliated to the genus Shewanellaand formed a distinct subline in a robust clade encompassing Shewanella vesiculosa, Shewanella livingstonensis, Shewanella arcticaand Shewanella frigidimarinawith a range of sequence similarities of 98.1-98.9 %. Overall genome relatedness indices indicated that M2T and R106 represented a single genomic species, which was clearly distinguishable from the phylogenetically close relatives with lower values of species delineation thresholds. Cells of M2T grew optimally at 10-15 °C and pH 6.5 in the presence of 3.0-4.0 % (w/v) sea salts. The polar lipids of M2T comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminophospholipids, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified phospholipid. Quinones were Q-7, Q-8, MK-7 and MMK-7. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0 and C17 : 1ω8c. The DNA G+C content was 42.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic, genomic and chemotaxonomic features, we propose the name Shewanellapsychromarinicola sp. nov. with the type strain M2T (=KCCM 43257T =JCM 32090T) and the reclassification of S. arcticaas a later heterotypic synonym of S. frigidimarina.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Shewanella/classificação , Regiões Antárticas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Shewanella/isolamento & purificação , Ubiquinona/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA