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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 271-294, nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191358

RESUMO

La pandemia COVID-19 ha generado impactos sociales y políticos adicionales a los estrictamente sanitarios, llevando de un aparte a que los países, en el contexto de los estados de emergencia decretados, limiten de manera temporal algunos derechos y libertades civiles, para preservar la vida y salud de los ciudadanos; y de otra parte, han acelerado la transformación digital con el desarrollo y uso de herramientas tecnológicas para complementar las medidas de salud pública. Diversos organismos internacionales han expresado su preocupación respecto a la vulneración del derecho a la protección de datos personales en este nuevo escenario, e incluso han propuesto lineamientos éticos a tener en cuenta. En este artículo se analizarán las medidas que han sido implementadas en Colombia con ocasión de la COVID-19, desde la perspectiva del marco jurídico del derecho a la protección de datos personales vigente, y como los principios y derechos que lo componen, pueden ser reinterpretados a la luz de estas nuevas recomendaciones éticas


COVID-19 pandemic has generated additional social and political impacts beyond those strictly related to health, leading countries to, within the context of declared states of emergency, temporarily limit some civil rights and liberties in order to preserve their citizen's life and health. On the other hand, it has accelerated the digital transformation with the development and use of technological tools to complement public health measures. Several international organizations have voiced their concern about the violation of the right to personal data protection in this new scenario and have even proposed ethical guidelines to be taken into account. This article will analyses the measures that have been implemented in Colombia during COVID-19 pandemic, from the actual perspective of the legal framework of the right to personal data protection, and how its principles and rights may be reinterpreted in the light of these new ethical recommendations


La pandèmia COVID-19 ha generat impactes socials I polítics addicionals als estrictament sanitaris, portant d'un a part al fet que els països, en el context dels estats d'emergència decretats, limitin de manera temporal alguns drets I llibertats civils, per preservar la vida I salut dels ciutadans; I d'una altra banda, accelerant la transformació digital amb el desenvolupament I l'ús d'eines tecnològiques per complementar les mesures de salut pública. Diversos organismes internacionals han expressat la seva preocupació pel que fa a la vulneració del dret a la protecció de dades personals en aquest nou escenari, I fins I tot han proposat directrius ètiques a tenir en compte. En aquest article s'analitzaran les mesures que han estat implementades a Colòmbia amb motiu de la COVID-19, des de la perspectiva del marc jurídic del dret a la protecció de dades personals vigent, I com els principis I drets que el componen, poden ser reinterpretats a la llum d'aquestes noves recomanacions ètiques


Assuntos
Humanos , Informações Pessoalmente Identificáveis/ética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Colômbia/epidemiologia
2.
Ann Emerg Med ; 76(4): 413-426, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012377

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) may serve as a key source of real-time data about the evolving health of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-affected populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries with less rapid and reliable vital statistics registration systems. Although official COVID-19 statistics in Mexico report almost exclusively inhospital mortality events, excess out-of-hospital mortality has been identified in other countries, including 1 EMS study in Italy that showed a 58% increase. Additionally, EMS and hospital reports from several countries have suggested that silent hypoxemia-low Spo2 in the absence of dyspnea-is associated with COVID-19. It is unclear, however, how these phenomena can be generalized to low- and middle-income countries. We assess how EMS data can be used in a sentinel capacity in Tijuana, a city on the Mexico-United States border with earlier exposure to COVID-19 than many low- and middle-income country settings. METHODS: In this observational study, we calculated numbers of weekly out-of-hospital deaths and respiratory cases handled by EMS in Tijuana, and estimated the difference between peak epidemic rates and expected trends based on data from 2014 to 2019. Results were compared with official COVID-19 statistics, stratified by neighborhood socioeconomic status, and examined for changing demographic or clinical features, including mean Spo2. RESULTS: An estimated 194.7 excess out-of-hospital deaths (95% confidence interval 135.5 to 253.9 deaths) occurred during the peak window (April 14 to May 11), representing an increase of 145% (95% CI 70% to 338%) compared with expected levels. During the same window, only 5 COVID-19-related out-of-hospital deaths were reported in official statistics. This corresponded with an increase in respiratory cases of 236.5% (95% CI 100.7% to 940.0%) and a decrease in mean Spo2 to 77.7% from 90.2% at baseline. The highest out-of-hospital death rates were observed in low-socioeconomic-status areas, although respiratory cases were more concentrated in high-socioeconomic-status areas. CONCLUSION: EMS systems may play an important sentinel role in monitoring excess out-of-hospital mortality and other trends during the COVID-19 crisis in low- and middle-income countries. Using EMS data, we observed increases in out-of-hospital deaths in Tijuana that were nearly 3-fold greater than increases reported in EMS data in Italy. Increased testing in out-of-hospital settings may be required to determine whether excess mortality is being driven by COVID-19 infection, health system saturation, or patient avoidance of health care. We also found evidence of worsening rates of hypoxemia among respiratory patients treated by EMS, suggesting a possible increase in silent hypoxemia, which should be met with increased detection and clinical management efforts. Finally, we observed social disparities in out-of-hospital death that warrant monitoring and amelioration.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipóxia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 337, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009366

RESUMO

Data are scarce regarding the comorbid mental disorders and their management among COVID-19 patients. This study described the clinical characteristics and management of COVID-19 patients treated in psychiatric inpatient settings due to comorbid first-onset mental disorders in Wuhan, China. This electronic medical records-based study included 25 COVID-19 patients with first-onset mental disorders and 55 patients with first-onset mental disorders without COVID-19 (control group). Data collected included ICD-10 diagnoses of mental disorders, psychiatric and respiratory symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Adjustment disorder (n = 11, 44.0%) and acute and transient psychotic disorders, with associated acute stress (n = 6, 24.0%) were main clinical diagnoses in the COVID-19 group while serious mental illnesses (i.e., schizophrenia, 24.5%) and alcohol use disorders (10.9%) were overrepresented in the control group. On admission, the most common psychiatric symptom in COVID-19 patients was insomnia symptoms (n = 18, 72.0%), followed by aggressive behaviors (n = 16, 64.0%), delusion (n = 10, 40.0%), and severe anxiety (n = 9, 36.0%). In addition to respiratory treatments, 76.0% COVID-19 patients received antipsychotics, 40.0% sedative-hypnotics, and 24.0% mood stabilizers. At the end of inpatient treatment, 4 (16.0%) COVID-19 patients were transferred to other hospitals to continue respiratory treatment after their psychiatric symptoms were controlled while the remaining 21 (84.0%) all recovered. Compared to the control group, COVID-19 group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay (21.2 vs. 37.4 days, P < 0.001). Adjustment disorder and acute and transient psychotic disorders are the main clinical diagnoses of COVID-19 patients managed in psychiatric inpatient settings. The short-term prognosis of these patients is good after conventional psychotropic treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicotrópicos , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicotrópicos/classificação , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Saudi Med J ; 41(10): 1090-1097, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the risk factors for hospital admission among COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May 2020 and July 2020. Out of 7,260 COVID-19 patients, 920 were identified as T2DM. After the exclusion process, 806 patients with T2DM were included in this analysis. Patients' data were extracted from electronic medical records. A logistic regression model was performed to estimate the risk factors of hospital admission. Results: Of the total of 806 COVID-19 patients with T2DM, 48% were admitted in the hospital, 52% were placed under home isolation. Older age between 70-79 years (OR [odd ratio] 2.56; p=0.017), ≥80 years (OR 6.48; p=0.001) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized compared to less than 40 years. Similarly, patients with higher HbA1c level of ≥9% compared to less than 7%; (OR 1.58; p=0.047); patients with comorbidities such as, hypertension (OR 1.43; p=0.048), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.56; p=0.033), cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.38; p=0.016), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.51; p=0.018), malignancy (OR 2.45; p=0.025), chronic kidney disease (CKD) IIIa, IIIb, IV (OR 2.37; p=0.008), CKD V (OR 5.07; p=0.007) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized. Likewise, insulin-treated (OR 1.46; p=0.03) were more likely to require hospital admission compared to non-insulin treated patients. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients with diabetes, higher age, high HbA1c level, and presence of other comorbidities were found to be significant risk factors for the hospital admission.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(709): 1881-1885, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026732

RESUMO

Prevalence of burnout in physicians is increasing, affecting their health and satisfaction at work as well as quality and security of healthcare. Several causes have been identified, of which growing intensity of work, loss of meaning and feeling that healthcare structure reforms prevent one's job being done properly are the main reasons. New data shows an association between burnout and use of the yet widespread electronic health record. It has a proven impact on the multiple aspects of physician's work, and users' satisfaction is often mediocre. Hence, among the broad prevention field of physicians' burnout, specific measures related to the digital domain are needed.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Satisfação no Emprego , Médicos/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Humanos
8.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 605-606, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880330

RESUMO

In the South African public healthcare sector, patient medical records are still written on paper and stored in filing rooms. There has been an attempt to move towards a paperless electronic system in many public healthcare facilities, but owing to lack of funding, this has been a challenge to achieve. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, the virus could be transmitted through the physical manipulation of patient records by various categories of staff who handle the records with or without gloves for protection. We discuss a digital option that has been partially used at Tygerberg Hospital (TBH), Cape Town, to avoid SARS-CoV-2 patient hard-copy record manipulation. It includes assignment of a QR code to every patient admitted as a person under investigation or confirmed COVID-19 case. The QR code is synced to one of the many free online medical notes smartphone applications (apps), which are password-protected with patient information privacy regulations (Trello is used at TBH), for daily medical notes review and editing. Upon discharge, all notes made during the patient's hospital stay, together with the discharge summary, are printed to generate a hard copy of notes for filing to avoid violation of the current national and provincial patient records policy. Doing this means that a patient will have a virtual online file through the designated app until discharge, when a physical file will be made for storage and safekeeping. It will keep physical manipulation of patient records to the minimum, and potentially assist in reducing transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus among healthcare workers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/economia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Controle de Formulários e Registros , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África do Sul
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 652, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently there are only two population studies on sepsis incidence in Asia. The burden of sepsis in Hong Kong is unknown. We developed a sepsis surveillance method to estimate sepsis incidence from a population electronic health record (EHR) in Hong Kong using objective clinical data. The study objective was to assess our method's performance in identifying sepsis using a retrospective cohort. We compared its accuracy to administrative sepsis surveillance methods such as Angus' and Martin's methods. METHOD: In this single centre retrospective study we applied our sepsis surveillance method on adult patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. Two clinicians independently reviewed the clinical notes to determine which patients had sepsis. Performance was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under the curve (AUC) of Angus', Martin's and our surveillance methods using clinical review as "gold standard." RESULTS: Between January 1 and February 28, 2018, our sepsis surveillance method identified 1352 adult patients hospitalised with suspected infection. We found that 38.9% (95%CI 36.3-41.5) of these patients had sepsis. Using a 490 patient validation cohort, two clinicians had good agreement with weighted kappa of 0.75 (95% CI 0.69-0.81) before coming to consensus on diagnosis of uncomplicated infection or sepsis for all patients. Our method had sensitivity 0.93 (95%CI 0.89-0.96), specificity 0.86 (95%CI 0.82-0.90) and an AUC 0.90 (95%CI 0.87-0.92) when validated against clinician review. In contrast, Angus' and Martin's methods had AUCs 0.56 (95%CI 0.53-0.58) and 0.56 (95%CI 0.52-0.59), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A sepsis surveillance method based on objective data from a population EHR in Hong Kong was more accurate than administrative methods. It may be used to estimate sepsis population incidence and outcomes in Hong Kong. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov on October 3, 2019 ( NCT04114214 ).


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Carga Global da Doença/métodos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/mortalidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 36(9): 424-429, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Suicide is a leading cause of adolescent death, and emergency department (ED) visits are recognized as an opportunity to identify at-risk youth. For patients screening positive for mental health concerns, we implemented a quality improvement initiative to enhance documentation of results and interventions in the ED, increase communication between the ED and primary care providers (PCPs), and increase PCP follow-up. METHODS: Interventions included education, feedback, and an alert in our electronic health record. Completion of a Behavioral Health Screen (BHS-ED) initiates an alert that reminds ED providers how to document and communicate results and needed follow-up to the PCP. We reviewed a random monthly sample of ED charts for adolescents 14 to 19 years old presenting with nonpsychiatric complaints who screened positive for severe depression or suicidality. Outcome measures included documentation of BHS-ED results in the ED note, communication of positive results to the PCP, PCP follow-up of results, and ED return visits. RESULTS: Documentation of BHS-ED results increased from 73% at baseline to 88% of patients after the intervention. For patients discharged from the ED with nonpsychiatric chief complaints, communication to PCPs increased from 1% at baseline to 40% during the final 3 months of the study. When PCP communication occurred, 67% of in-network PCPs followed up with patients versus 5% when no communication took place from the ED. CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted intervention including education and an electronic health record alert improved ED documentation, communication, and PCP follow-up of issues identified during ED-based mental health screens.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Saúde Mental , Sumários de Alta do Paciente Hospitalar , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Depressão/diagnóstico , Documentação , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Programas de Rastreamento , Melhoria de Qualidade , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 274: 174-188, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990673

RESUMO

eHealth is the use of modern information and communication technology (ICT) for trans-institutional healthcare purposes. Important subtopics of eHealth are health data sharing and telemedicine. Most of the clinical documentation to be shared is collected in patient records to support patient care. More sophisticated approaches to electronic patient records are trans-institutional or (inter-)national. Other aims for clinical documentation are quality management, reimbursement, legal issues, and medical research. Basic prerequisite for eHealth is interoperability, which can be divided into technical, semantic and process interoperability. There is a variety of international standards to support interoperability. Telemedicine is a subtopic of eHealth, which bridges spatial distance by using ICT for medical (inter-)actions. We distinguish telemedicine among healthcare professionals and telemedicine between health care professionals and patients. Both have a great potential to face the challenges of aging societies, the increasing number of chronically ill patients, multimorbidity and low number of physicians in remote areas. With ongoing digitalization more and more data are available digitally. Clinical documentation is an important source for big data analysis and artificial intelligence. The patient has an important role: Telemonitoring, wearable technologies, and smart home devices provide digital health data from daily life. These are high-quality data which can be used for medical decisions.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Telemedicina , Assistência à Saúde , Documentação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e23692, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897869

RESUMO

Cybersecurity threats are estimated to cost the world US $6 trillion a year by 2021, and the number of attacks has increased five-fold after COVID-19. Although there is substantial literature on the threats technological vulnerabilities have on the health care industry, less research exists on how pandemics like COVID-19 are opportunistic for cybercriminals. This paper outlines why cyberattacks have been particularly problematic during COVID-19 and ways that health care industries can better protect patient data. The Office for Civil Rights has loosened enforcement of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, which, although useful in using new platforms like Zoom, has also loosened physical and technical safeguards to cyberattacks. This is especially problematic given that 90% of health care providers had already encountered data breaches. Companies must implement well-defined software upgrade procedures, should use secure networks like virtual local area networks, and conduct regular penetration tests of their systems. By understanding factors that make individuals, health care organizations, and employers more susceptible to cyberattacks, we can better prepare for the next pandemic.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(14): 1349-1357, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gender gap in physician pay is often attributed in part to women working fewer hours than men, but evidence to date is limited by self-report and a lack of detail regarding clinical revenue and gender differences in practice style. METHODS: Using national all-payer claims and data from electronic health records, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24.4 million primary care office visits in 2017 and performed comparisons between female and male physicians in the same practices. Our primary independent variable was physician gender; outcomes included visit revenue, visit counts, days worked, and observed visit time (interval between the initiation and the termination of a visit). We created multivariable regression models at the year, day, and visit level after adjustment for characteristics of the primary care physicians (PCPs), patients, and types of visit and for practice fixed effects. RESULTS: In 2017, female PCPs generated 10.9% less revenue from office visits than their male counterparts (-$39,143.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -53,523.0 to -24,763.4) and conducted 10.8% fewer visits (-330.5 visits; 95% CI, -406.6 to -254.3) over 2.6% fewer clinical days (-5.3 days; 95% CI, -7.7 to -3.0), after adjustment for age, academic degree, specialty, and number of sessions worked per week, yet spent 2.6% more observed time in visits that year than their male counterparts (1201.3 minutes; 95% CI, 184.7 to 2218.0). Per visit, after adjustment for PCP, patient, and visit characteristics, female PCPs generated equal revenue but spent 15.7% more time with a patient (2.4 minutes; 95% CI, 2.1 to 2.6). These results were consistent in subgroup analyses according to the gender and health status of the patients and the type and complexity of the visits. CONCLUSIONS: Female PCPs generated less visit revenue than male colleagues in the same practices owing to a lower volume of visits, yet spent more time in direct patient care per visit, per day, and per year. (Funded in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.).


Assuntos
Médicos de Atenção Primária/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência ao Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Carga de Trabalho
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003336, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has questioned the safety of delaying or withholding antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) in older patients. We evaluated the association between antibiotic treatment for lower UTI and risk of bloodstream infection (BSI) in adults aged ≥65 years in primary care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed primary care records from patients aged ≥65 years in England with community-onset UTI using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2007-2015) linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and census data. The primary outcome was BSI within 60 days, comparing patients treated immediately with antibiotics and those not treated immediately. Crude and adjusted associations between exposure and outcome were estimated using generalized estimating equations. A total of 147,334 patients were included representing 280,462 episodes of lower UTI. BSI occurred in 0.4% (1,025/244,963) of UTI episodes with immediate antibiotics versus 0.6% (228/35,499) of episodes without immediate antibiotics. After adjusting for patient demographics, year of consultation, comorbidities, smoking status, recent hospitalizations, recent accident and emergency (A&E) attendances, recent antibiotic prescribing, and home visits, the odds of BSI were equivalent in patients who were not treated with antibiotics immediately and those who were treated on the date of their UTI consultation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.13, 95% CI 0.97-1.32, p-value = 0.105). Delaying or withholding antibiotics was associated with increased odds of death in the subsequent 60 days (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26, p-value < 0.001), but there was limited evidence that increased deaths were attributable to urinary-source BSI. Limitations include overlap between the categories of immediate and delayed antibiotic prescribing, residual confounding underlying differences between patients who were/were not treated with antibiotics, and lack of microbiological diagnosis for BSI. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that delaying or withholding antibiotics in older adults with suspected UTI did not increase patients' risk of BSI, in contrast with a previous study that analyzed the same dataset, but mortality was increased. Our findings highlight uncertainty around the risks of delaying or withholding antibiotic treatment, which is exacerbated by systematic differences between patients who were and were not treated immediately with antibiotics. Overall, our findings emphasize the need for improved diagnostic/risk prediction strategies to guide antibiotic prescribing for suspected UTI in older adults.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
15.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1114-1117, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has seriously impacted clinical research operations in academic medical centers due to social distancing measures and stay-at-home orders. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a program to continue clinical research based out of an emergency department (ED) using remote research associates (RA). METHODS: Remote RAs were trained and granted remote access to the electronic health record (EHR) by the health system's core information technology team. Upon gaining access, remote RAs used a dual-authentication process to gain access to a host-based, firewall-protected virtual network where the EHR could be accessed to continue screening and enrollment for ongoing studies. Study training for screening and enrollment was also provided to ensure study continuity. RESULTS: With constant support and guidance available to establish this EHR access pathway, the remote RAs were able to gain access relatively independently and without major technical troubleshooting. Each remote RA was granted access and trained on studies within one week and self-reported a high degree of program satisfaction, EHR access ease, and study protocol comfort through informal evaluation surveys. CONCLUSIONS: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we virtualized a clinical research program to continue important ED-based studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , California , Humanos , Informática Médica , Desenvolvimento de Programas
16.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 138-143, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994624

RESUMO

The Health and Disability Code precludes any research involving a competent patient without the informed consent of the participant. A learning health system requires rigorous evaluation of both new and established clinical practice, including low-risk components of usual care pathways. When comparing two accepted practices, the only way to control for unknown confounders is by randomisation. In some limited circumstances, particularly when comparing groups or clusters of patients, this comparison can only practicably be undertaken without consent. The current Code impedes a learning health system and is detrimental to the health of New Zealanders. It urgently needs updating.


Assuntos
Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Sistema de Aprendizagem em Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Sistema de Aprendizagem em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistema de Aprendizagem em Saúde/normas , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003321, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of June 2020, there were nearly 7 million reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide and over 400,000 deaths in people with COVID-19. The objective of this study was to determine associations between comorbidities listed in the Charlson comorbidity index and mortality among patients in the United States with COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study of adults with COVID-19 from 24 healthcare organizations in the US was conducted. The study included adults aged 18-90 years with COVID-19 coded in their electronic medical records between January 20, 2020, and May 26, 2020. Results were also stratified by age groups (<50 years, 50-69 years, or 70-90 years). A total of 31,461 patients were included. Median age was 50 years (interquartile range [IQR], 35-63) and 54.5% (n = 17,155) were female. The most common comorbidities listed in the Charlson comorbidity index were chronic pulmonary disease (17.5%, n = 5,513) and diabetes mellitus (15.0%, n = 4,710). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed older age (odds ratio [OR] per year 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.07; p < 0.001), male sex (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.55-1.98; p < 0.001), being black or African American compared to white (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.31-1.71; p < 0.001), myocardial infarction (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.64-2.35; p < 0.001), congestive heart failure (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.67; p < 0.001), dementia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.07-1.56; p = 0.008), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.08-1.43; p = 0.003), mild liver disease (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.59; p = 0.046), moderate/severe liver disease (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.53-4.47; p < 0.001), renal disease (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.84-2.46; p < 0.001), and metastatic solid tumor (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.19-2.43; p = 0.004) were associated with higher odds of mortality with COVID-19. Older age, male sex, and being black or African American (compared to being white) remained significantly associated with higher odds of death in age-stratified analyses. There were differences in which comorbidities were significantly associated with mortality between age groups. Limitations include that the data were collected from the healthcare organization electronic medical record databases and some comorbidities may be underreported and ethnicity was unknown for 24% of participants. Deaths during an inpatient or outpatient visit at the participating healthcare organizations were recorded; however, deaths occurring outside of the hospital setting are not well captured. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying patient characteristics and conditions associated with mortality with COVID-19 is important for hypothesis generating for clinical trials and to develop targeted intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica/classificação , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Healthc (Amst) ; 8(3): 100454, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919584

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenged health care organizations to develop ways to provide patient care with rapidly changing guidelines and scarce resources. Clinical leaders and informatics specialists partnered to rapidly develop an electronic health record (EHR) template for primary care staff to screen Veterans at Veterans Affairs (VA) Puget Sound. The template prompts categorization of patients by stability and suspicion for COVID-19, and provides just-in-time triaging advice for clinic staff. Each category is a discrete data element and this information was used by leadership to track screening and testing volumes. We found that a brief, practical EHR note template can be quickly adopted to inform guideline-based screening, direct patient care, and conserve resources.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Documentação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1326-e1334, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders can adversely affect HIV treatment outcomes and survival. Data are scarce on premature deaths in people with mental disorders in HIV-positive populations, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. In this study, we quantified excess mortality associated with mental disorders in HIV-positive people in South Africa, adjusting for HIV treatment outcomes. METHODS: For this cohort study, we analysed routinely collected data on HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa between Jan 1, 2004, to Dec 31, 2017. Data from three ART programmes were linked with routine medical records on mental health treatment from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2017, and mortality surveillance data from the South African National Population Register up to Dec 31, 2017. People living with HIV aged 15 years or older who initiated ART at a programme site were eligible for analysis. We followed up patients from ART initiation or Jan 1, 2010, whichever occurred later, to transfer, death, or Dec 31, 2017. Patients were considered as having a history of mental illness if they had ever received psychiatric medication or been hospitalised for a mental disorder. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% CIs for associations between history of mental illness, mortality, and HIV treatment outcomes (retention in care with viral load suppression [VLS; viral load <1000 copies per mL], retention in care with non-suppressed viral load [NVL; viral load ≥1000 copies per mL], and loss to follow-up [LTFU; >180 days late for a clinic visit at closure of the database]) using Cox proportional hazard regression and multistate models. RESULTS: 58 664 patients were followed up for a median of 4·3 years (IQR 2·1-6·4), 2927 (5·0%) of whom had a history of mental illness. After adjustment for age, sex, treatment programme, and year of ART initiation, history of mental illness was associated with increased risk of mortality from all causes (aHR 2·98 [95% CI 2·69-3·30]), natural causes (3·00 [2·69-3·36]), and unnatural causes (2·10 [1·27-3·49]), compared with no history of mental illness. Risk of all-cause mortality in people with a history of mental illness remained increased in multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, treatment programme, year of ART initiation, CD4 count and WHO clinical stage at ART initiation, retention in HIV care with or without VLS, and LTFU (2·73 [2·46-3·02]). In our multistate model, adjusted for age, sex, year of ART initiation, cumulative time with NVL, and WHO clinical stage and CD4 cell count at ART initiation, rates of excess all-cause mortality in people with history of mental illness were greatest in patients retained in care with VLS (aHR 3·43 [95% CI 2·83-4·15]), followed by patients retained in care with NVL (2·74 [2·32-3·24]), and smallest in those LTFU (2·12 [1·78-2·53]). History of mental illness was also associated with increased risk of HIV viral rebound (transitioning from VLS to NVL; 1·50 [1·32-1·69]) and LTFU in people with VLS (1·19 [1·06-1·34]). INTERPRETATION: Mental illness was associated with substantial excess mortality in HIV-positive adults in Cape Town. Excess mortality among people with a history of mental illness occurred independently of HIV treatment success. Interventions to reduce excess mortality should address the complex physical and mental health-care needs of people living with HIV and mental illness. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Swiss National Science Foundation, South African Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(5): 995-1009, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888694

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) in the last decade centered primarily around digitizing and incorporating the large volumes of patient data from electronic health records. AI is now poised to make the next step in health care integration, with precision medicine, imaging support, and development of individual health trends with the popularization of wearable devices. Future clinical pediatric cardiologists will use AI as an adjunct in delivering optimum patient care, with the help of accurate predictive risk calculators, continual health monitoring from wearables, and precision medicine. Physicians must also protect their patients' health information from monetization or exploitation.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Cardiologia/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Criança , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
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